Discussion: Effective Questioning

Questioning is a critical aspect of formative assessment. More specifically, when used effectively, questioning is a way a teacher can monitor student understanding.

If you were advising a first year teacher about how to manage and structure questioning in a typical 30 student classroom, what is one of the best practices for questioning that is mentioned in your textbook? What do you think the biggest challenges are for teachers to use effective questioning techniques?

Discussion Guidelines:

In each discussion you are expected to provide one original post within the first week that the discussion is open, and then respond to your classmates’ posts. 4-5 thoughtful and timely posts are in the A range.

Discussion: Effective Questioning

PROBLEM 1Self-efficacy is a general concept that measures how well we think we can control

different situations. A multimedia program designed to improve dietary behavior

among low-income women was evaluated by comparing women who were randomly assigned to

intervention and control groups. The intervention was a 30-minute session in a computer

kiosk in the Food Stamp office. In this study, the participants were asked, “How sure are

you that you can eat foods low in fat over the next month?” The response was measured on

a five-point scale with 1 corresponding to “not sure at all” and 5 corresponding to “very

sure.” Here is a summary of the self-efficacy scores obtained about 2 months after the

intervention:

PART A: Is it appropriate to use the two-sample t-procedures? Give reasons for your

answer. Choose one correct answer.

A.Itisnotappropriatetousethetwo-sample -proceduressincethedistributionisnot

Normal.

B.Itisnotappropriatetousethetwo-sample -proceduressincewecannotassess

Normality without knowing the detailed data.

C.Theuseofthe -proceduresisappropriate,becausetheproximityofthemeansand

standard deviations show that the two distributions are similar.

D.Assumethattherearenooutliers.The -proceduresshouldbeappropriate,becausewe

have two large samples.

PART B : Let m1 denote the mean self-efficacy scores obtained from the “Control” group

and m2 denote the mean self-efficacy scores obtained from the “Intervention” group.

If the research question is to determine whether the data provide significant evidence to

conclude that women participating in the control group (no intervention) have less self-

efficacy scores than women participating in the intervention on average, which one of the

followings includes the appropriate null hypothesis and alternative hypothesis?

A. H0 :m1-m2 =0 versus Ha :m1-m2 10

B.H0:m1-m2=0versus Ha:m1-m2>0

C. H0 :m1-m2 =0 versus Ha :m1-m2 <0

D.H0:m1-m2£0versus Ha:m1-m2>0

PART C: Suppose that you are not certain whether the two populations of interest have

the same standard deviations. Calculate the standard error of x1 – x2 (denoted by SEx1-x2 ).

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ONLINE STAT 2000 ONLINE MODULE 8 REVIEW LESSONS 1‐3

PART D: By hand, calculate the appropriate test statistic associated with the hypotheses

set up in PART B. What are the degrees of freedom for the test statistic? Use the

conservation approach (i.e. the smaller of n -1 and n -1 ) to determine the associated

12

degrees of freedom

PART E: Draw a sketch of a t-distribution curve and mark the location of your test

statistic found in PART D. Shade the appropriate area that represents the P-value. Using

an appropriate statistical table, approximate the P-value.

PART F: At the significance level of 0.001, do the data provide significant evidence to

conclude that the population mean self-efficacy scores of women participating in the

control group (no intervention) is less than the population mean self-efficacy scores of

women participating in the intervention group? Justify your answer (i.e. How do you reach

your conclusion?)

PROBLEM 2

The study of 584 longleaf pine trees in the Wade Tract in Thomas County, Georgia, had

several purposes. Are trees in one part of the tract more or less like trees in any other

part of the tract or are there differences? In this exercise we will examine the sizes of

the trees, measured as diameter at breast height (DBH), by dividing the tract into

eastern and western halves and taking random samples of 30 trees from each half. Here are

the diameters in centimeters (cm) of the sampled trees:

The eastern distribution is right-skewed and the western distribution is left-skewed as

shown in each histogram below.

