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Discussion & Responses: The Greater Threat

Discussion & Responses: The Greater Threat. I’m studying for my Law class and need an explanation.

Decades have now passed since the bombing of the Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City by Timothy McVeigh in 1995 and the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon by al-Qaeda in 2001. Despite the significance of both of these domestic terrorism events, the War on Terror has almost exclusively focused on international terrorism.
Critics argue that the War on Terror needs to focus on more than just international terrorism, because domestic terrorism poses a greater threat in terms of lives and property loss than international terrorism.Based on this debate, which terrorist threat is currently the greatest threat in the United States? Is it an international terrorist group, such as al-Qaeda, or domestic terrorist groups and their loose affiliates, such as Timothy McVeigh?In your initial post, comment on whether or not you feel that the current focus almost exclusively on international terrorism is appropriate. Your two replies to other posts can either be a response to a question about your analysis or to the classmate whose work you reviewed.
To complete this assignment, review the Discussion Rubric document.

Reading and Resources
Textbook: Global Terrorism, Chapters 4 and 10Chapter 4 discusses state sponsors and supporters of terrorism. Chapter 10 discusses state use of domestic terrorism.As you read these chapters, consider the following questions:

What is the difference between state terrorism and state-sponsored terrorism?
How does state terrorism differ from terrorism conducted by non-state actors?

PDF: The Domestic Terrorist Threat: Background and Issues for CongressThis Congressional Research Service report provides background regarding domestic terrorists and details what constitutes the domestic terrorism threat as suggested by publicly available U.S. government sources. It illustrates some of the key factors involved in assessing this threat and concludes by examining potential issues for Congress.As you read, consider the following questions:

What is domestic terrorism and how is it different from international terrorism?
Is domestic terrorism often confused with other violent criminal activity?
Which poses the greater threat to the United States: domestic terrorism or international terrorism?

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Peer post one
It is hard to say which type of terrorism, international or domestic, is more of a threat. I think they are both equal threats as either one can produce a significant amount of death, damage, and instill fear. I do think the scales are tipped to the side of international terrorism as far as the United States priorities lay. I think the federal government has recently noticed it too. Deputy Director Travers of the U.S. National Counterterrorism Center stated in a recent speech, “we are also seeing a growing threat of both right-wing and left-wing domestic terrorism” (Travers as cited in Andrews, 2019, p.3) During an interview with Chuck Todd (NBC, Meet the Press), when asked about domestic terrorism currently being a bigger threat than international terrorism, Kevin McAleenan, Acting United States Secretary of Homeland Security, responded that domestic terrorism absolutely is a larger threat and explained how the DHS supports that mission, but the Department of Justice is the lead agency for the issue. (National Broadcasting Company, 2019) The Department of Homeland Security (DHS) recently published its Strategic Framework for Countering Terrorism and Targeted Violence, within the document are several statements on the DHS’s acknowledgement of domestic terrorism is an emerging threat.
Since both domestic and international terror incidents have the potential to cause the same damage, the focus should be equal. However, I do believe that at times it may have a priority on either side and the U.S. should react accordingly. DHS’s Strategic Framework states that Domestic threat actors often plan and carry out their acts of violence alone and with little apparent warning, in ways that limit the effectiveness of traditional law enforcement investigation and disruption methods. (Department of Homeland Security, 2019, p.1) This is a serious problem for the government to overcome. I think the only way to combat this issue is to involve the community in a partnership with law enforcement to detect actors prior to them taking action. DHS’s Strategic Framework acknowledges that border security cannot stop violence originating inside America and prevention efforts must include “whole-of-society” partnerships. (Department of Homeland Security, 2019, p.6) The “Framework” document provides insight that citizens need to know how information they provide supports protection and prevention efforts. I agree with this thought process, as when people know how their efforts are helping they are more inclined to continue to help and when others see the positive effects of citizen involvement, they most likely be inclined to help law enforcement.
References
Andrews, J. (2019, March 5). NCTC Deputy Director Travers at World Counter Terror Congress. Retrieved from https://www.dni.gov/index.php/nctc-newsroom/nctc-s…
Department of Homeland Security. Strategic Framework for Countering Terrorism and Targeted Violence, Strategic Framework for Countering Terrorism and Targeted Violence (2019). Washington, DC: Government Printing Office. Retrieved from https://www.dhs.gov/sites/default/files/publicatio…
National Broadcasting Company. (2019, August 13). Meet the Press – August 11, 2019. Retrieved from https://www.nbcnews.com/meet-the-press/meet-press-…
Peer post 2
International and domestic terrorism both pose a significant threat to the security of the United States. However, there have been far more domestic terrorist incidents than international terrorist attacks on our country overall. Homegrown terrorism is our greatest threat due to the higher frequency of it. I think many people in the United States fear international terrorism over domestic terrorism because of the 9/11 attacks. International terrorism is certainly a significant threat to our country, but domestic terrorism is more commonly an issue. However, international terrorist attacks have the potential to be highly devastating, as we saw on 9/11/2001.
There are more homegrown terrorists in our country than terrorists with international affiliations. At the peak of the Islamic State’s reign, there were many ISIS “sympathizers” in our country in support of the terrorist group. Domestic terrorism is defined as victims within a country being targeted by a perpetrator with the same citizenship. The FBI uses the term Homegrown Violent Extremists (HVE’s) to describe individuals who are self-radicalized primarily in the U.S. with no direct connections with foreign terrorist organizations. The FBI is investigating reports of HVE’s in every state in America.
https://www.fbi.gov/investigate/terrorism
Discussion & Responses: The Greater Threat

