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Discussion Question:

You are the Director of Nursing in an Oncology Unit in a large teaching medical center that is university-affiliated. You are concerned that the IV catheter insertion technique and orientation program currently being used with new registered nurses is not as effective as other methods. How would you perform a systematic review of the evidence on this subject? How would you design a new clinical practice guideline for the facility once the systematic review is complete?
DeVry University E Marketing Ethics and The Marketing Mix Discussion.

write a brief paragraph for each of the e-commerce ethical issues below, explaining how you will address each one.Avoiding deceptive, unfair, or offensive online marketingPreventing price discrimination based upon Internet accessibilityEnsuring the privacy and security of customer dataReducing the climate impact of the product’s distributionYour response must address all four ethical issues, should be at least 200 words, and should be submitted as a Microsoft Word document in APA sixth edition format. For more details, see the Grading Rubric below.RUBRICWeek 7: Video Analysis | E-Marketing Ethics and the Marketing MixWeek 7: Video Analysis | E-Marketing Ethics and the Marketing MixCriteriaRatingsPtsThis criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeDOCUMENTATION AND FORMATTINGPoints are logical and well supported by evidence and research. It addresses the concepts, theories, and material covered for this assignment.10.0 ptsThis criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeORGANIZATION AND COHESIVENESSThe assignment is well organized, has topical flow, and uses appropriate vocabulary, concepts, and theories. Paragraph transitions are present and logical flow is maintained throughout the assignment.10.0 ptsThis criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeEDITINGQuality work will be free of any grammatical errors. Proper sentence structure, punctuation, and spelling is used. No editing or revision is required. It follows APA latest edition standards.20.0 ptsThis criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeCONTENTAll key elements of the assignment are covered in a substantive way. Major points are stated clearly, supported by details (examples or analysis), and organized logically. The paper links theory to relevant examples of current experience and industry practice. Quality work will have a significant scope and depth of research to support any statements and will employ sound use of reasoning and logic to reinforce conclusions. It demonstrates critical thinking about the topic and provides the student’s own impressions and interpretations of research. Relevant illustrations or examples were presented.40.0 ptsTotal Points: 80.0PreviousNext
DeVry University E Marketing Ethics and The Marketing Mix Discussion

Miami Dade College Impact of Political Economic and Non Religious Factors Discussion.

The Question is:”The economic and social changes that occurred during the fifteenth and early sixteenth century inevitably led to the Protestant Reformation.” Using specific examples, discuss the impact of political, economic, and other non-religious factors as causes of the sixteenth century religious reformationsa minimum of 700 wordsParagraphs in an essay are not numbered. Any questions that are associated with an assigned reading are there to serve as a guide for your discussion.Your discussion should incorporate all of the information from the documents and or textbook, and outside sources as one essay.All statements must be supported, and all sources including your textbook and assigned readings must be cited in the essay, and included in your reference list. Failure to do so constitutes Plagiarism, and the college has strict policies and penalties for failure to comply. Under the Student Writing Resources tab you will find links to sites that review how to format a paper or essay. I recommend that students use APA to format their essay. Since you are not writing a Research paper, you do not have to include an Abstract. Students should ask their instructor which format style they prefer you to use.
Miami Dade College Impact of Political Economic and Non Religious Factors Discussion

art 100 discussion most be 18 pictures taken from your phone not google example I can send you one example for picture and explain about the picture

art 100 discussion most be 18 pictures taken from your phone not google example I can send you one example for picture and explain about the picture. I need support with this Art & Design question so I can learn better.

1. Find images/objects of a variety of mediums/methods/medias in your daily life. Not from the internet. You must take photographs of the actual images/objects.
2. You must indicate in your description the Mediums and
Methods/Medias from the list below:

Mediums: Drawing, Painting, Printmaking, Carving, Modeling, Assembling
Methods and Medias: kinetic, relief

After you have collected at least 18 examples, make a visual diary (tile images) of all you have found. Include this visual diary as a series of a few Instagram layout “pictures”. Please describe the Mediums or Methods and Medias that you are identifying.
3. Each “tiled image” should have a few photos, that are all describing the same visual element. Don’t have Instagram, that’s ok- you can do this on a Google Slide and then upload the pdf version of the slide image.
art 100 discussion most be 18 pictures taken from your phone not google example I can send you one example for picture and explain about the picture

Santa Monica College Doubleness in A Midsummer Nights Dream Discussion

essay writer Santa Monica College Doubleness in A Midsummer Nights Dream Discussion.

I’m working on a english question and need a sample draft to help me study.

