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Discussions of Security Control Frameworks and Controlling the Uncontrollable

Discussions of Security Control Frameworks and Controlling the Uncontrollable.

1. When performing a gap analysis, one must have an understanding of the desired future or “to be” state. For cybersecurity focused gap analyses, we frequently use IT security controls as the framework for describing the “to be” (or “should be”) state. There are a variety of guidance documents which list and define sets of security controls.If you look at multiple sources, e.g. NIST, SANS, CSIS, you will see that IT controls come in a variety of “flavors”. Some sources use the People, Process, and Technology scheme to organize and define controls. Other sources define controls (safeguards) in terms of the phases of information security to which they apply (e.g, Preventive controls, Detective controls, Deterrent controls, Corrective controls (used in the Response or remediation phases)). A third framework which you used in earlier courses (CSIA 413) is “administrative or managerial, operational, and technical” controls.Research and select a control grouping framework then populate the framework with some examples of the actual controls. Provide your rational as to why you selected your framework and identify an industry or industry vertical to which your framework is most applicable.2. What four (4) IT security controls do you find the most important? Why? Do you consider anything related to process or policy a real or actual “safeguard?” Why? Why not? Note: Use NIST SP 800-53 (http://nvlpubs.nist.gov/nistpubs/SpecialPublicatio…) as your source for security controls definitions for this discussion question.
Discussions of Security Control Frameworks and Controlling the Uncontrollable

SOC 126 UC Increasing Police Presence Would Not Make the Schools Safer Response.

Post your response to the following by Tuesday, February 9 by 11:59PMSelect one of the two videos you watched during Monday’s lecture video about school discipline practices in Texas or Minnesota. Make sure to state if you’re talking about the Texas or Minnesota video in your response.Post a response to the following questions:What stands out for you – positive or negative – about the school district’s approach to keeping students safe at school? In other words, what did you like or what did you find problematic?Think about the schools that you’ve attended. Were the discipline practices positive or negative towards students? And how did those practices impact students (e.g., feeling safe at school, relationships with adults in the school, overall feelings about the school environment, motivation to learn, etc.)?Respond to your peers by Thursday, February 11 by 11:59PMRead and respond to THREE of your peers’ posts – something surprising to you, something you can relate to, or anything else you’d like to say. Always be respectful in your responses to your peers.
SOC 126 UC Increasing Police Presence Would Not Make the Schools Safer Response

academic poster (COMM 200)

academic poster (COMM 200).