Accessibility and Customer Service. Paper details Skip to Main Content SopTracker My SOPs SOPs Support Joel Atabo Logout Quiz for TM, 2021 – Accessibility and Customer Service2021 Training Module (Version 2021) Note that you must first complete this quiz to mark the SOP as “read”. Minimum correct: 9 1. The goal of the AODA is for Ontario to be accessible by 2025, by removing and preventing barriers so that people with disabilities can participate more fully in communities. True False 2. Disability impacts the lives of many Ontarians, and the numbers of people with disabilities is increasing. Today, 15.5% of Ontario’s population has a disability and this number will continue to grow as the population ages. True False 3. A barrier is anything that keeps someone with a disability from fully participating in all aspects of society. Different types of barriers include: Physical barriers Information and Communication barriers Systemic barriers Attitudinal barriers All the above 4. An example of a systemic barrier is: Providing steps but no ramps or elevators. Having no policies, practices, and procedures on accessibility and how to interact with a person who has a disability. Items that are left in hallways blocking safe passage. All the above 5. “Ableism” is a tendency to see people with disabilities as less worthy, underestimating their potential, or excluding them from decisions that affect them True False 6. When helping someone who has a physical limitation, best practices would include. Speak using a normal voice and directly to the person Use normal vocal tone and rhythm People with different physical abilities often have their own preferred way of doing things. Ask before you help Respectfully and privately offer seating for those that cannot stand in line All of the above 7. When helping someone who has a hearing limitation, best practices would include: To get someone’s attention, a gentle touch on the shoulder Do not shout, speak clearly Face the person and keep your hands and objects away from your face and mouth If the person uses a hearing aid, try to speak in an area with few competing sounds All of the Above 8. When helping someone who has an intellectual or developmental disability, best practices would include Don’t assume what a person can or cannot do Be prepared to explain and provide examples regarding information Remember that the person is an adult and unless you are informed otherwise, can make their own decisions Be patient and verify their and you are understanding. If you cannot understand what is being said, do not pretend. Just ask again All of the above 9. When helping someone who has a mental health disability, best practices would include: Ask what would make him/her the most comfortable and respect his/her needs to the maximum extent possible Try to reduce stress in situations (i.e., extending timelines where able) Stay calm and courteous, even if the person acts in a way that makes them look anxious Focus on what they need and how you can help All of the above © 2021 SOPTracker – Version 3.0 Information Management Services, Inc.Accessibility and Customer Service
Aspen University Patients BMI Essay.

Write a 500 word essay addressing each of the following points/questions. Be sure to completely answer all the questions for each bullet point. Separate each section in your paper with a clear heading that allows your professor to know which bullet you are addressing in that section of your paper. Support your ideas with at least two (2) sources in your essay. Make sure to cite using the APA writing style for the essay. The cover page and reference page do not count towards the minimum word amount. Review the rubric criteria for this assignment.A 68-year-old client lives alone and is independent with all ADLs, has no restrictions for mobility, and is competent, and oriented x4. The client is on a fixed income, but has enough to manage a modest lifestyle. The client has family and social supports but is very independent and is proud of her self-reliance. The client’s height is 5’ 6”, weight is 210 lb. / 95.25 kg.Please answer the following:What is the client’s BMI?Identify what screening tools you would use to assess nutritional and exercise knowledge, and why?One Outcome/Intervention/Rationale:Identify one outcome/goal that is reasonable, measurable and realistic. Identify 1 nursing intervention for the outcome and give rationale for the intervention.Identify what weakness in the client’s life may be impacting the client’s activity and diet?What referrals would you make and why?(Use references for your responses, not just opinion.)
Aspen University Patients BMI Essay