GoalOpinion/AssertionPostRead the criticism in this module [below], entitled, “Dream, Illusion, and Doubling in A Midsummer Night’s Dream” and share your ideas about the criticism in a discussion post (you MUST quote the passage). The post is meant to be a response specifically to THIS CRITICISM. So write at least three full paragraphs [or more if you wish] on this criticism [in relation to the play] for the full 20 points. GradingClick on the rubric to see how the discussion will be graded.Dream, illusion and doubling in A Midsummer Night’s DreamAttribution:Article written by:Emma Smith (Links to an external site.)Themes:Comedies (Links to an external site.), Magic, illusion and the supernatural (Links to an external site.)Published:15 Mar 2016Having one actor play more than role was convenient for Shakespeare, whose acting company was limited in size, but doubling also enabled him to intensify the atmosphere of his plays, and to make connections and contrasts between scenes and storylines. Emma Smith explores the way that the doubling in A Midsummer Night’s Dream heightens the play’s dreamlike and fantastical elements.Shakespeare’s acting company, the Chamberlain’s Men, employed a regular troupe of around 12 men and four boys. But Shakespeare’s plays typically involve up to twice as many characters. The construction of his plays makes evident that he was always conscious of the solution: doubling, the practice by which a single actor could take on more than one role in the play. At its simplest, all this requires is that the doubled characters do not appear in the same scene, and that there is time between one character’s exit and the actor’s next entrance for any necessary costume changes. However, doubling was not simply a practical necessity, but a representational technique that could also make connections and contrasts between distinct characters or worlds.The interpretative implications of actors doubling have their most interesting exploration in A Midsummer Night’s Dream (Links to an external site.). It seems likely that the Athenian court of Theseus and Hippolyta would have been doubled in the fairy world of Oberon and Titania, and that the master of the revels Philostrate might well have reappeared in the woods as his mischievous alter ego Puck or Robin Goodfellow. (Peter Brook’s landmark production at Stratford in 1970 revived these doublings for the modern theatre.) Perhaps even the fairies Peaseblossom, Cobweb and their fellows are doubled with a similar sized group who operate in a distinct part of the play: those ‘rude mechanicals’ who are rehearsing ‘Pyramus and Thisbe’. Everyone, it seems, in Dream is always someone else as well.Photograph of Alan Howard and John Kane in Peter Brook’s production of A Midsummer Night’s DreamPeter Brook’s 1970 production of A Midsummer Night’s Dream dazzled audiences with a ground-breaking new interpretation. The result, in the words of one critic, was ‘a box of theatrical miracles’.View images from this item (1) (Links to an external site.)Usage terms © Donald Cooper / (Links to an external site.)The Merry conceited Humors of Bottom the Weaver, 1661A list of Dream characters showing the doubling of parts.View images from this item (13) (Links to an external site.)Usage terms Public Domain (Links to an external site.)Dreams, sex, and realityDoubling these characters opens up a number of suggestive readings of the text, many of which chime with more modern ideas about the work of dreams. Freud wrote in his The Interpretation of Dreams that in a dream ‘one person can be substituted for another’: perhaps the fairy world is the unconscious of Athens, where the repressed anger of Theseus’s domination over his captured Amazonian bride breaks out into the quarrel between Oberon and Titania, and where the stifling patriarchy represented by Egeus’s ultimatum of obedience or the convent is swept aside for the thrilling dangers of sexual freedom. In the topsy-turvy dreamscape of the woods, lovers swap allegiances and the fairy queen couples with a donkey-man: the dark side of romantic desire is revealed to be disturbingly carnal. Bottom recalls his erotic encounter with Titania in her bower as ‘a dream, past the wit of man, to say, what dream it was’ (4.1.205–06). Awaking from a dream that is more akin to a nightmare, Hermia ‘quake[s] with fear’ to recall a distinctly phallic snake that ‘eat my heart away’ (2.2.148–49). The action of the play, framed in the opening scene as the frustrating infill before the marriage night of Theseus and Hippolyta, reveals that sexual desire is troublingly anarchic and urgent – threatening the play’s own generic movement towards romantic comedy ending in multiple marriages.Photograph of Vivien Leigh as Titania from A Midsummer Night’s Dream, 1937Vivien Leigh starring as Titania in A Midsummer Night’s Dream in 1937.View images from this item (1) (Links to an external site.)Usage terms Courtesy of the Mander and Mitchenson collection at the University of Bristol and ArenaPAL (Links to an external site.)Boydell’s Collection of Prints illustrating Shakespeare’s worksTitania’s awakening. A Midsummer Night’s Dream, Act 4, Scene 1 by Henry Fuseli.View images from this item (24) (Links to an external site.)Usage terms Public Domain (Links to an external site.)Victorian illustrated editions of Shakespeare’s plays neutralised the erotic charge of this play, rewriting it to make its fairies dainty creatures from the nursery and establishing A Midsummer Night’s Dream as a play particularly suitable for children. They couldn’t have been more wrong. Shakespeare makes his love-potion derive from a flower transformed by Cupid’s arrow into the distinctly suggestive ‘before milk-white, now purple with love’s wound’ (2.1.167). An illustration of Robin Goodfellow from the 1620s shows a hairy-legged satyr sporting an impressive phallus: to be puckish in the early modern period was thus to be involved in sexual, rather than innocent, forms of mischief. The Polish director and critic Jan Kott saw A Midsummer Night’s Dream as ‘the most erotic of Shakespeare’s plays’, but he saw this as a dark force: ‘in no other comedy or tragedy of his, except Troilus and Cressida, is the eroticism expressed so brutally …The lovers are exchangeable. The partner is now nameless and faceless. He or she just happens to be the nearest’. The love-tragedy performed at the end of the play for the marriage celebrations, ‘Pyramus and Thisbe’ is often hilarious on stage, but it, too, offers a kind of structural or generic double. The tragic outcome for these performed lovers hints at the darker associations of sex and death, the unacknowledged or suppressed dream unconscious of romantic comedy.Robin Goodfellow, His Mad Pranks and Merry Jests, 1639The folkloric figure Robin Goodfellow depicted with horns, goat legs and a phallus.View images from this item (43) (Links