Successful poster sessions take the skill of distilling your most important, and most interesting, research findings in a quick, conversational presentation. They also require thoughtful implementation of visual rhetoric and the aesthetics of design.Posters should be prepared digitally. You can do this by creating a single slide (through PowerPoint, Keynote, Google Slides, Canva, Illustrator or any other slide-creation tool). All relevant info for your presentation should be found on this one slide. Keep the slide in horizontal/landscape orientation (longer in width than in height). It may help to consider the conception of a digital poster as an infographic, rather than a slide show. All relevant and important information about your two rhetorical artifacts in a way that increases your audience’s understanding of your social issue A focus on visual elements, related to your social issue and two artifacts, and make your project easier to understand Careful implementation of visual rhetoric and aesthetics of design. Consider the rule of thirds, balance, white space, color scheme Accurate and complete APA-style references for all information cited—including citations for pictures and any other visual elementsProper grammar, spelling, punctuation and legibility. In setting up your slide, be sure that it is shaped like a computer screen (landscape; longer wide than tall) rather than a phone screen (portrait; longer tall than wide). the two artifacts:- https://www2.deloitte.com/us/en/insights/economy/issues-by-the-numbers/covid-19-impact-on-income-inequality.html (Links to an external site.)- https://www.mckinsey.com/industries/public-and-social-sector/our-insights/the-economic-impact-of-closing-the-racial-wealth-gap?cid=soc-web#Academic Poster RubricAcademic Poster RubricCriteriaRatingsPtsThis criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeCoverage of Topic4.0 ptsExcellentPoster captures important information about the rhetorical artifacts and increases the audience’s understanding of the social issue.3.0 ptsIntermediateThe poster includes important information, but the audience may need more information to gain sufficient understanding.2.0 ptsSatisfactoryInformation provided on the poster is too general or incomplete. The audience needs more information to understand.1.0 ptsUnsatisfactoryDetails on the poster have little or nothing to do with the student’s chosen Social Issue and rhetorical artifacts.4.0 ptsThis criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeUse of Visual Elements4.0 ptsExcellentAll graphics and images are related to the social issue and make the social issue easier to understand.3.0 ptsIntermediateAll graphics and images are related to the topic and most make the social issue easier to understand.2.0 ptsSatisfactoryAll graphics and images relate to the social issue.1.0 ptsUnsatisfactoryGraphics and images do not relate to the social issue.4.0 ptsThis criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeLayout and Design4.0 ptsExcellentThe poster takes careful consideration of visual rhetoric and aesthetics, and is considerate of the rule of thirds; makes beneficial use of white space, balance, headings; is easily legible from six feet away; and adheres to an appropriate, professional color scheme.3.0 ptsIntermediateThe poster mostly takes careful consideration of visual rhetoric and aesthetics, but does not follow 1-2 design rules.2.0 ptsSatisfactoryThe poster mostly takes careful consideration of visual rhetoric and aesthetics, but does not strictly adhere to 3-4 design rules.1.0 ptsUnsatisfactoryThe poster makes little to no effort to communicate visually. Handwritten portions are illegible and look rushed.4.0 ptsThis criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeSources4.0 ptsExcellentAll sources, whether text or graphic based, are accurately documented on the poster in APA style.3.0 ptsIntermediateAll sources, whether text or graphic based, are documented, but there are a few errors in APA style.2.0 ptsSatisfactoryAll sources, whether text or graphic based, are documented, but APA style is not used and the documentation is incomplete.1.0 ptsUnsatisfactoryAt least one of the sources are not documented.4.0 ptsThis criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeMechanics4.0 ptsExcellentNo errors in grammar, spelling or punctuation.3.0 ptsIntermediateNearly no errors in grammar, spelling or punctuation.2.0 ptsSatisfactoryA few errors in grammar, spelling or punctuation.1.0 ptsUnsatisfactoryMany errors in grammar, spelling and/or punctuation.4.0 ptsTotal Points: 20.0
academic poster (COMM 200)

Philosophy homework help

assignment helper Philosophy homework help. This is an assignment that discusses the Sherpa relation to a G20 country and climate discussion. The assignment also discusses the cost benefits of a chosen overhaul.,The Sherpa relation to a G20 country and climate discussion,You are asked to write a memorandum for the Sherpa of your chosen G20 country and to also present your arguments why the country should take a fresh look at a specific climate change challenge which cuts across a number of important domestic and international environmental challenges. The objective of the memorandum is to:,(a) persuade the Sherpa[2] to take your memo to the leader of your chosen G20 country,, (b) win the leader’s support of your proposal,, (c) announce the country’s new climate change policy at the upcoming G20 meeting in Washington, D.C. in the autumn 2020!,As you approach this assignment, you must first thoroughly familiarize yourself with and include in your memorandum:,The major components of your chosen country’s climate change policy,, Firstly, identify the climate change area you feel needs a dramatic overhaul (e.g. energy policy because of its critical impact on the environment, economy, employment, public health, social equity, etc.),, Secondly, identify the costs-benefits of your proposed overhaul (in terms of the sectors directly impacted, but also in view of possible spin-off effects elsewhere),, Thirdly, present your arguments where the overhaul could have positive and negative impacts in terms of domestic politics, and how those could be addressed,, Finally, present persuasive arguments how the climate change overhaul would generally position the country more favorably (e.g. as a ‘leader’) in the international community’s efforts to meet the aspirational ,IPCC global warming target, of 1.5 degrees Celsius.,Suggested Assignment Structure:,1. Executive Summary (write this part last, and include any recommendations here), 2. Background. What is the issue? Why is it pressing? Why is action needed?, 3. Analysis. Analyze the alternatives without bias. Also, what options are available?, 4. Recommendation. Why are you recommending the option that you choose?,[1] A Sherpa is a personal representative of the leader of a member country (such as the G8, G20). The term is from the Nepalese Sherpa people, who serve as guides for mountaineers in the Himalayas. The Sherpa also engages in planning, negotiation and implementation tasks in the lead-up and through the G8/G20 Summits. Additionally, they coordinate the agenda, seek consensus at the highest political levels, and participate in a series of pre-Summit consultations to help negotiate their leaders’ positions. Sherpas are career diplomats or senior government officials appointed by the leaders of their countries. However, there is only one Sherpa per Summit for each member country; he/she is assisted by several sous Sherpas., Philosophy homework help