Since the collapse of Soviet Union, and the end of cold war has brought significant political and economic changes to the Northeast Asian region. For instance, the concept of security has switched to non-conventional factors such as energy security and enlarging economic interdependence to a great extent. In other words, Mongolia, Japan and China are seeking diversified, environmentally friendly and reliable supplies to support their enlarging domestic needs of energy. Within this context, as a small player of the region, Mongolia always seeks to participate in the security mechanism of the Northeast Asia, particularly with its two giant neighbors Russia and China. To illustrate, Mongolia’s landlocked location between two super powers requires Mongolia to ensure its energy security through pursuing favorable foreign policy and multi beneficial relations with Russia and China by all diplomatic and economic means. Despite the energy security problems associated with its geopolitical history, Mongolia has recently discovered strategically important uranium deposits that it can use with other super powers such as Japan and the USA to reduce its high dependency on oil and gas imports from Russia and its energy supply commitment to China. This paper will focus on Mongolia’s renewed energy reserves in relation to improving its energy security as an independent player in the Northeast Asia. Finally, essay is expected to argue that uranium is a potential energy alternative for Mongolia to decrease its reliance on energy from Russia. For centuries, Mongolia has been a geographical buffer zone between Russia and China with its huge land, for that reason country’s national security has been dominantly influenced by its geographical location which is defined as landlocked developing country by the United Nations Office of the High Representative for the Least developed countries, Landlocked developing countries and Small island developing states (UN-OHRLLS). According to the definition by the UN-OHRLLS: “Landlocked countries [1] , i.e. countries without direct coastal access to the sea and thus also to maritime trade, face very specific challenges as tranship through one or more country to reach sea port” (UN-OHRLLS et al, 2007). Furthermore, in order to address advantages and disadvantages of landlocked developing countries, UN-OHRLLS outlines that the LLDC countries have specific problems which have much negative influence on their foreign trade, poverty reduction and economic security such as lack of territorial access to sea, remoteness from major world market, poor infrastructure, inadequate policy and high transit transportation cost (Millennium Project Report, 2005). As an illustration, the vast majority of LLDC countries are the poorest countries as a disadvantage of their geographical location. For instance, the annual economic growth of those countries is expected to be 0.7 percent less than coastal countries (Millennium Project Report, 2005). As a landlocked developing country, the closest seaport to Mongolia is 1724 km to Tianjin, China or 3500 km to Vladivostok, Russia (ESCAP, 2003), which can help explain that the foreign trade of Mongolia is heavily dependent on its transit neighbors as time and cost consuming issue. On the whole, Mongolia’s foreign trade turnover is highly limited within market range, and the transport cost undermines the stability of economic diplomacy in terms of external trade. Finally, Mongolia’s sandwiched and landlocked location decreases the return of capital to the country that makes country’s economy weaken in terms of security. To exemplify more, Brenda Shaffer argues that energy consumption of any countries results interdependency in economic growth since energy demand affects price and supply access of oil for almost all consumers. Correspondingly any countries dependant on energy resource should enlarge their energy storage capacity or seek energy efficiency solution or energy diversification (Brenda Shaffer, 2009 pp4-5). Her idea supports my argument that any oil price increase in the world energy market could influence greatly to landlocked countries’ economy through difficulties faced by energy dependent landlocked countries. For instance, Russian Gazprom Company increased petroleum price for 90 cents per liter results 8% increase inflation to the economy of Mongolia. In short, difficulties of landlocked situation and high independence of fuel and gas from Russia make Mongolia as one of the weakest country in terms of economy and energy security in the Northeast Asian region – currently Mongolian energy sector /electricity, heating etc./ consists of 45 percent coal, 6 percent of renewable energy sources and 45 percent of gas petroleum which is almost 100 percent dependent on Russian petroleum export (O.Altansukh p5). As it has been pointed out above in the essay, the Northeast Asia is the home of largest economies in the world such as Japan and China as well as India which expected to be the second largest energy consumer after China by 2020 (Ram Sachs et al. pp3,6), as it is shown below that due to economic boom energy demand of these countries are likely to be increased by 4-5 times (Jinwoo Kim, p22) by 2030. Mongolia’s most important trading partners in energy sector are its two giant neighbors, Russia and China, although the United States of America and Japan has recently become a major export in newly discovered uranium deposit. In this regard multilateral cooperation dialogues between Mongolia, Japan, Russia and the United States has been intensifying in recent years. Aforementioned paragraphs have discussed certain consequences of landlocked and small state challenges in geographical and economical aspect, thus the below paragraph will argue that The Concept of National Security of Mongolia fails to regulate energy sector. In order to analyze the national security concept, example is taken from “Energy Politics” by Brenda