30

25

20

15

10

5

0

Histogram

West

35

30

25

20

15

10

5

0

Histogram

East

Page 2 of 12

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ONLINE STAT 2000 ONLINE MODULE 8 REVIEW LESSONS 1‐3

Below is the summary statistics for DBH each half of the tract:

PART A: Is it appropriate to use the methods of this section to compare the mean DBH of

the trees in the east half of the tract with the mean DBH of trees in the west half? Give

reasons for your answer.

A.The -methodsarenotappropriatebecausethetwodistributionsareskewed.

B.The -methodsarenotappropriatebecausethedistributionsofthenorthernand

southern halves are not similar.

C.The -methodsareappropriatebecausethesamplesizesarerelativelylargeeven

though the two distributions are skewed, and there are no outliers in either

distribution.

D.The -methodsareappropriatebecausetheyarerobustagainstallkindsofdeviations

from Normality.

PART B: Suppose that we use a two-sided significance test that help us investigate

whether there is a significant evidence that the mean DBH of the trees in the eastern

half of the tract is NOT the same as the mean DBH of the trees in the western half of the

tract.

What is (are) the most appropriate reason(s) for your choice of using the two-sided test?

Choose one correct answer.

A. The data shows us it is more likely that the western trees and the eastern trees have

different DBHs.

B. We have no reason to expect a difference in a particular direction.

C. The results from the two-sided test give more information.

D. A and B are correct.

E. A, B and C are correct.

PART C: Suppose that we use a two-sided significance test that help us investigate

whether there is a significant evidence that the mean DBH of the trees in the eastern

half of the tract is NOT the same as the mean DBH of the trees in the western half of the

tract.

Let m1 denote the mean DBH of the trees in the west and m2 denote the mean DBH of the

trees in the east.

State the appropriate null and alternative hypotheses in terms of m1 and m2 .

PART D: By hand, calculate the appropriate test statistic associated with the hypotheses

set up in PART C. What are the degrees of freedom for the test statistic? Use the

conservation approach (i.e. the smaller of n -1 and n -1 ) to determine the associated

12

degrees of freedom

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PART E: Draw a sketch of a t-distribution curve and mark the location of your test

statistic found in PART D. Shade the appropriate area that represents the P-value. Using

an appropriate statistical table, approximate the P-value.

PART F: Which one of the followings summarizes your conclusion based on the P-value

found in PART D and the appropriate hypotheses stated in PART C?

A. At the 5% level of significance, we have significant evidence to suggest

DBH of the western trees is smaller than the mean DBH of the eastern trees.

B. At the 1% level of significance, we have significant evidence to suggest

DBHs of the two populations are different.

C. At the 5% level of significance, we have significant evidence to suggest

DBHs of the two populations are different.

MODULE 8: LESSON 2

PROBLEM 3

that the mean

that the mean

that the mean

An industrial psychologist is investigating the effects of work environment

attitudes. A group of 28 recently hired sales trainees were randomly assigned to one of 7

different “home rooms” – four trainees per room. Each room is identical except for wall

color, with 7 different colors used. The psychologist wants to know whether room color

has an effect on attitude, and, if so, wants to compare the mean attitudes of the

trainees assigned to the 7 room colors. At the end of the training program, the attitude

of each trainee was measured on a 100 -pt. scale (the lower the score, the poorer the

attitude).

PART A: Identify the response variable in this study.

PART B: Identify the treatments for this study.

PART C: How many treatments are in this study ?

PART D: How many replications are in each treatment group ?

PART E: What is the total sample size in this study?

PROBLEM 4

In a completely randomized design experiment, 10 experimental units were randomly chosen

for each of three treatment groups and a quantity was measured for each unit within each

group. In the first steps of testing whether the means of the three groups are the same,

the sum of squares for treatments was calculated to be 3,110 and the sum of squares for

error was calculated to be 27,000.

PART A: Complete the ANOVA table. That is, find the values of a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, and

i.

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PART B: Which of the following is not a condition required for a valid One-Way ANOVA F-

test for a completely randomized experiment?

A) The sampled populations all have distributions that are approximately normal.

B) The samples are chosen from each population in an independent manner.

C) The variances of all the sampled populations are different.

PROBLEM 5

A partially completed ANOVA table for a completely randomized design is shown here.