Theories of relationships and personality

Tutor Assessed Question 1 (total word count: 259) Describe a study that has been used to investigate implicit personality theory. Provide at least two evaluation points for the study that you have used. Implicit personality theory explains the biases used by a person when meeting an unknown person, producing impressions using limited initial information. Asch (1946) was the first psychologist to broadly research into this, discovering that when receiving information about a person; we place our focus and importance on part of the information basing our opinions about the person on these central traits. Schul and Burnstein (1985) stated that once we have formed an opinion and think we know them, we chose to construe or disfigure information received later to fit in with our opinions, supporting Asch’s (1946) research. However, Wishner (1960) opposed Asch (1946) arguing that importance needs to be placed on the environment in which the situation is as certain people behave in a certain way in depending on their surroundings, for example a teacher has to be strict in a classroom. Describe a study that has been used to investigate the nature of social stereotyping. Provide at least two evaluation points for the study that you have used. Sheldon (1940) related three main body types to different personality traits concluding that the two bare a relationship. Endomorphs are plumper therefore are associated with love/comfort, mesomorphs are muscular therefore are associated with criminal activity as they are competitive and assertive and are seen to be more likely to commit whereas ectomorphs focus on the nervous system and brain therefore are associated to the need of privacy. Hartlet et al. (1982) reanalysed the theory finding that delinquency was connected to mesomorphy, supporting Sheldon. However, Ryckman et al. (1989) stated that due to their big strong body, mesomorphs are perceived to be brave and popular rather than as criminals whereas ectomorphs are supposed to be intelligent and neat. Tutor Assessed Question 2 (total word count: 633) Write a short essay which describes and evaluates theories and research studies relating to the attribution of causality. Discuss the idea that one theory of attribution can adequately explain the reason for behaviour. The attribution theory states that as soon as we meet an unknown person and confront them and their behaviour, we instantaneously embark on forming an opinion about them without acknowledging any further information, beginning to process potential reasons as to why this behaviour is occurring; however, it vital to remember that this occurs when the behaviour or the person themselves seem strange and out of the norm. There are several reasons as to why this behaviour transpires, ranging from mere happiness to overdose of alcohol to insanity. These reasons are completely diverse and different therefore it is highly important to look at other indicators to assess what the problem is and why it is occurring. All these processes are known as attribution processes as we attribute causes of behaviour from the way an individual may be behaving. One major setback that can immediately be identified is that the theory classifies and overlooks all the rules and laws used by society to determine rationales for certain actions. Heider (1958) proposed that people perceive that human behaviour is caused one way or another rather than mere chance. This then gives us the opportunity to conclude that this behaviour has the probability to occur again. Causal attribution was initially looked into by Einhorn and Hogarth (1986) who stated that in most situations, there are several causes but we place more focus and importance on the person rather than the situation therefore we associate cause to the person in the situation rather than the situation itself. Weiner (1980) believed that causal attributions establish reactions to success and failure. This was explained through a classroom setting a greater sense of success is achieved when receiving a high mark in a subject by a teacher who rarely gives high marks rather than from a teacher who always gives high marks. Students with higher self esteem ratings and with high achievement levels attribute their success to internal factors and blame failure to external factors such difficulty to task. For example, a comparison between students with learning disabilities and students with no learning disabilities showed that the students with the disability were less probable to attribute failure to unstable elements but tended to attribute their failure to internal factors such as ability. Similarly, Daly (1996) researched the attributions employees held explaining failure at work in receiving bonuses and promotions, establishing reactions to failure, supporting Weiner (1980). Causal attribution helps justify differences in incentives between low and high achievers stating that high achievers approach difficult tasks and situations rather than evading them. These is due to the fact that they are confident in themselves and believe that they will succeed in this task and if failure occurs then it is blamed on external factors such as bad luck, causal attribution thus helps build self esteem through success. However, those who have low self confidence and are low achievers avoid success related tasks as they distrust their own abilities or believe that success is related to factors they have no control over so even if they are successful it is not seen as a rewarding experience. However, Ross (1977) proposed the Fundamental Attribution Error which is the tendency to emphasize internal characteristics to clarify someone else’s behaviour rather than considering external factors. To test this hypothesis, Ross, Amabile and Steinmetz (1977) separated two groups with one including a question master who asked the rest of his team a group of self made questions and the group observing the process, judging the knowledge shown by the question master and the team. This proved that it would be unproblematic to create questions difficult for others to answer, projecting you as an intelligent person. Analysing the results showed that the observers and question answerers did not make allowances for the situation, all making the fundamental attribution error. Tutor Assessed Question 3 (total word count: 153) What could be the cause/s of the attributional bias that these staff hold? Explain this in terms of their individual cognitive and motivational factors? Biased attribution held Cognitive factors Motivational factors Mustafa Kimberly is lazy and has no sense of time He also has other engagements and does not want to be late due to Kimberly as he is prompt. Mustafa may have heard this from other staff members as well before meeting her therefore has perceived her to be constantly late. Kimberly and Mustafa may be professional competitors therefore Mustafa perceives her to be a threat. He also is determined to get to the gym on time so is punctual and does not want to ruin his plans for her. Martha Kimberly is not a fault, in fact is a victim of bad traffic. Kimberly and Martha may be good friends. Martha may know Kimberly