Shaffer (2009) which discusses: “Energy is both a factor that influences a state’s foreign policy outcomes and a potential tool of foreign policy. Enhancing energy supply security is part of the national security agenda of energy-importing states, while the goal of assuring stable market is on the policy agenda of exporting as well as importing states”. Given example shows that in order to intensify the energy security, it is highly important to adopt national policy and strategic document to regulate energy sector as nowadays, energy accessibility is the primary part of the national security of any countries, especially to small states like Mongolia. The National Security Concept of Mongolia [2] has underlined the needs to ensure the nuclear-weapon-free status of Mongolia at the international level and make it an important element of strengthening the country’s security by political means. But to be more critical, in the Concept of National security of Mongolia has overlooked to address means of ensuring energy security as a part of national interest. If mining is the largest industry of Mongolia [3] (Ch.Khashchuluun, p3) and the government gives significance to energy security, this issue needs to be addressed at the level of National Security Council [4] of Mongolia which led by the President of Mongolia as energy security is insurance for the future. As it has been discussed above, following the global tendency of green energy and energy diversification, Mongolia has to deal with dependence or independence dilemma to secure its energy security in the 21st century. Since the mining sector, especially uranium and coke coal export is likely to be the pillar of Mongolian economy, the country has to achieve nuclear power-based electricity generation which could reduce the dependence on gas and oil imports and enhances energy security. Some people may argue that why not renewable energy alternatives can be the best solution for Mongolia? First of all, Mongolia has huge territory with rich resources, nomadic way of life supports using the biomass (dried cow dung etc.) as a fuel however, uncivilized nomadic life style has much difficulties to develop an appropriate technology to supply electricity in some region of the country (Batryenchin.O, p12-14), renewable energy resource is limited and investment to this alternative seems unlikely to meet the domestic needs which cannot reduce the import dependence on Russian oil and gas. In the nearest 30 years, Mongolia doesn’t have enough capacity to produce renewable energy such as windmill, solar energy or bio-fuel and export to other countries. For the reason that why does renewable energy sources cannot be the alternative solution, solar power causes imbalance of desert and steppe ecosystem, need of solar energy collector during cloudy days which costs much but less productivity etc. windmills impacts in decrease in number of fish, evacuation of nomads in the area and biggest factor is harsh climate which reaches -50 degrees in the winter time (O.Altansukh p14-16). Furthermore, China and Japan are the leading countries in the Northeast Asian region with its high technology and know-how of renewable energy sources and thus renewable energy alternatives cannot meet the government objective to decrease black coal consumption to 50 percent by 2020 most importantly, above mentioned alternatives cannot improve the country’s energy security. Being in a deadlock of further progress on energy alternatives, government of Mongolia has relied on its uranium ore which is contains 1 percent of world uranium reserve (World Nuclear Association, p3). Mongolia’s uranium resources are estimated at 62,000 tons or about 1 percent of the world’s reserves, though Mongolia has untested mineral deposits that have never been assessed. Including those untested reserves, researchers estimate Mongolia’s uranium reserves could be as much as 1.39 million tons, which would be the 9th biggest in the world after Australia, Kazakhstan and Russia (UPI Report, 2010). Since Mongolia-Russia’s partnership in uranium has started in 1970s, governments of two countries have signed on strategic partnership agreement on uranium export in within the framework of official visit of Mongolia’s prime minister to Russia (Altangerel.P, 2010). While Mongolian-Russian joint ventures are moving forward, Mongolia prefers multi-partnership collaboration in order to avoid reliance on any single party as Marubeni Corporation from Japan and Areva Group from France have expressed it interest in further cooperation to develop nuclear power plant in Mongolia. Except these monopoly players in the world energy market, China and India are likely to race for Central Asian including Mongolian uranium resources. Every dollar in mining creates additional demand of 1.84 dollars in other sectors. (Ram Sachs et al p3-6). In conclusion, if Mongolia decides to develop nuclear energy, the IAEA could provide appropriate assistance through its statute as well as by Article IV of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) as well as Mongolia has adopted new, competitive mining law /Law on Nuclear Energy, Law on Nuclear Free Zone etc/ provides security of tenure, transferability of title, clear and transparent procedures, complete access to mineral resources indicates that Mongolian uranium as strategic important location to Moscow and Beijing as a possibility of new race between Russia and China. In addition, the country’s neutral pragmatic foreign policy as a landlocked small state and import substituted, export oriented economic development model will undoubtedly support Mongolia to build a small or medium size nuclear power plant could resolve most of the country’s energy needs furthermore, developing the nuclear energy sector will contribute enormously to reduce the interdependence from Russian oil gas import and support the economy to export uranium to the regional economic partners.