PART A: Complete the ANOVA table.

PART B: How many treatments are involved in the experiment?

PART C: Do the data provide sufficient evidence to indicate a difference among the

population means? Test using α = .05.

PROBLEM 6

An industrial psychologist is investigating the effects of work environment on employee

attitudes. A group of 20 recently hired sales trainees were randomly assigned to one of

four different “home rooms” five trainees per room. Each room is identical except for

wall color. The four colors used were light green, light blue, gray, and red. The

psychologist wants to know whether room color has an effect on attitude, and, if so,

wants to compare the mean attitudes of the trainees assigned to the four room colors. At

the end of the training program, the attitude of each trainee was measured on a 60-pt.

scale (the lower the score, the poorer the attitude). The data was subjected to a one-way

analysis of variance.

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PART A: Give the null hypothesis for the one-way ANOVA F-test shown on the computer

output above.

A) : where the ′ represent mean attitudes for the four rooms

B) : where the ′ represent the proportion with the corresponding

attitude

C) : where the ′ represent attitude means for the person in each room

D) : where the ′ represent the room colors

PART B: Using the one-way ANOVA table given above, identify the following values:

Sum of Squares for Groups (SSG)=

Sum of Squares for Error (SSE)=

Degrees of Freedom in the numerator (DFG)=

Degrees of Freedom in the denominator(DFE)=

Mean Squares for Groups (MSG)=

Mean Squares for Error(MSE)=

PROBLEM 7

Four different leadership styles used by Big-Six accountants were investigated. As part of

a designed study, 15 accountants were randomly selected from each of the four leadership

style groups (a total of 60 accountants). Each accountant was asked to rate the degree to

which their subordinates performed substandard field work on a 10 -point scale called the

“substandard work scale”. The objective is to compare the mean substandard work scales of

the four leadership styles. The data on substandard work scales for all 60 observations

were subjected to an analysis of variance.

ONE-WAY ANOVA FOR SUBSTAND BY STYLE

SOURCE DF SS MS F P

BETWEEN

WITHIN

TOTAL

3 2728.17 909.390 5.210 0.003

56 9774.63 174.547

59 12,502.80

Interpret the results of the one-way ANOVA F-test shown on the printout for α = 0.05.

A) At α = .05, there is sufficient evidence of differences among the substandard work

scale means for the four leadership styles.

B) At α =.05, nothing can be said.

C) At α = .05, there is no evidence of interaction.

D) At α =.05, there is insufficient evidence of differences among the substandard work

scale means for the four leadership styles

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PROBLEM 8

There have been numerous studies investigating the effects of restaurant ambience on

consumer behavior. A recent study investigated the effects of musical genre on consumer

spending. At a single high-end restaurant in England over a 3-week period, there were a

total of 141 participants; 49 of them were subjected to background pop music (for

example, Britney Spears, Culture Club, and Ricky Martin) while dining, 44 to background

classical music (for example, Vivaldi, Handel, and Strauss), and 48 to no background

music. For each participant, the total food bill, adjusted for time spent dining, was

recorded. The following table summarizes the means and standard deviations:

PART A: State a set of hypotheses that is appropriate for investigating the effects of

musical genre on consumer spending.

Let denote the followings:

mC

mP

mN

= the mean bill from the population subjected to background classical music.

= the mean bill from the population subjected to background pop music.

= the mean bill from the population subjected to no background music.

PART B: Is it reasonable to assume that the variances are equal in order to be pooled?

A. It is reasonable, because the sample variances are highly similar.

B. It is not reasonable, because the ratio of largest variance 11.10 to smallest variance

5.03 is greater than 2.

C. It is reasonable, because the ratio of largest standard deviation . 0.481 to

. √smallest standard deviation √ 0.338 is less than 2.

D. It is reasonable, because the ratio . 1.49 is less than 2.

.

PART C: Give the numerator degrees of freedom and the denominator degrees of

freedom associated with the F-statistic for the hypotheses set up in PART A.

PART D: A computer software computed the sum of squares for groups of 164.66 and the

sum of squares for error of 1,069.39. Calculate the F statistic for the hypotheses set

up in PART A.