to an external site.)Usage terms Public Domain (Links to an external site.)Double-visionReviewing their adventures in the woods, Hermia reflects that ‘Methinks I see these things with parted eye, / When everything seems double’ (4.1.188–89). Everything does indeed seem double in a plot marked by duplications rather than by distinctiveness. By mistakenly applying a love-potion to the eyes of the male Athenians, Robin Goodfellow confuses the play’s couples, making both Lysander and Demetrius turn their attentions from Hermia to Helena. The strong suggestion here is that the lovers are interchangeable: the convention of ‘love at first sight’ is being satirised. Demetrius has turned from Helena to Hermia back to Helena again (perhaps still under magical influence); Lysander turns from Hermia to Helena back to Hermia. These confusions, however, merely amplify the play’s apparent disinclination properly to distinguish between the two men or to establish them as significantly different characters. Hermia is willing to enter a convent rather than marry her father’s choice, Demetrius, but the play does nothing to indicate why she should so strongly prefer Lysander. Even Hermia herself is able only to claim that Lysander is just as good as Demetrius. ‘Demetrius is a worthy gentleman’, Theseus admonishes. ‘So is Lysander’, she replies (1.1.152–53).Poisons, sleep-inducing plants and love potions in Gerard’s HerballA lust-causing plant in a 16th-century herbal.View images from this item (20) (Links to an external site.)Usage terms The printed text is Public Domain (Links to an external site.).The handwritten annotations are Public Domain in most countries other than the UK (Links to an external site.).The fact of actors playing dual roles makes doubleness part of the imaginative technology of the play in performance; the apparent swappability of the lovers introduces doubleness as one of its thematic challenges to romantic comedy. At the micro-level, the language of the play is also preoccupied with the same structural ideas. Over half the lines in A Midsummer Night’s Dream are rhyming (across Shakespeare’s plays only Love’s Labour’s Lost has a higher proportion). This high proportion of rhyme goes along with repetitive rhetorical structures such as parallelism (repeating the same grammar, rhythm or construction), and a more specific rhetorical device, isocolon (repeating syntactic structures of the same length). In this example from the play’s first scene, we see parallelism, isocolon and rhyme working together to emphasise the mirroring or doubling of the two female characters:HERMIA I frown upon him, yet he loves me still.HELENA O that your frowns would teach my smiles such skill!HERMIA I give him curses, yet he gives me loveHELENA O that my prayers could such affection moveHERMIA The more I hate, the more he follows me.HELENA The more I love, the more he hateth me. (1.1.194–99)Just as Freud later identified the dreamworld as place ‘where ideas can be linked by verbal similarities’, so these rhyming and parallel lines are a good example of the way in which Shakespeare’s sentence- or speech-level construction often echoes in miniature the wider concerns of his plays.Medieval dreambook: Somnia DanielisA guidebook for interpreting dreams, showing the relevant entry for Hermia’s dream of a snake.View images from this item (6) (Links to an external site.)Usage termsPublic Domain in most countries other than the UK (Links to an external site.).Waking and DreamingIn A Midsummer Night’s Dream almost every character falls asleep at some point, thus rasing the possibility that what happens afterwards is their dream rather than reality. In the sequence of awaking at the end of Act 4, where Titania, the lovers and then Bottom are all roused from sleep, Demetrius wonders about the distinction between sleeping and waking: ‘Are you sure / That we are awake? It seems to me / That yet we sleep, we dream.’ (4.1.192–93) Bottom boasts that the heroic version of his own exploits will be called ‘Bottom’s Dream’. And in the epilogue which ends the play, Robin Goodfellow suggests that the real sleepers were the audience:If we shadows have offended,Think but this and all is mended:That you have but slumbered hereWhile these visions did appear.And this weak and idle theme,No more yielding but a dream. (5.1.423–28)The whole play, Robin suggests, is our dream – like modern Hollywood, the early modern theatre is a kind of dream factory, providing theatregoers with an escapist fantasy from which they only reluctantly awake to return to their humdrum lives.Dream theory: illuminated manuscript of Macrobius’s Commentary on The Dream of ScipioThis influential classical treatise considers the relation between dreams and reality.View images from this item (1) (Links to an external site.)Usage terms © MS Typ 7, Houghton Library, Harvard University.Photograph of A Midsummer Night’s Dream directed by Peter Brook, 1970Peter Brook’s 1970 production of A Midsummer Night’s Dream.View images from this item (1) (Links to an external site.)Usage terms © Donald Cooper / (Links to an external site.)For modern viewers brought up on Freudian ideas about dreams, A Midsummer Night’s Dream’s repeated games with doubleness and illusion seem strikingly contemporary. But the Elizabethans had their own book entitled The Interpretation of Dreams, published in 1576 by Thomas Hill. Early modern dreams tended to be understood as premonitions, but at least one contemporary saw them as processing the psychic overload of waking life: dreams were, for Thomas Nashe, ‘nothing else but a bubbling scum or froth of the fancy, which the day hath left undigested; or an after-feast made of the fragments of idle imaginations’. In terms reminiscent of the play, he identifies the dream as ‘moonshine on a wall’: unremarkable elements transformed by imagination – just like the theatre itself. The theatre is to reality what the dream is to waking: what’s so striking about A Midsummer Night’s Dream is the way it dissolves both these boundaries.The Terrors of the Night by Thomas Nash, 1594Nashe’s sceptical dismissal of dreams and fairies as ‘fragments of idle imaginations’.View images from this item (4) (Links to an external site.)ATTRIBUTION: Usage terms Public Domain (Links to an external site.)Written by Emma Smith (Links to an external site.)Emma Smith is Professor of Shakespeare Studies at Hertford College Oxford. She has published on many aspects of Shakespeare and his contemporaries in historical, bibliographic and performance contexts. Her books include The Cambridge Introduction to Shakespeare and Shakespeare’s First Folio: Four Centuries of an Iconic Book. Her podcast lectures, ‘Approaching Shakespeare’ can be downloaded from University of Oxford podcasts (Links to an external site.) or iTunesU.
Santa Monica College Doubleness in A Midsummer Nights Dream Discussion