Reuse Of Israelites And Canaanites Storyline In Modern Settings

Reuse Of Israelites And Canaanites Storyline In Modern Settings.

hi,Below is the instructions and the questions. I can provide you the bible .Length: 300 words. Keep in mind that you the study questions are the very broad and there is much to say about them. The study questions are intended to guide your reading. Choose something from the your interaction with the readings to address in your written response.1. The two readings (attatched below) present different ways in which the storyline of the Israelites and canaanites is employed in more modern settings. As you read through the two articles, ask yourself why and how is the storyline being reused. In particular, consider how our understanding of the conquest story in the book of Joshua changes dramatically when we read it through the eyes of the Canaanites.
Reuse Of Israelites And Canaanites Storyline In Modern Settings

Misconceptions Concept Essay

essay writing help Misconceptions Concept Essay. Introduction Misconceptions are mistaken thoughts or ideas about something or a certain topic. Often times, misconceptions result from lack sufficient knowledge, understanding or correct information about something or an issue. Misconceptions may therefore mislead people and cause them to make even more mistakes out of their ignorance. Misconceptions occur in almost every area of life, unless corrected in good time. This paper discusses few of these misconceptions. Common Misconceptions about HIV and AIDS Many people have a misconceived idea that Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is the same as Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). This is wrong because in as much as HIV is probably the cause of AIDS, a person with HIV does not necessarily have AIDS. HIV is the virus that causes AIDS, the disease. Many people live with the virus for a very long time before they suffer from the disease itself. Other misconceptions revolve around the transmission and prevention of HIV/AIDS. Some people believe that the disease is a making of the government, meant to eliminate the Africans, Homosexuals, and the Africa-Americans who many perceive to be sexually hyperactive. Others still say that God in a bid to curse and punish the world sent this disease to people and especially the promiscuous lot. Others says that virgins are safe from the disease, while others believe that when they have sex with a virgin they will find cure from the disease. However, these claims are scientifically unsound for there is no research available to validate them. Another grave misconception is that, two HIV-positive people do not need to use any protective measures because they are already infected. The danger with this mistaken idea is that the individuals may end up contracting more strains of the virus and exposing them to more dangers and complications leading to the development of full-blown AIDS. Others believe that one can contract HIV from the toilet seats, hugging an infected person, eating from the same plate with an infected person, kissing and even shaking hands. Unfortunately, all these are misconceptions because the claims laid therein do to have any scientific proof. Misconceptions About Evolution Many creationists believe that evolution does not exist or no one has seen it. However, other creationists agree with scientists that there has been a change in gene composition over time; this is evident in the fact that some insects develop resistance to some insecticides with time. Some creationists see sense in evolution because of such facts, but they still hold that evolutionist should not use this to justify the origin of all living things from a common ancestor. Another evolution misconception is that evolution is just a theory that science has not proved it. Scientists say that by the fact that it is called evolution theory does not mean that it is not real or factual but a set of principles, like other laws in science, which pass for theories yet they are facts. Biological Misconceptions In Biology, some people believe that a duck’s quack does not have an echo. All sound however give echoes, it is only that a human ear may not easily hear some echoes. The belief that the goldfish’s memory is three seconds long is untrue. Claims that sex crosses men’s mind after every seven seconds are that; claims. This is a great exaggeration, especially now that there is no scientific way to authenticate such claims. Other Misconceptions Majority believe that the hair that grows after shaving is stockier and probably darker than the previous one. Some people believe that after one shaves his or her hair, the one that grows is thicker, coarser, or darker than the previous one. This is however not true, as hair grows old, it becomes tapered, an element that disappears with shaving. In addition, old hair is more exposed to the sunlight causing the dark color to fade away, thus explaining why newly grown hair appears darker. Short hair feels coarse because of the sharp unworn ends. Other health misconceptions are that daily drinking of eight glasses of water does not keep one healthier and that even the intake of other water containing drinks like juice are also good since they contain water. The mistake is that the work of pure water in the body is specific, and the functions of other watery drinks are different. Plenty and pure drinking water is very essential for the body functions. The forbidden fruit in the Garden of Eden as recorded in the Christians book; the Bible is assumed to bean apple. Nobody knows what kind of a fruit is was, this is just a misconception. As a result, many people do not like apples. Conclusion In conclusion, the basis of misconceptions is some information obtained from certain articles, or speeches, which people hold as true comes from lack or little knowledge. It is therefore important that people get to search and find facts and the truth of what they believe before holding to it as final. Many people hold misconceptions strongly, and this may have bad results especially when practiced. The common old saying little knowledge is dangerous underscores the origin of many misconceptions. Misconceptions Concept Essay