personally therefore has a positive opinion on her. Martha may also be an optimistic person, trying to look at the good side. Martha may not have very many friends therefore is excited to see Kimberly to have a good chat. Tutor Assessed Question 4 (total word count: 187) Describe at least two strategies that you have used in social encounters, including self-monitoring, disclosure and self-presentation? Were these strategies effective? One strategy used in social encounters is ‘modelling’ which is a technique used to measure our own behaviour, giving us the ability to maintain posture, eye contact and non verbal cues during social interaction. This technique was taken from Bandura’s (1986) social learning theory which places importance on learning through observation. This behaviour is influenced by the environment as well as themselves; therefore copying behaviour displayed by someone else is an effective technique to regulate social behaviour. Another strategy used in social encounters is self monitoring which helps identify the type of person you are. It suggested that a diary is kept by an individual to take constant and regular notes of feelings, especially negative ones such as depression or anxiety. Each time a feeling would be noted down, extra notes need to be placed with it explaining the situation, other people’s response, and post event feeling. The results display whether self monitoring needs to be continued to regulate social behaviour. This technique is particularly helpful as it gives the opportunity for an individual to go past their behaviour, pinpointing the irrational beliefs which underlie the behaviour. Tutor Assessed Question 5 (total word count: 159) Describe the major factors associated with the formation of relationships. Also explain why the above data did not work out for Jade. The major factors related to the formation of relationships are physical attractiveness which includes height, weight and behaviour; propinquity which is critical as it increases familiarity; and similarity in attitude, personality and demographics as we like people who agree with us, they are seen to be complementary and are comparable to us. In Jade’s case, initially, from what Jade had seen online, she was physically attracted to her date as he was taller than her which she found attractive, but in reality was a short, quite aged man, which she did not find physically attractive. Demographically, they had nothing in similar as he lived with his mother, whereas Jade is independent and would potentially want to move to an exotic place. And lastly, their attitude and personality are also quite diverse as Jade was open and honest about her career, but her date lied to her about his occupation. In the end, Jade did not find herself to be compatible with the man as none of these factors matched. Tutor Assessed Question 6 (total word count: 249) Evaluate the major theories associated with the maintenance of friendships, including balance, equality and social exchange theories. There are three main theories related to the maintenance of friendship: the social exchange theory, the equity theory and the balance theory. The SET offered by Thibaut and Kelley (1978) assumes that individuals seek to improve their rewards and decrease their costs. Another main assumption of the theory is that the rewards given and received to and from the same person should be equal. Cropanzano and Mitchell (2005) supported the SET by stating that if the rule of reciprocity is abided by, then this leads to a loyal friendship. On the other hand, the theory implies that the rewards an individual expects are in comparison to a base from which the person learns to expect. Flynn (2003) demonstrated that the observed significance for rewards changes over time. The equity theory is an extension of the SET including that an imbalance of costs and rewards is reasonable if the condition is accepted by all. De Maris (2007) support this theory by finding that the main reason for relationship breakdown was the feeling of poor equity faced by women as they felt they put in more than they received. Duck (1982) argued that relationships need to be viewed as processes, proposing his phase model of dissolution of relationships. The balance theory proposes the view that we chose friends who will help us aiding us in having a balanced view of the world. Newcomb (1961) tested this and found that students with similar values and attitudes were more likely to become friends. Tutor Assessed Question 7 (total word count: 106) Briefly referring to theory and evidence, pick one of the above scenarios and outline the reason/s why the relationship has broken down. (Scenario 2). The investment model applies appropriately to scenario 3 as the partners were committed which maintained their relationship for years. They both may have been satisfied and found that the reward of living as a family was satisfying, nonetheless, now feel that they are not happy and their investment into the relationship is not substantial as it was before. The two individuals are now making rational processes to make the decision of not staying together as the balance of costs against benefits does not show a personal advantage. The benefits of living as a happy family are not there anymore as the children are adults and independent. Tutor Assessed Question 8 (total word count: 203) The model of relational dissolution: draw a flow diagram to show the stages of dissolution (breakdown) of a relationship. Then evaluate the theory you have used. Duck’s (1982) model recognize the breakdown stages of a relationship, offering techniques to repair the broken. For example, Stage 1 gives one or both partners the opportunity to identify the problem, therefore giving the chance to fix the problem, allowing the relationship to have a work through period. However, Brehm and Kassin (1996) wanted to place focus on the dissimilar reasons for marriage problems for males and females stating that Duck’s (1982) model is more appropriate for women and their problems. Due to this, Duck’s (1982) model has been altered over time and significant changes have been made considering gender needs. Duck and Rollie (2006) included the Resurrection Phase where partners re-evaluate the relationship, finding a mutual path to have another attempt at the relationship. Tutor Assessed Question 9 (total word count: 90) Relational repair: describe a model of relational repair. Then provide an example of a celebrity couple for whom this model can be applied. What was the cause of the difficulty and what was done to repair the relationship? Rusbult (1987) proposed the investment model which highlights commitment to be the most important factor. A celebrity couple which underwent relationship breakdown were Ashley and Cheryl Cole who, even after all the controversy with both individuals being defamed as unfaithful, managed to stay together. The problem was that Ashley Cole could not remain committed and performed adultery and the issue was overcome by examining the relationship, balancing costs and rewards and looking at the quality of other substitutes to determine commitment and find reasonable responses and fixes to the problem. References:

Music as an Independent Art Analytical Essay

Table of Contents Introduction Technical features of music Musical fantasy Melody character Conclusion Works Cited Introduction From the perspective of time, the history of humanity can be viewed as a constant flow of moods, personalities, and events. This flow has a changeable nature, and therefore we subdivide it into different eras, such as Victorian, Classical, Romantic, Modern, etc. Obviously, every epoch is individual, and its ideas influence all the spheres of human life, including politics, education, science, culture. The latter is of paramount importance when talking about any epoch, and art is a representative of the culture. Indeed, the artistic works, such as paintings, literary works, and music, convey the spirit of their age, express the artists and impress the viewers, giving the next generations inspiration to live. However, if paintings and literary works give the possibility for their creators to express their ideas and feelings efficiently, music has a rather amorphous nature. It does not mean that music is less expressive than other arts, but it definitely makes music a much broader kind of art. Instead of images and words, music offers an endless world of fantasy to its listeners. That is why, some of the critics today argue that music is a solely independent art. This view was once expressed by Ernst Theodor Amadeus Hoffmann, who claimed that “the magic of music is strong […], it must tear to pieces any impediment from another art.” (Hoffmann, 96). The critic, who denied even the addition of poetry to the music, would probably be surprised with the modern conception of “music”. Hoffmann was convinced that the instrumental music is a tool, powerful enough to be self-sufficient. Serving as a critic for Beethoven’s works, he thought the composer to be successful at creating the “independent” music. Therefore, it is worth analyzing the notion of music as a separate art through the prism of Beethoven’s compositions. Technical features of music It is a well-known fact, that the music composed by Ludwig van Beethoven has its specific features, which make his style distinguishable among many other classics. Namely, the technical features of the composer’s work include contrasts, switches of tempos and textures, fluctuations in the music’s loudness, etc. These characteristics are typical of all his compositions. This leads us to a logical question: is this style achieved on purpose or with no reason? Indeed, the author can use the peculiarities of the melody in order to induce certain feelings in the listeners. For instance, it is obvious that the rapid rise of tone and loud music are to cause tension, as well as the smooth flow of soft melody is to calm the listener and make them feel peacefully. Concerning the instruments, they also play a vital role in impressing the listener. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More As a matter of fact, flutes seem to sound optimistically; oboes, cellos and basses make an impression of ominous event; clarinets and trumpets create a positive and joyful mood, while such instruments as timpani, piccolo, bassoons, contrabassoon, and trombones serve as intensifiers of the certain moods. Seems like there is a multitude of tools in music, which are enough to make it full and complete. That is why, in case our hypothesis is right, and the composer does use different methods to make his melody individual, the music can be called an independent art. Indeed, the greatest task of the composer is not only to create a pleasant melody, but also to give it a character. Either or a victorious music has to be composed in a way that will allow the different listeners catch the same idea. The only question left to answer is: is Beethoven successful at this task? Musical fantasy Taking into consideration the idea that music is a self-sufficient kind of art, it can be said that it has its public and aims. As any kind of art, music is aimed at exposing human feelings. In other words, the successful melody is the one that does not leave the listeners indifferent. This can be achieved by the author in case they use the certain tools effectively. On the other hand, the effect of the music also depends on the listeners. Undoubtedly, music involves its public into the process of thinking and understanding. If we talk about Beethoven’s compositions, it is clear that the author leaves the listener the place for imagination. That is why, simply listening to his melodies is not enough; one has to involve his fantasy in order to taste the music fully. However, it is worth considering the fact that the