PART E: Given that a computer software gives the P-value of 0.00005, which of the

following is the most appropriate conclusion?

A. We have strong evidence that the means are all the same.

B. We have strong evidence that the means are not all the same.

C. We have strong evidence that the mean is higher for classical music.

D. We have strong evidence that the mean for classical music is different from the other

two means.

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MODULE 8: LESSON 3

PROBLEM 9

A study of 865 college students found that 42.5% had student loans. A single random

sample of 865 college students were randomly selected from the approximately 30,000

undergraduates enrolled in a large public university. The overall purpose of the study

was to examine the effects of student loan burdens on the choice of a career. A student

with a large debt may be more likely to choose a field where starting salaries are high

so that the loan can more easily be repaid. The following table classifies the students

by field of study and whether or not they have a loan:

PART A: Identify the explanatory variable and the response variable in this study.

PART B: Suppose that we are investigating to determine whether there is significant

evidence that “Student loan” and “Field of study” are dependent. State an appropriate set

of hypotheses.

PART C: If it is true that “Student loan” and “Field of study” are independent, how

many students who study Science and who have student loans would you expect to see from

the sample?

PART D: The partial Excel output using MegaStat add-in for the above table is given

below. The output includes the observed cell counts (in yellow), the expected cell counts

(in green), and the contributions to the chi-square statistic in orange cells. Some

expected cell counts and some contributions to are missing.

Recall that a contribution to is calculated by which is

represented by in the MegaStat output below.

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ONLINE STAT 2000 ONLINE MODULE 8 REVIEW LESSONS 1‐3

Answer the following questions below:

(1) What is the expected cell count for students who study Science and who have student

loans?

(2) What is the expected cell count for students who study Agriculture and who do not

have student loans?

(3) Is the chi-square test appropriate for performing the significance test of the

hypotheses in PART A? Why or why not?

(4) What is the value of ?

(5) How many values of the response variable are there? That is, how many rows

(excluding the total row) are there in the two-way table (given above PART A)?

(6) How many values of the explanatory variable are there? That is, how many columns

(excluding the total column) are there in the two-way table (given above PART A)?

(7) What is the degrees of freedom for the chi-square statistic ?

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PART E:

The area (in read on the right) on the

right tail of the chi-square distribution

with the degrees of freedom found in PART D

represents the P-value associated with the

chi-square statistic . Using Table F

, approximate the P-value.

PART F: Using the significance level of 0.05, what do the results of the significance

test show? Choose one correct answer.

A. There is no significant evidence that having a loan and field of study are related.

B. There is significant evidence that having a loan and field of study are related.

C. There is significant evidence that having a loan and field of study are not related.

PROBLEM 10

Because statistical software plays such an important role in modern statistical

applications, many studies have encouraged the use of technology in statistics courses.

The Guidelines for the Assessment and Instruction in Statistics Education (GAISE) (Aliaga

et al., 2005) project was funded by the American Statistical Association to examine needs

for college level statistics courses. One of the six recommendations from GAISE is the

use of technology for developing conceptual understanding and analyzing data. Suppose a

survey was sent to 115 students at different universities across the United States to

access the relationship between ease of learning the statistical software program SAS and

a student’s currently level of SAS proficiency. The results of the survey are are shown

below.

To access the relationship between ease of learning the statistical software program SAS

and a student’s currently level of SAS proficiency, the appropriate hypotheses are

: of learning the statistical software program SAS and a student′s currently level of SAS are independent.

: of learning the statistical software program SAS and a student′s currently level of SAS are dependent.

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PART A: If the null hypothesis is true, how many students who find SAS to be

somewhat easy to learn and who are somewhat proficient in SAS would you expect to see in

the sample?

PART B: The partial Excel output using MegaStat add-in for the above table is given

below. The output includes the observed cell counts (in yellow), the expected cell counts

(in green), and the contributions to the chi-square statistic in orange cells. Some

expected cell counts and some contributions to are missing.

Recall that a contribution to is calculated by which is

represented by in the MegaStat output below.