ECO 4451 Trade Deficit US Economy and Trade Imbalances Discussion

ECO 4451 Trade Deficit US Economy and Trade Imbalances Discussion.

Scott, “Trade Deficit with Mexico has resulted…”1. By 2010, how many jobs were supported by trade with Mexico? How many were lost by trade with Mexico?2. How many jobs are expected to be lost due to the FTA with South Korea and Columbia?Mallaby, “What China could learn from Richard Nixon”1. What were some of the ways Nixon tried to prop up the U.S. economy?2. Under the last lesson China can learn from Nixon, what is the problem that both China and Nixon faced?Stiglitz, “America has little to teach China about a steady economy”1. Talks of a currency appreciation center on the trade imbalances that the U.S. experiences with China. What effect will this appreciation have on the imbalances?2. What can help alleviate (or at least keep it from going up) U.S. trade imbalances?3. How can an elimination of China’s trade surplus harm the U.S.?
ECO 4451 Trade Deficit US Economy and Trade Imbalances Discussion

The African Traditional Religions Explicatory Essay

The African Traditional Religions Introduction The religious beliefs practiced by African people differ from Christianity in many aspects. First of all, they emerged in specific and rather secluded communities and for a very long time they did not come into contact with other cultures or religions (Crafford, 1996, p 2). Secondly, they are not unified and written down; there are no canonical sources which would lay down the core principles of African traditional religions, their ritualistic procedures, and ethics. This paper is aimed at discussing the main tenets of African traditional religions. In particular, it is necessary to critique them from the perspective of Biblical teachings. We need to identify those values, beliefs and practices which are consistent with Christian principles. Moreover, it is vital to pinpoint those aspects of African religions which contradict Biblical teaching. On the basis of this analysis one can work out strategies of evangelizing a follower of an African Traditional Religion. Beliefs, Values and Practices in harmony with Biblical teachings Overall, it is possible to single out several typical characteristics of African Traditional Religions, they are as follows: the belief in mystical powers; the belief in spirits; the belief in gods; the belief in Supreme being (Turaki, 2000, n. p.). First of all, we need to speak about African conception of God or Supreme Being who is considered to be the origin or the primal cause of life (MBiti, 1989, n. p.). Certainly, unlike Christianity, African traditional religion is not monotheistic, since African people worship lesser divinities and spirit. Nonetheless, they do acknowledge the existence of a Supreme Being who is involved in the creation of the universe. More importantly, we should mention those attributes which are ascribed to God. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More He is eternal, omnipotent, and good (MBiti, 1989). These beliefs are quite consistent with Judeo-Christian tradition and Biblical narrative. Apart from that, it is important some values and practices related to African traditional religion. One of them is respectful or even revered attitude to the ancestors (Turaki, 2000). This respectful attitude is not always analogous to worshipping and African people do not always attribute supernatural qualities to their ancestors. To some degree, this practice is reconcilable with Christian outlook. To prove this point, one can refer to one of the Ten Commandments, “Honor your father and your mother” (English Standard Version, Exodus 20:12). This maxim is mentioned in the New Testament as well. The most important thing is that according to African Traditional Religion, the main task of a human being is to achieve harmony with one another and nature. Beliefs, Values and Practices in conflict with Biblical teachings There are several aspects of African Traditional religions which are inconsistent with Biblical teachings. One of them is the mythological interpretation of time. The thing is that African people regard history as a cycle that is going to continue forever (Mbiti, 1989). This belief implies that human beings are deprived of power or free will. Another thing which is very important is the destiny of the soul. According to the beliefs of African people, when a person dies, he/she turns into a spirit that can act as an intermediary between God and man (Mbiti, 1989). Such vision of the soul is contrary to Christian tradition which lays strong emphasis on such notions as paradise and hell. We will write a custom Essay on The African Traditional Religions specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The action of human beings are not rewarded or punished in the afterlife, and this is the main difference of African Traditional Religions from Christianity. One should bear in mind that such perception of the soul can result in moral irresponsibility. In order to show the perils of such a worldview, Christian missionaries should refer to numerous passages in the New Testament describing the afterlife of a human soul, for instance, the Parable of the rich man and Lazarus (English Standard Version: Luke 16: 19). However, the most important difference between Biblical teachings and African religions is the worshipping of divinities and spirits. They are a part of cosmology, and can have direct impact on a person’s life. From Christian perspective, such a belief and practice border on idolatry and contradict the first commandment. Such notion as magic is inherent to African religious practices (Turaki, 2000), and it is not compatible with Abrahamic religions like Christianity. It suggests that a human being can gain supernatural power and become alike to a Supreme Being. In order to correct these beliefs and practices, Christian pastors and missionaries should use the arguments from the Old and the New Testaments that condemn magic and sorcery and show the dangers of trying master the powers of a Supreme Being. Evangelizing a follower of an African traditional religion A person, who tries to evangelize the followers of African traditional religion, must first show that Christianity gives more definitive answers about the moral values of