different audience has different perception of one subject. Indeed, what once was heard by Hoffman, is treated differently now, when more than 200 years have passed. Can the people of different epochs have the same associations with one melody? It is a rather doubtful question. There is a little possibility for the melody to save the initial idea of the author and convey it to the listeners through centuries. Moreover, when Hoffmann argues that the Beethoven’s works are individual and leave space for imagination, he later contradicts to himself, naming the concrete images that appear in his mind while listening to the Fifth Symphony. Namely, the critic mentions “surging storm”, “deep night”, “blinding sunshine”, etc (Hoffmann, 99). By these means, Hoffmann narrows down the content of the composition, suggesting that there are certain ideas expressed by the author. In addition, the other symphony called “Pastoral” has every of its parts named. To be specific, the first part is called “Awaking the emotions full of life upon arriving in the village”; the second part is called “Scene at the creek”; the next part has the name ”Joyful reunion of peasants”, the fourth part is called “The Tempest”, and the last one has a name “Pastoral Song – Feelings of joy and gratitude after the Storm”. We will write a custom Essay on Music as an Independent Art specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In case if Beethoven was a genius master of music, why did he need to give such specific names to his works? Could he not organize the melody in a way that would allow the listeners catch the ideas themselves? One way or another, the names of the parts predisposed the listeners to a concrete perception of what they were going to hear. However, these ideas can barely be preserved in the modern world with its changing values and ideologies. Indeed, if there were no names, the modern listener from New York would be unlikely to associate Beethoven’s Pastoral Symphony with village, fields and peasants. In contrast, the literary works manage to be treated similarly throughout the centuries; the classical novels are still popular, and even today they make their readers either cry or smile, or think of the sense of life. Fine art, similarly to literature, has an ability to impress the audience of different ages equally. It may be due to the nature of human brain, which suggests thinking with images and sometimes with words, but never with notes. Concerning this point, Hoffmann noted that thanks to music we “give ourselves up to the inexpressible” (Hoffmann, 95). Indeed, if there is something more than words and images, some emotions and feelings that are too great to fit the paper or canvas, then music lets it all out. This conception of music as a very special art should be taken into consideration while analyzing the instrumental classical works. Melody character In his article, Hoffmann notes that Beethoven is a “purely romantic composer” (Hoffmann, 97). Indeed, living on the edge of the change of Classic age into the Romantic one, the composer’s works were more of romantic character. That age, based on symbolism, magic, allegories and use of different images, was far from the concrete facts and heavy ideas of the modern world. From this perspective, music can be viewed as an entirely independent art. The author only needed to give the hints about the plot; the other was up to instruments and the listener’s fantasy. For instance, in the Pastoral Symphony the composer gives a contrast of motif repetition in the second part and the free form of the melody in the third part. In addition, he uses high tones to represent the birds singing in the coda of the first part, and powerful basses in the fourth part, which signal about the thunder. As it was noted by one of the critics, “the peasant gathering and the storm that follow are full of character and greatness” (Munich, 125). Having no introduction, Pastoral Symphony is itself very individual, even though not many means of expressiveness are used. As we can see in this case, the task of the composer is achieved: the melody has a vivid character, which can be recognized by different listeners. Beethoven is also sometimes referred to as “political composer” (Rumph, 4). Such conception contradicts the Hoffmann’s idea that the music has “nothing in common with the outward, material world that surrounds it” (Hoffmann, 95). Indeed, politics is a sphere, rather distanced from the mysterious ideas of romanticism. However, Beethoven’s political compositions now give us a chance to access his mastery of conveying the notions of power and triumph through the