Answer the following questions below:

(1) What is the contribution to for students who find SAS to be somewhat easy to

learn and who are somewhat proficient?

(2) Which cell contributes most to the chi-square statistic ?

(3) What is the value of the chi-square statistic ?

PART C: Determine if the following statement is appropriate. Give your reasons.

At 1% level of significance, there is sufficient evidence to suggest that ease of

learning the statistical software program SAS and a student’s currently level of SAS

proficiency are dependent.

PROBLEM 11

Following complaints about the working conditions in some apparel factories both in the

United States and abroad, a joint government and industry commission recommended in 1998

that companies that monitor and enforce proper standards be allowed to display a “No

Sweat” label on their products. Does the presence of these labels influence consumer

behavior? A survey of U.S. residents aged 18 or older asked a series of questions about

how likely they would be to purchase a garment under various conditions. For some

conditions, it was stated that the garment had a “No Sweat” label; for others, there was

no mention of such a label. On the basis of the responses, each person was classified as

a “label user” or a “label nonuser.” There were 296 women surveyed. Of these, 63 were

label users. On the other hand, 27 of 251 men were classified as users.

PART A: Display the data in a two-way table. Use the columns for the values of the

explanatory variable in the study and the rows for the values of the response variable in

the study.

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ONLINE STAT 2000 ONLINE MODULE 8 REVIEW LESSONS 1‐3

PART B

Suppose we want to perform an appropriate significant test to determine whether or not

there is a relationship between gender and use of No Sweat labels.

Give an appropriate set of hypotheses, an appropriate test statistic, its associated

degrees of freedom, and its associated P-value. Use TABLE F to approximate the P-value.

PART C

Using the significance level of 0.0025, which of the followings is the appropriate

conclusion?

A. There is no significant evidence that gender and label use are dependent.

B. There is significant evidence that gender and label use are dependent.

C. There is significant evidence that gender and label use are independent.

Self-efficacy is a general concept that measures how well we think we can control different situation, statistics homework help

## New York State University Week 4 Turner Test Prep Co Case Study Discussion

New York State University Week 4 Turner Test Prep Co Case Study Discussion.

I’m working on a business question and need an explanation to help me understand better.

Respond to the following in a minimum of 175 words:Review Case Study 1, “Turner Test Prep Co,” which you can access in the Wk 4 Learning Activities folder.In the case study, there’s little doubt that Jessica’s energy and eagerness will eventually propel her to success one day. In the meantime, Jessica shares a common dilemma experienced by all business types, sizes, and experience-related backgrounds: defining the ever-changing preferences and needs of consumer groups.As an entrepreneur with minimal marketing skills, Jessica has reached out to peers and those recently enrolled in graduate school for additional input about the premise of her Test Prep company. What are your thoughts regarding the preparation of a preliminary marketing plan?Note: Case studies are located in the last section “Part 6: Cases” in the course textbook.

New York State University Week 4 Turner Test Prep Co Case Study Discussion

## Can Aspirin Prevent a Person from Having a Heart Attack? Essay

essay writer free Daily aspirin intake is a common prescription for people suffering from heart disease or those belonging to heart disease risk groups. Because aspirin is an easily available medication and its effectiveness is believed to be high, it is often recommended as a prevention of a first-time heart attack (Hebert, 2001). However, the findings of recent studies point to the fact that its effectiveness is low in preventing fatal outcomes of strokes and subsequent occasions of heart diseases (Wang, 2014). Still, to evaluate the efficiency of this prescriptive measure, it is paramount to determine the correct dosage in a way that benefits from taking aspirin outweigh potential risks and side effects. First of all, it is imperative to understand the benefits and drawbacks related to taking aspirin. It minimizes the risks of blood clots because of its influence on platelets, cell fragments activating the process of a blood clot formation. These cell fragments are formed because of the high content of cholesterol in the blood. The intake of aspirin blocks the secretion of the enzyme, cyclooxygenase, provoking blood slots thus protecting the coronary artery from being blocked and a human body from the deadly threat of heart attack (“What’s the difference between aspirin and nitroglycerin for heart attack prevention and treatment,” 2010). The existence of platelets in blood vessels and their role in heart attacks, as well as the blocking impact of aspirin, were first described by the British pharmacologist John Vane, who introduced it as a popular heart disease prevention in the 1970s (Dai