human beings, the interaction with one another and with God. T he key task is to convince them that Christianity provides clear and concise rules that benefit both individual and community. To prove this point, a pastor can refer to Exodus, name the Ten Commandments and to the Sermon on the Mount. It is vital to emphasize the point that Christianity views a human being a creature with free and good will who can resist evil and change the course of events if he/she wants to. Not sure if you can write a paper on The African Traditional Religions by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Christianity not only offers consolation to a person, but explains the ways of self-improvement. These are the main arguments that should be made by Christian missionaries. Moreover, they must be supported by real-life examples that would eloquently demonstrate the application of Biblical teaching to everyday problems encountered by people. Without them, one will find it very difficult to evangelize a follower of an African traditional religion. Conclusion African Traditional Religions share with Christianity the belief in God or Supreme Being who is omnipotent, omnipresent, all-knowing, and ,most importantly, good. However, African people do not have monotheistic theology which is the main premise of Abrahamic religions. Furthermore, they regard spirits and lesser divinities as intermediaries between human beings and God. Their religious practices imply that a person can obtain some supernatural powers and that sorcery and magic. This aspect contradicts the main tenets of Christian tradition. The Basics of Islam Introduction Islam is the religion with the second biggest number of followers all over the world succeeded only by Christianity. Its adherents live in the Middle East, northern Africa, south Asia and south East Asia (Anderson, 1985, p 91). Since its founding, Islam has spread from east to west at a rapid rate. This religion has always been closely connected with Christianity, and very often the relations between Muslims and Christians were tense if not hostile. This paper seeks to discuss the origins of Islam, its development, and major beliefs. Moreover, it is necessary to analyze the major similarities and differences between these religions. Finally, the main task is to present a feasible strategy for witnessing to Muslims. Origins and Founder Prophet Muhammad was born in AD 570 in Mecca (Anderson, 1985, p 93). His father Abdullah passed away before his birth. He was brought up by his mother till the age of six when she too passed away leaving him under the care of his grandfather. His grandfather did not live long enough to see his grandson’s teenage and passed away soon. Yet, it has to be admitted that scholars do not know much about the early life of Muhammad. Before prophet hood Prophet Muhammad was commonly known as “the truthful” and “the trustworthy” in Mecca. He felt uncomfortable with the practices of the people of the city and showed no interest in their religious practices, especially idol worshiping (Boa, 1990, p 66). He began prophesying at the age of 40 in Mecca, at that time he received revelations accompanied by seizures (Boa, 1985, p 68). His revelations were accepted by a relatively few number of people, including his wife, Khadijah and cousin, Ali (Boa, 1985, p 68). At the early stages, Mohammed and the small group of newly converted Muslims faced several difficulties and even persecutions at the hands of the pagan Arabs and he decided to go to Medina with his companions. His migration helped him work for spreading Islam in an environment of peace as the people of Medina wholeheartedly welcomed him and promised protection from pagans (Boa, 1985, p 68). Islam gained strength in Medina where many people readily accepted Islam and helped the Muslims gain sufficient man power. Several wars were fought between the pagans and the Muslims during the years of Prophet’s life after migration to Medina. Initially, Muslims used force only to defend themselves but in later year many conquests took place and many areas were brought under the control of Muslims (Boa, 1985, p 67). Muhammad lived for 23 years after becoming a prophet. During these years, he established Islam and its social, political, judicial and economic systems all over the land of Arabia. He left behind The Quran and his traditions (Ahadees) for the Muslims to refer to for guidance. Overall, it is possible to say that Muhammad came into prominence when he explicitly expressed discontent with religious practices of the then Arabic community. However, unlike Jesus, who resisted every form of violence, Mohammad frequently relied on force. Moreover, unlike Jesus, he managed to acquire a high status in the then society during his lifetime and his revelations met widespread recognition of the contemporaries. Beliefs and Practices While discussing the main beliefs and practices of Islam, one should focus on the five pillars on which this religion is based. The fist pillar is the “Kalmah” and its recital. Kalmah postulates that “There is no god but Allah, and Muhammad is his prophet.” (Quran, as cited in Boa, 1985, p 71). Kalmah sets a stress on the monotheism of Islam and the leading status of Mohammad. The second pillar is the “Salat” or prayer. It is mandatory that a Muslim prays a minimum of five times every day. Apart from Salat, there are voluntary prayers which can be performed by an individual. The third mandatory practice of Islam is “Saum” or fasting in the month of Ramadan (the 9th month of the Islamic calendar). Fasting has been prescribed for Muslims to help them gain self-restraint and control over their worldly desires. The fourth pillar is the “Zakat” or obligatory charity. All Muslims who have savings of more than the “Nisab” or prescribed level are obliged to spend 2.5% of their savings in charity (Boa, 1985, p 71). A person has the freedom to spend more than the minimum amount due. Finally, we need to speak about the fifth element of Islam, the “Hajj” or the pilgrimage to Mecca. Hajj or the pilgrimage is an obligation due only on the individuals who can afford both physically and financially to go to the holy cities of Makah and Medina and perform the pilgrimage. Those who do not possess the resources to fulfill this obligation are