Lorenzo Software: National IT Programme in the NHS Report

National IT Programme Projects have become one of the dominant approaches of managing and accomplishing diverse activities across the private and public sectors. Despite their contribution in attaining the desired goal, projects are characterised by varying degrees of complexity. Kerzner and Belack (2010) cite uncertainty, complexity, and uniqueness, instability, and value conflict as the core characteristics of a project environment. Over the past few decades, governments and private entities have focused on improving their efficiency and effectiveness by implementing diverse changes in different projects (Kerzner 2009). Despite its commitment to improving service delivery, the success of the project is entirely based on the effectiveness with which project management methodologies and concepts are adopted. Andongndou (2009) asserts that most of the projects fail to attain the intended goals. Thus, they lead to an extensive waste of resources. A classic case of project failure entails the multibillion projects that are aimed at implementing Information Technology within the National Health Service in the UK. This report entails a critical review concerning the organisation of the National IT Programme by the NHS in the UK. The report is based on the methodologies and concepts that the NHS should have considered during the project delivery process. Review of project management methodologies and concepts The National IT Programme, which was launched by the UK government in 2008, experienced significant challenges that affected its delivery. A report that was released by the National Audit Office cited project delay as one of the issues that affected its delivery. According to Brewer and Dittman (2013), successful completion of a project is greatly dependent on the extent to which good project management practices, tools, and techniques are adopted. Charavat (2003) emphasises that projects that are being undertaken in the contemporary environment require effective integration and a high degree of innovativeness compared to the situation in the past decade. The need to adopt effective project methodologies have been necessitated by different drivers such as shortening project schedules, improving the quality of the project, enhancing stakeholder participation, reducing change, and trimming down project costs. Kliem, Ludin, and Robertson (2009) are of the view that effective project management requires project managers to undertake six major functions, which include leading, defining the project’s goals, planning, controlling, and organising. Available literature cites diverse methodologies and concepts that project managers should consider. Some of the appropriate methodologies and concepts that NHS should have taken into consideration in implementing the IT programme are evaluated herein. Project Management Body of Knowledge [PMBOK] In the course of implementing the National IT Programme, project managers should have appreciated the importance of developing optimal knowledge on several project management areas. This move would have led to the development of a methodical approach in planning, executing, controlling, and closing of the project. To achieve this objective, project managers should have taken into account the concepts that are outlined by the PMBOK, which comprise the best project management practices. The effectiveness of PMBOK in enhancing project outcome arises from the fact that it comprises diverse management disciplines. Some of the project management knowledge areas related to the management of risk, cost, integration, procurement, quality, communication, human resource, time, and scope. The case study shows that challenges characterised the implementation of the National IT Programme by the NHS because of lack of adequate expertise on the project management knowledge areas. Time management The process of implementing the project was delayed for over two years. Because of the project delay, the scheme was expected to take four more years. The completion date was set at 2014-2015. Therefore, not all NHS Trusts in the UK would deploy the new care record systems as it was initially expected. This situation indicated the existence of poor project time management in the process of implementing the IT project. The different Care Trusts in the UK in which the IT programme was intended to be launched did not comply with the set plan for uploading patients’ records into the IT system. Mukherjee (2006) cites time conflict as one of the major challenges that project managers face. Such conflicts arise from delays in initiating the various project tasks, hence affecting the attainment of the desired goal. Developing expertise on time management can be attained by incorporating effective practices such as identifying critical paths, lags, and slack time. Additionally, to succeed in managing project time, project managers must ensure that the various project activities are optimally identified. The process of defining the project activities should be comprehensive. This requirement underscores the importance of designing an effective work breakdown structure [WBS]. The WBS ensures that the project is decomposed into small work packages. Other tools and techniques that the project manager should have considered in defining project activities in implementing the National IT project include developing templates, which include a standard activity list. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More By defining the project activities, the project manager can define clear project deliverables. Moreover, project tasks should be sequenced. This process involves determining and documenting dependencies between the identified project activities. Activity sequencing is also imperative in determining the leads and lags in the process of the actual implementation of the project plan. Nejam (2013) asserts that activity sequencing can either be conducted manually or using project management software such as the Microsoft Project Server. A comprehensive assessment of the type and quantity of resources that are necessary to undertake the various project tasks should be identified. Project cost The process of reforming the national NHS by implementing a National IT project was expected to consume a substantial amount of financial resources. The preliminary cost of deploying the project was estimated to be £12.7billion. However, the project has continuously experienced a considerable increment in the cost of the operation. Since its inception, the cost of the project has increased by £678million, which represents 11% of the core contracts. One of the factors that have led to the augmentation in the cost of the project entails the purchase of the increased functionality. Changes of project suppliers have also contributed to the increment in the total cost of the project. Furthermore, changes in the project have arisen from expansion in the project scope. A report by the National Audit Office shows that an additional £666million were utilised because of an increment in project scope. For example, the cost increased by an additional £245million, which originated from the incorporation of the Picture Archiving and Communications Systems into the project, which was not originally budgeted. The above change in the cost of the project indicates poor