## Effective Conflict Resolution in a Culturally Diverse Workplace Essay

Understanding the influence of sociocultural environment on conflict resolution in a business setting is indispensible to successful cooperation and communication. It is widely recognized that Western managers prefer solving problems overtly and address the issues explicitly. Such an approach to conflict resolution explains the self-construct in Western societies and characterizes individuals as those who are more focused on self-expression and determination1. In contrast, Eastern managers are more interested in avoiding the conflict, or solving it implicitly. However, when Western business executives confront issues in a culturally diverse environment, they often face challenges in solving conflict because of discrepancies in understanding nature of misconceptions and establishing contacts with individuals from different cultural backgrounds. While operating in an Australian business setting, managers pay close attention to strict observance of regulatory status and codes of conduct. Therefore, such principles as justice, equality, and fair treatment are among the priorities that are considered by Australian CEOs2. Despite this objective attitude, business companies in Australia are more reminiscent of the Western style of controlling the managerial process and, therefore, resolving conflicts with Eastern communities can pose a serious problem on their relations. In particular, Australian managers dealing with Chinese, Malaysian, and Indian staff should be more focused on social commitment and development of high-context communication. In order to enrich organizational culture and improve the overall employed environment in an organization, Australian managers should make a shift to a collectivist thinking to understand the in-group activities performed by Eastern members of an organization. Hence, while dealing with breach of the company’s protocol, the managers should address the entire department involved into the violation to define what has caused the problem. Individually approaching an employee who is a potential violator would be inefficient3. Second, discussing the problem in context can provide a better picture of problems and constrains that the culturally diverse staff can experience. Finally, Western managers should also learn the peculiarities of communication among Eastern employees. For instance, they should know that Chinese communities operate in a high-context setting whereas Western societies are more confined to low-context interaction. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The company’s managers should realize that Eastern-oriented staff is more committed to a collectivist culture and, therefore, it will be difficult to define the individual who violates the company’s protocol. In order to solve the issue, specific attention should be given to reshaping the ideological values in a company to make the individual adhere to the newly emerged standards4. Alternatively, the manager can randomly punish one employee in a group, which can affect other subordinates5. As a result, a conflict resolution could be solved with no reference to specific individuals. Australian supervisors can also focus on individual achievements to improve the performance of the entire staff. In conclusion, dealing in a culturally diverse workplace is a challenge, particularly when it comes to effective conflict resolution. In particular, Australian managers should not employ overt and explicit strategies in making decisions. Alternatively, they can strike the balance between overt and implicit methods to favor the dispute management. They can either refer to the entire group to affect on individual, or focus on one employee to influence the entire department. Understanding the importance of interdependent and cultural influence is vital for managing culturally diverse groups. Therefore, dealing with Chinese, Indian and Malaysian staff, Australian managers should not employ person-centered approach. Bibliography Bosma, Theo. Effective Leadership Practices in Cross-cultural Conflict Resolution: A Qualitative Study. US: Proquest, 2007. Chen, Guo-Ming and Ringo Ma. Chinese Conflict Management and Resolution. US: Greenwood Publishing Group, 2002. Deutsch, Morton, Coleman Peter T., and Eric C. Marcus. The Handbook of Conflict Resolution: Theory and Practice. US: John Wiley

## The culture of the deaf and hard of hearing is often overlooked because it is characterized as a nonethnic

The culture of the deaf and hard of hearing is often overlooked because it is characterized as a nonethnic culture. What cultural characteristics do deaf people have in common with other cultural groups? If your client is both deaf and identifies with another cultural group as well, how does this affect your ability to provide quality cultural care? Post your initial response by Wednesday at midnight. Respond to one student by Sunday at midnight. Both responses should be a minimum of 150 words, scholarly written, APA formatted, and referenced. A minimum of 2 references are required (other than your text) for both posts. Refer to the Grading Rubric for Online Discussion in the Course Resource section.