spared. Articles of Faith in Islam At this point, it is necessary to discuss the main tenets of Muslim faith. The first article of faith is “Tawheed” or to believe in the oneness of Almighty God. The second obligation of a Muslim is to believe in angels of Allah. As it has been mentioned before, Quran sets emphasis on monotheism of Islam and its close relations with Abrahamic religions like Christianity and Judaism (Boa, 1985, p 71). Nonetheless, one should take into account that Muslims regard the concept of Trinity as polytheistic; this is one of the major differences between the two religions. According to the third article of faith, a Muslim must acknowledge 28 prophets, who are mentioned in the Old Testaments and in the Gospels (Boa, 1985, p 70). More importantly, the fourth tenet of Islamic tenet is the belief in all the prophets sent by Allah to this world. Muslims believe that all the prophets were sent with the same message from Allah and all of them are equal. The Holy Quran discourages any kind of distinction to be made amongst the messengers or the prophets of Allah (Boa, 1985, 71). This principle is very important since it enables to draw connections between Islam and Christianity, especially the teachings of Jesus Christ. The fifth article of faith is the belief in the Judgment day. The last or the Judgment day will be the day when all human being will be brought to answer for their doings during their worldly life. Again this is another similarity between Islam and Christianity. Finally, we need to mention the sixth article of faith or the belief in “Qadar” or the destiny. Islam teaches that destiny of every individual is written by Allah and no one can change it except Allah Himself. This sense of fatalism is rather untypical of Christian tradition which is based on the premise that a human being has a free will (74). The denial of any article of faith is tantamount to an act of disbelief. Allah 1, The God in Islam The Quran teaches that Allah is eternal, omniscient and omnipotent. Allah (GOD) has existed always and will exist forever. The knowledge of Allah cannot be comprehended by humans as He knows “everything”. Allah is all powerful. The Quran teaches that Allah is One and only God whom the world should obey. There is nothing comparable to Him as He is above His creations. According to The Quran, Allah cannot be seen or heard and neither does Allah have a gender as gender is an attribute of man not God. The Quran lays out the principles on which Allah judges’ humans. He is the most just, fair and most merciful. Muslims worship on Allah as The Quran and sayings of Prophet Muhammad clearly state that only Allah is worthy of worship. Among His countless attributes are the attributes of mercy and wrath. The Quran mentions in various chapters about the mercy of Allah on all of His creations and at the same time His anger and wrath to which only the most evil and wretched are entitled. The important difference from Christian tradition is that God is not anthropomorphic and any attempt to understand his motives by means of human reasoning is doomed to failure. Islam and Christianity One can single out several similarities between Islam and Christianity. These religions are monotheistic; both of them rely on the idea that God is an all-knowing and omnipotent being, caring about people. More importantly, Jesus Christ is revered by Muslims and Christians. These religions have many common theological sources, for instance, the Pentateuch, Psalms, and the Gospels (Boa, 1985, p 71). Nevertheless, the Quran clearly disagrees with the concept of Trinity in Christianity as Islam only teaches to worship one God. The Quran disagrees with Christianity over the divine status of Jesus Christ and clearly states that Jesus was a prophet who was sent to his people with a message from God. For Muslims, the belief in the divinity of Christ is not mandatory for salvation; in fact, it runs contrary to their articles of faith. In their turn, Christians may recognize Islam as a Semitic religion; yet, they refuse to accept Muhammad as a prophet of God. They regard him as a person who learnt from Judaism and Christianity and also saw dreams which he interpreted in his own way and presented to the people of his time as the word of God. This notion is totally rejected by Muslim theologians. Evangelizing Muslims If a Christian tries to evangelize Muslims, he/she should refer to differences in the perception of God. While judging the deeds of human beings Allah simply weighs good and bad deeds of a person. Hence, law can be regarded as an imposed necessity, rather than moral obligation (McCurry, 1994). Moreover, Christianity pays more attention to a person’s will rather than his/her fate. It attaches importance to moral responsibility and choice and not to fatalism. This can be regarded as its advantage over Islam, and Christian missionaries can make this argument. Additionally, one may point out that Jesus was the only prophet who was raised from the dead by God and this makes him unique among prophets and suggests his nature is divine. The main strategy will be to draw similarities between the passages in the New Testament and in the Quran, especially those ones, which indicate at sinless life of Jesus and closeness to God. Conclusion Islam and Christianity have similar origins and some of their articles of faith are similar to one another. These religions do not agree on such issue as the divinity of Jesus Christ and his role. Muslims consider him to be a messenger of God while Christians believe him to be a Supreme Being. Yet, comparative analysis of the New Testament and the Quran suggests that he is really different and maybe even superior to other prophets, especially if we are speaking about his moral integrity and perfection. Judaism Introduction Judaism is the first world religion that suggested monotheistic theology according to which there is only one God, who is all-powerful, omniscient, eternal and good. Later it gave rise to other Abrahamic religions like Christianity and Islam. This paper is to discuss Jewish Messianic expectations; more importantly, it is aimed at showing that Jesus did fulfill messianic prophecies of the Old Testament. Jewish Messianic Expectations Judaism has a long-standing Messianic tradition; yet, the