management of project cost. Schwalbe (2006) cites cost as one of the major constraints that are encountered in managing projects. Moreover, Schwalbe (2006) asserts that projects can stall because of poor cost management. Thus, project managers must ensure that the projects are completed within the set budget. To improve the likelihood of completing the National IT Programme, NHS should have considered incorporating several project cost management techniques. First, NHS should have undertaken effective and extensive cost estimation by approximating the resources that were required to undertake a particular project task. Approximation aids in identifying the possible variations in the cost estimates. This goal was attained by incorporating diverse costing alternatives. The project manager could consider different cost estimates in the project cost management process. Some of the estimates included budgetary estimates, definitive estimates, and rough order of magnitude [ROM]. Budgetary estimation This technique involves aggregating the estimated cost of the different project packages to establish the baseline to be used in assessing project performance. Schwalbe (2013) confirms that budgetary estimates are -10% and 25% accurate. This observation means that the actual cost of a particular project is usually 10% less or 25% higher than the budgetary estimate. Rough order of magnitude This technique entails establishing a rough estimate of the cost of the project. ROM is usually undertaken before the commencement of the project, for example, 3-4 years before the actual project commencement. However, the accuracy of this technique is relatively low. The actual cost of the project using this technique can be 50% less or 100% higher. The ROM technique is mainly adopted to make project selection decisions. Schwalbe (2013, p. 345) emphasises, ‘in IT project estimates. The accuracy range is often much wider because of the cost overruns that are associated with IT projects’. Definitive estimates This technique is characterised by a high degree of accuracy. Under this technique, the cost of the project is based on accurate estimates. In addition to the above techniques, the project manager should have considered incorporating diverse cost budgeting inputs such as the project cost statement, work breakdown structure, project schedule, and contracts in undertaking cost budgeting. The project scope statement would have enabled the project manager to develop a high degree of consciousness regarding project funding constraints that were imposed by the UK government on the National IT Programme. Conversely, the work breakdown configuration would have offered the scheme boss an insight into the association between various job deliverables and the requirements of a particular task. The project schedule would have formed the basis of comparing or aggregating the cost of the project with the calendar periods. We will write a custom Report on Lorenzo Software: National IT Programme in the NHS specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Project procurement management Besides the above project knowledge management areas, the project manager who was charged with the responsibility of overseeing the implementation of the National IT Programme should have considered integrating effective procurement practices. The case cited the existence of contractual disputes as one of the major hindrances that affected the delivery of the project. Project procurement project constitutes a fundamental component in project management because it aids in ensuring effective contract administration. Furthermore, project procurement management aids in ensuring that project contracts that are being undertaken by external parties are effectively administered to increase the probability of attaining the desired project outcomes. In its commitment to implement the National IT Programme, the UK National Health System incorporated different types of contracts. One of the contracts that the UK NHS adopted entails fixed-price or lump-sum contracts. Under the lump-sum contracts, the NHS paid its suppliers only after they had successfully delivered the desired project outcomes. Despite the adoption of this type of the lump-sum contract, the NHS occasionally delayed in transferring payment to suppliers. In some situations, delays in payments were exceeded for over 12 months after the successful deployment of the IT systems to the various NHS Trusts. The NHS also integrated cost-reimbursements contracts. These contracts entailed a disbursement or compensation to the vendor for the real cost, in addition to another charge that usually represented the vendor’s revenue. Cost- reimbursement contracts are usually characterised by different incentives, which are aimed at motivating suppliers. The incentive clauses are based on the extent to which the suppliers attain or exceed predetermined project targets. Some of the common cost-reimbursement contracts include cost-plus-fixed-fee [CPFF], cost-plus- fee [CPF], and cost-plus-fixed-fee [CPFF]. Under the CPF, suppliers have reimbursed a certain percentage of undertaking the contract by a predetermined agreement. Conversely, Schwalbe (2006, p. 278) asserts, ‘the CPFF contract entails reimbursement of allowable costs for performing the contract work where the supplier receives a fixed fee payment that is calculated as a percentage of the estimated project costs’. In its contract administration, NHS incorporated a clause referred to as ‘delay deductions’ in which the supplier incurred a certain deduction for missing key milestone deductions. By 31st March 2008, NHS had deducted £26.3million of which the department retained £ 9.5million while the rest was available to be earned by the suppliers. Pfeifer (2002) cites such deductions as an effective strategy in deterring contractors from failing to deliver project milestones. Project human resource management Success in delivering the target project outcome involves a collaborative effort between diverse stakeholders. Project stakeholders are both internal and external. Irrespective of their nature, the importance of developing and incorporating expertise about managing human resource during the project delivery process cannot be underestimated (Nigam 2005). Project managers have to ensure that internal and external stakeholders are optimally managed. Moreover, project roles and responsibilities should be effectively assigned to project team members depending on their experience. The case showed that the process of implementing the new IT system in the countries NHS was adversely affected by poor human resource planning. The leadership of the project was largely undertaken by the NHS Chief Executive Officer, which indicated that it was centralised. Moreover, the future leadership of the project was unknown because it had been adversely affected by the turnover amongst the top leadership. Rehman, Mahmood, Salleh, and Amin (2011) assert that effective human resource planning is paramount in enhancing smooth project delivery. This goal could have been attained by ensuring optimal interaction between the various project roles and responsibilities. Salvendy (2001) affirms that it is essential for project managers to develop a positive relationship with external and internal project stakeholders to enhance its delivery. Such a relationship can be nurtured by