melody. Not sure if you can write a paper on Music as an Independent Art by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This can be seen in his symphony “Eroica”. As it is known, the composition is dedicated to Napoleon and his achievements (Rumph, 29). The composer chose a simple construction for this work; however, he used a range of tools to make it individual. The first part, allegro con brio, has a rather melancholic mood, which is achieved by the ternary movement combined with the minor tonality. The second part uses string instruments to show the tension. The third part is rather optimistic, which is explained by the proper performance of allegro vivace. Finally, the allegro molto part is a culmination of the whole theme, signaling the triumphal feelings. Obviously, Beethoven was inspired by the image of Napoleon, and he was successful at expressing his feelings through the melody. In contrast to the two mentioned works, the Fifth Symphony has a more complex character. Its changing melody with a range of instruments used makes it extremely individual and suggests that every listener has to develop their own understanding of the theme. The tonic harmony creates a smooth flow of the melody, which is sometimes intensified with the switches to the dominant harmony. The texture of the theme is typical of Beethoven’s works: the melody changes rapidly from soft to very loud and back. The tempo is also changing throughout the composition, and includes allegro, andante, and accelerando. Such contrastive nature of the theme evokes a range of emotions in the listeners. The only feature that is common for all the listeners is the absence of purely negative emotions, such as anger or hatred. The Fifth Symphony is rather amorphous, but by no means can it be called less impressive. In fact, the works of Beethoven are peculiar for their accurate use of means of expressiveness in comparison with other composers. For instance, the “Four Seasons” by Vivaldi are much more exposed in their form and ideas; their moods and images are obvious. Similarly, Orph’s “Carmine Burans” has a set of features, including tempo, texture, and instruments that indicate its concrete tremendous and apocalyptic character. The Schuman’s melodies, with their distinct melancholic character, are also specific due to certain tools used. In contrast, Beethoven’s Symphonies are based on a much softer approach to the expressiveness. The composer’s smart organization of his themes allows the listener to dive into the melody and swim by the rivers of their own soul. Therefore, it can be stated that music demands interaction between the listener and the melody. Consequently, Beethoven’s intellectual music is best understood by the intellectual audience. Conclusion Having analyzed the general picture of the world history, we can conclude that music is one of the most influential kinds of art. Despite the fact that it develops in accordance with the world culture, music has a very specific character. Namely, even though it has a range of tools, music is less accurate in expressiveness in comparison with the other arts. However, its aesthetical value is hard to overestimate. Music does not only function as an external subject, depicting the moods of its age and entertaining the listeners, but also serves as a guide to one’s inner world. Indeed, music allows the listeners discover the new lands in the space of their own soul. These roles of music were examined with the reference to Beethoven’s works. Indisputably, the composer has a very individual style, which suggests a harmonious organization of the melody and expressiveness of the themes. In addition, Beethoven’s compositions involve the listeners’ fantasy, adding some mystery and romantic magic to the music. The specific tools, styles, aims and audience of music suggest that it can be treated as an entirely independent art. Of course, music can be treated as a repetition of sounds, but in this case painting can be treated as a repetition of colors, and literature – as a repetition of letters. Therefore, the task of the composer is to organize these sounds wisely. However, the audience should also be eager to understand the character of the melody. Indeed, we have proved that instrumental music in particular has its own essence, which can only be revealed by active listeners. Works Cited Hoffmann, E.T.A. “Review”. Allgemmeine Musialische Zeitung 12 (July 1820): 94-105. Munich, A “News”. Allgemmeine Musialische Zeitung 14 (February 1812): 125-126. Rumph, S. Beethoven after Napoleon. Political Romanticism in the Late Works. London: University of California Press, 2004.