messiah or “moshiach” is normally viewed as a military or political leader, who will observe the Ten Commandments, win battles for his country, and make righteous decisions (English Standard Version2, Jeremiah 33:15). Most importantly, moshiah will be a human being; this person will not have divine or supernatural qualities (Rich, 2006). This idea is entirely alien to Judaism. There are several indispensible conditions for the arrival of the Messiah, for instance, disrespectful attitude of children to their parents, people’s inability to repent their sins (Rich, 2006). According Jewish Messianic expectations, this person will accomplish some of these deeds: to spread the knowledge of God throughout the world (Isaiah, 11: 2), to restore the cities of Israelites (Ezekiel 16: 55), and eradicate illness, hunger and war (Isaih, 25: 8). Overall, the core of Messianic expectations is the belief that moshiah will bring Jewish nation to prominence and make the Law of Moses universal. Jewish Rejection of Jesus’ Messianic Claims The New Testament provides several examples of how and why Jesus was rejected by the community. One of the main reasons is that his views and ideas were new or even unprecedented for them. For instance, John mentions that many people and some of his disciples abandoned him when he proclaimed, “Whoever feeds on my flesh and drinks my blood has eternal life, and I will raise him up on the last day” (English Standard Version, John 6: 54). It is possible to say that they misunderstood his words. It should be noted that this conversation took place in a synagogue, where no one was allowed to make such statements. The second and probably most important reason is his criticism of the Sanhedrin priests. First of all, need to speak about the incident which is normally known as the Cleansing of the Temple. According to Mathew, Jesus cast the money-changers out of the Temple and said, “My house shall be called a house of prayer,’ but you make it a den of robbers” (Matthew 21:12-17). The phrase “my house” emphasizes Jesus’ divine nature, and it could provoke retaliation of high priests. Moreover, one can refer to the famous Parable of the Wicked Husbandmen which is mentioned in the canonic Gospels. It tells a man who entrusted with the task of maintaining a vineyard to tenants or husbandmen. When this man sent his son to take the part of the crop, the tenants killed him. According to Luke, the priests perceived this parable as accusation (Luke 20:9-19). One can also argue that many people misunderstood Jesus and viewed him as a rebel or mutineer against the Law of Moses, although he never spoke anything against the Ten Commandments and pointed out that his intention was to improve or elaborate this set of beliefs and practices (Luke, 16: 31). The most important thing is that the Sanhedrin priests took him as a threat to their authority and realized that his accusations had been justified. The Messianic prophecies accomplished by Jesus Overall, it is possible to provide several examples indicating that Jesus did accomplish at least some of Messianic prophecies. One of the requirements is to spread the knowledge of God to other nations and make them abide by the Law of Moses (Isaiah 2:11-17). Yet, this theme is also referred to in the Old Testament, where Paul says that for God there is “no distinction between Jew and Greek” and “everyone who believes in him will not be put shame” (Romans 10). Again, we need to mention that Jesus did seek to undermine the main tenets of the Old Testament; instead he elaborated it and wanted to make it universal. Matthew mentions that he often encouraged the Apostles to “make disciples of all nations” and convert them (Matthew 28:19-20). Furthermore, according to Isaiah, the messiah “will swallow up death forever; and the Lord GOD will wipe away tears from all faces” (Isaiah 25:8). This is one of the main deeds that the Messiah is expected to accomplish. It is directly related to the Christian concept of salvation and Jesus’ self-sacrifice for the redemption of people’s sins. Mark says, “the Son of Man came not to be served but to serve, and to give his life as a ransom for many” (English Standard Version: Mark 10: 45). This argument is further elaborated by Paul, who points out that the followers of Jesus will be given salvation and eternal life (John 3:16). Thus, if we draw the parallels between Isaiah’s prophecies, especially the belief that the Messiah will convert gentiles to Jewish faith, resurrect people from the dead, and save them from suffering, we can say that Jesus was the Promised Messiah. Moreover, it is possible some of the expectations set for “moshiah” by Jewish theologians were mostly political but not spiritual, and this is why they rejected Jesus, who did not accept any form of violence or brutal force. Conclusion The tensions between Christianity and Judaism can be explained by the fact that Christian and Jews offered different interpretations of Messiah’ role and deeds. The followers of Judaism believe that the Messiah is mostly a political leader, who will bring their fame to their nation. In contrast, Christians view him as a spiritual guide who will showed people the way in which they should act in order to earn salvation from suffering and eternal life. Jesus was largely misunderstood and even feared by his contemporaries, and this is the main reason why many of them rejected him and later crucified. Hinduism Introduction Hinduism is believed to be the oldest religions of the world; its founding predates the recorded history of humankind (Himalayan Academy, 2006). Despite the fact that some people, especially journalists, emphasize several similarities between Christianity and Hinduism; it is of utmost importance to show their fundamental differences in understanding the concepts of sin and salvation as well as in the perception of God as a Supreme Being. This paper is aimed at showing that Christian beliefs are incompatible with Hinduism and that Christians must do their best to evangelize Hindus. The main differences between Christianity and Hinduism Christianity originated out of Judaism and it was based on monotheistic theology; Christian tradition postulates that God is one, omnipotent, omniscient, and good. The followers of the Hindu religion share this belief