appreciating the stakeholders’ needs and expectations. Implementation of the National IT Programme was also adversely affected by the poor relationship between the NHS and the project’s subcontractors and suppliers. Thus, the project experienced the withdrawal of some suppliers such as Accenture in 2007, which hindered the project’s adherence to the set project timeframe. It should have identified the various tasks, their duration, cost, respective personnel, and objectives. Besides, it should have hired monitoring and evaluation services to keep every task on the check, as shown in the following Gantt chart. Gantt Chart Project communication NHS should have nurtured effective formal and informal reporting relationships amongst the project team members. On the contrary, project communication was centralised in the NHS Connecting for Health’s National Programme Office as opposed to being an undertaking of the wider department. This situation limited openness amongst the project team members. Satzinger and Burd (2008) emphasise the importance of designing a project communication plan to ensure effective delivery of the scheduled project activities. Moreover, the communication plan enhances the degree of collaboration between project team members. Not sure if you can write a paper on Lorenzo Software: National IT Programme in the NHS by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Successful implementation of a project depends on the degree to which the target clients/patients and internal stakeholders are involved in the project. Schwalbe (2006) cites communication as one of the fundamental aspects of enhancing successful project delivery. Lack of customer/client involvement might reduce the continued usage of the intended product, such as the Summary Care Record. Communication planning is imperative in guaranteeing that project stakeholders receive the required relevant project status in an appropriate mode. NHS ensured that patients were adequately involved in the project right from the initial stages. This goal was attained by communicating the objectives of the project to patients. Moreover, NHS succeeded in assuring patients’ security of their data, which increased the rate of participation in the project. The diagram below shows the communication network that the NHS could have been adopted to guarantee maximum and effective communication. Fig. 2: Communication Network Diagram Report on Lorenzo and Lorenzo Bury Implementation In its quest to improve operational service efficiency, the NHS in the UK undertook a National IT project that was aimed at implementing electronic management of patients’ documents. This goal was to be attained by implementing software known as Lorenzo. NHS Bury is one of the departments that undertook the implementation of the new software in 2009. NHS Bury focused on ensuring that the new software provided a positive experience to the user. To succeed in implementing the new software, NHS Bury should have considered enhancing the health of the project. Rossberg (2014) emphasises that improving the health of a project is imperative in promoting the attainment of the desired project outcome. Organisations should consider different aspects to succeed in improving the health of the project. The project manager should have assessed whether the project could be delivered within the set timeframe, the extent to which the predetermined project goals had been attained, and whether the project could be delivered within the set budget. To improve the outcome of the new project, NHS Bury should have taken into account several aspects as highlighted herein. Project management plan The process of implementing the new National IT Programme by NHS Bury should have been based on a project management plan. Schwalbe (2013) contends that a project management plan ensures optimal integration and coordination of information across the diverse project management knowledge areas within an organisation. Therefore, the project management plan increases the level of project coordination, control, and execution. Furthermore, it also outlines the project communication mechanism and project assumptions amongst other project elements during the project delivery phase. The project plan also acts as the foundation upon which progress is evaluated. To implement the new IT technology successfully, NHS Bury should have incorporated the following elements in the project management plan. Project organisation chart NHS Bury should have developed a comprehensive organisational chart outlining the various stakeholders. The organisational chart would have established clear command systems and project tasks. Process-related information A document that clearly outlines the major processes to be undertaken in delivering the project should be outlined. In this case, NHS Bury should have developed a document outlining the systematic approach to be undertaken in upgrading the handling of patients’ documents. Project objectives The project manager who was charged with the responsibility of implementing the Lorenzo software at NHS Bury should have developed clear project objectives. Project controls The project manager should have appreciated the fact that projects are subject to change (Ghuman, 2010). Therefore, effective project control measures should have been integrated. One of the project control measures that should have been considered entails a periodic review of the project progress such as monthly. The reviews would have provided the project manager with an insight into the overall progress of the project. Thus, it would have been possible to make the necessary changes to the project. To succeed in undertaking project control, NHS Bury should have considered integrating a configuration management system, which entailed an information system that was aimed at tracking the necessary changes that should have been undertaken on the project (Stonebumer, Goguen

San Jose University Cultural & Societal Influences on Identities Essay

San Jose University Cultural & Societal Influences on Identities Essay.

I’m working on a english writing question and need an explanation to help me learn.

Describe how identities (i.e. religious, gender, ethnic, racial, class, sexual orientation, disability, and/or age) are shaped by cultural and societal influences within contexts of equality and inequality.Consider your identity as a future engineer. How is your identity as a computer or software engineer shaped by cultural and societal influences within contexts of equality and inequality? Taking a subset of this as an example, your response might include a discussion of the equalities or inequalities based on your gender and age within the societal influences of the computer/software engineering industry that will affect your future identity as an engineer (min 300 words). at least 2 example . double space!rubric:1 Information is logically organized. All paragraphs include introductory sentence, explanations or details, concluding sentence with a transition.2 Information clearly related to the main topic, included consistent supporting details and/or examples. Discussed how the student’s identity was shaped by cultural or societal influences with specific details. Student gives 2 specific examples in detail.3 Clearly stated and appropriately focused.
San Jose University Cultural & Societal Influences on Identities Essay