in a Supreme Being; however, they also accept the possibility that there are other divinities or gods which should also be worshipped. In addition to the worshipping of smaller divinities, Hinduism does not reject sorcery and magic which are condemned in the Bible (Himalayan Academy, 2006). The adherents of Christian tradition do not tolerate these beliefs and practices; in fact, they are considered to be idolatry. It should also be noted that Hindus can visualize their gods in any form, for instance, this Supreme Being can assume a shape of an elephant that symbolizes power and strength (Pancholi, 1998, p 13, 25). Thus, Hinduism does not restrict its followers in assuming and visualizing their gods from being whatever. This tradition does not seek to impose religious dogmas on people, especially if one speaks about ritualistic practices. This form of liberty is not typical of Christianity and the adherents of this religion believe that ritualistic part is also important. Nonetheless, the most important differences between these religions are the beliefs about afterlife and sin. Hinduism rejects such concepts as concept as Heaven or Hell according to this tradition the soul of dead person moves to another body (Pancholi, 1998, 36). Thus, one can speak about never-ending reincarnation of soul. This idea is entirely incompatible with Christian doctrine. The thing is that the notions of paradise and hell and necessary to emphasize the brevity of worldly life and that the deeds of a person can either be rewarded or punished by God. These notions suggest that a human being should take moral responsibility for his/her actions and be aware of their consequences. The idea of soul reincarnation can a person morally irresponsible since it implies that he/she will always have another chance to amend ones misdeeds. This is one of the reasons why Christianity and Hinduism can hardly be compatible with one another. Those Christians, taking interest in Hinduism should be aware of these differences and remember about the perils entailed by this philosophy. Another important thing which distinguishes Hinduism from Christianity is the interpretation of moral life. According to this tradition, a person who wants to obtain salvation (mocksha), has to conduct oneself in a righteous way, achieve economic prosperity and derive enjoyment from life (Pancholli, 1998, p 15). It is supposed that a person must balance each of these objectives. Certainly, Christianity does not prohibit the enjoyment of earthly life and economic prosperity, but they are taken as the major objectives of a human being. The thing is that they can entirely oust a person’s devotion to God. Such famous representative of Hinduism as Professor Radhakrishnan argue that “the theists and the atheist” can become Hindus if the accepts the value system of this tradition; moreover, he argues that conduct is the most important thing, but not belief (Radhakrishnan as cited in Pancholi 1998, p 13). This ideology is unacceptable for Christian tradition since this religion stresses the premise that God always cares about humankind and wants to forgive them their sins or shortcomings. The premise, according to which conduct is more important than belief, can lead to self-righteousness, narcissism and subsequently pride which is one of the deadly sins. This is the main danger of Hindu outlook. The methods of evangelizing Hindus In order to evangelize Hindus, Christian should first argue that their different divinities do not reflect omnipotence and omnipresence of God. He permeates every aspect of human life and cannot be reduced only to power or beauty. The worshipping of these divinities can eventually result a distorted perception of God and his relations with human beings. Hinduism accepts magic as a part of religion; this practice implies that a person can gain supernatural powers (Himalayan Academy, 2006). Christian should show that this idea is very perilous and draw Biblical examples showing the dangers of sorcery and magic; one of them is the destiny of ancient Egypt, rooted in idolatry and magic. Secondly, Christians need to argue that Biblical teachings provide reliable guidelines for people’s behavior, for instance, they may refer to the Ten Commandments or the Sermon on the Mount. Moreover, the followers of Christian tradition should point out that Hindus’ overemphasis on the significance of conduct as compared to belief, can transform into pride and vanity. On the whole, Christian critique of Hinduism must focus on the dangers of this theological approach and the benefits of Biblical teachings. Apart from that, Christian people should point out that the concepts of heaven and hell are essential for moral behavior of people; in this way they will be able to highlight the limitations of Hindu philosophy and religion. However, one should bear in mind that evangelizing is possible only if these arguments are expressed during a thoughtful and respectful discussion between the representatives of two religions; otherwise, Hindus will not accept Biblical teaching. Conclusion It has to be admitted that Hinduism has certain similarities with Christianity, for example the belief in goodness and omnipotence of God. Nonetheless, these religions present different theologies and moral codes. Hinduism urges people to act in a righteous way, but unlike Christianity, it does not give any specific instructions. Biblical teachings attract a person’s attention to the notion of paradise and hell and show that his/her actions will be either awarded or punished after his/her death. This is probably the main difference between these religions. Buddhism Introduction From theological point of view Buddhism cannot be regarded as a religion since it does not emphasize the idea of a Supreme Being; more likely it should be considered as a set of beliefs about human nature and a code of conduct that enables to achieve enlightenment. This paper will discuss the main principles of Buddhism, its origins, schools, and the major concepts. Furthermore, it is vital to work out practical strategies of evangelizing the followers of this moral and philosophical tradition. The origin of Buddhism Siddhartha Gautama, who lived during the fifth century before Common Era is believed to be the founder of Buddhism (Mc Donnell