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In chapter 12, the author introduces issues to address when integrating blockchain apps with legacy applications. Which of the differences between blockchain and legacy systems discussed in chapter 12 do you think would be the one that carries the most risk? How could this risk be realized? (Give at least 2 examples). Briefly describe how you would address this risk in your blockchain app design.     Think of three questions you’d like to ask other students and add these to the end of your thread. The questions must be taken from material you read in Chapter 12, and each question should start a discussion topic.
Investment Analysis for Jewellery Business. Executive Summary Babushka’s Baubles is a company producing jewellery at the budget end of the market and has seen a sharp decline in its financial position, in 2008. Despite this, sale levels are consistently high and gross profit margins are healthy. This report has uncovered potential problems in the costs attached to inventory such as administration and also in the way that the working capital is managed. However, the investors are confident that the company has a positive future and is, therefore, maintaining an earnings-to-price ratio which is far higher than the industry average. Introduction This report aims to give a summary of the position of Babushka’s Baubles as reflected in the accounts of the company, year ending September 2008, with reference to the accounts for the previous year. The aim of the report is to provide investors with a snapshot of the current financial position of the company and to draw conclusions in relation to the previous period. The report will also draw comparisons with a similar company in the same market sector (Benny’s Bling plc), in an attempt to explain the key factors influencing the company. (In doing so, the different strategies in terms of marketing position will also be identified and taken into consideration). As well as analysing the accounts for the benefit of the investors, other potential users of the accounts will be considered. This will enable the company to identify areas of potential improvement for the company for the future[1]. The report will first ask which groups are likely to be the key users of the accounts and what they would hope to achieve from reading and analysing the accounts, or the summary contained in this report. The report will then move on to consider the main body of the analysis, looking at the key ratios and what these tell the readers about the position of the company. Finally, conclusions will be drawn as to the current position of the company and the suggested improvements that could be made for the future of the company. User Groups Accounts are used by a multitude of people and for a wide range of purposes. It is important to recognise this when it comes to reporting the financial status, so that these accounts can be geared towards ensuring the appropriate information is given to the correct people. The primary users of any set of financial accounts are the investors. Looking at the figures and the trends of the company will allow investors to decide whether they should buy shares or sell the shares they own and what sort of return they should expect from investing in the company. As well as the investors, lenders will be keen to look at the financial status of the company so that they know the safety of the loans which they have forwarded to the company and also to make judgments if they are considering forwarding more loans to the company[2]. Managers primarily use the set of management accounts to give them the necessary information to make decisions in relation to the running of the company. However, they will also use the financial ratios and accounts to help establish where they are in relation to the sector, as a whole, and in comparison to specific competitors. For example, in this case, the managers can consider their ratios in comparison to those of Benny’s Bling in order to ascertain their competitive position and how potentially they could improve their own position in the future. Other users will include customers identifying how likely the company is to be able to continue to supply them for the future. Employees may also be interested in relation to their job security and career prospects. Financial Ratios Financial ratios are used as a way of presenting the financial position of the company and to provide greater analysis of the underlying financial accounts. Trends can be identified and they are particularly useful when it comes to drawing comparisons with other companies in a similar sector. In some circumstances, financial ratios can even assist in order to predict bankruptcy while it is still possible. Although ratios can be useful, there are also some limitations inherent in their use which can reduce their usefulness from the point of view of comparison with other companies. Each company is likely to follow slightly different accounting policies and standards, each of which will have an impact on the way that the ratios are displayed and may make the comparisons less useful than they could be. The ratios will only be as useful and as accurate as the financial information upon which they are based. Where the ratios are based on summary accounts, this may not give a truly accurate view of the underlying position and more investigation may be necessary in order to obtain a full impression of the company’s position[3]. Financial statements are historic and in some cases can be substantially out of date. This means that that the ratios, based on these statements, may no longer be relevant as they have already been superseded, prior to the analysis being undertaken. Furthermore, comparison across different accounting periods can be misleading as it does not take account of any inflationary effects. As the ratios will be compared with a competing company, caution should be exercised due to the naturally different structures and approaches being taken by the two companies. Different companies will inevitably have different approaches and comparing ratios directly may not take this into account. Babushka’s Baubles – Financial Ratio Analysis A detailed analysis of the ratios in relation to the company has been undertaken and, at relevant points, these have been compared with Benny’s Bling in order to try and obtain a rounded view of the company’s position, both in relation to the previous period and to one of its main competitors. Caution should be used as the two different companies have different market positions, with Benny’s Bling aiming for the upper end of the market in terms of both price and quality and Babushka’s Baubles focussing more on the budget end of the market, which is likely to lead to slightly different accounts. Profitability The gross profit figure simply shows how much is made on sales related to the cost of those sales; it does not include any reference to costs such as general administration or selling costs. The more complete figure is that of the net profit margin which shows the amount of money that is made once all cost of the sales have been taken into account. On a wider note, the return on capital employed shows how much is made for every £1 of capital that is invested in the company[4]. In all cases, the performance of Babushka’s Baubles has weakened between 2007 and 2008. There has been a huge reduction in the net profit margin and also in the return on capital employed, with not such a large reduction in the gross profit margin. This indicates that non-direct costs such as administrative and selling costs have increased dramatically, but sales have not increased in proportion. The gross profit margin in Benny’s Bling has dropped from 26% to 25% in the last year which, although it reflects a reduction, is still considerably higher than the profit margins of Babushka’s Baubles. Liquidity Both tests for liquidity, the current asset and the quick ratio, are considered absolutely vital for all businesses. They reveal how readily the company can meet its liabilities with the cash that it has available. Cash is, of course, vital to the day to day running of the company and any weakness in this area could reveal imminent troubles for the company in terms of cash flow. This is one of the first indications of bankruptcy and should be taken seriously[5]. The current ratio shows how easily the company can meet all current liabilities with the current assets available. A company should aim to have a ratio of at least 1 in relation to this ratio. Although it has reduced form 1.85 to 1.80, it is still well above the recommended minimum of 1. The quick ratio, on the other hand, considers the current ratio, but taking out the inventory element of the current assets as these cannot be easily converted into cash and, therefore, may not be relied upon to meet current liabilities. In this case, Babushka’s Baubles has a ratio of 0.42 (up from 0.41 in 2007). This is considerably below the desired minimum of 1. Moreover, it indicates that the company has insufficient cash and too much in the way of inventory. Benny’s Bling shows a similar trend, but its quick ratio is 0.8 which is much closer to 1 and indicates a much better inventory management policy[6]. Efficiency Efficiency is the next area that we are going to consider, as this may give a clearer view of how inventory is being managed. Inventory has been identified as a potential problem and, therefore, this area should be carefully considered. These figures indicate how many days it takes from the point of the inventory entering the business to the point that the inventory leaves the business. Other figures indicate how long it takes for the company to pay debtors and how long it takes for the company to receive money from creditors. The inventory period has become slightly longer, 32.23 days (up from 31.51 in 2007), which shows that the company takes around a month to produce the jewellery for sale. Benny’s Bling, on the other hand, takes just 22 days. It takes the company 29.98 days, on average, to pay its suppliers. This is up slightly from 2007, showing that cash is staying in the business longer. This in itself is a reasonably healthy figure, but when compared with the 75.26 day period that the company takes to get money in from customers, it is clear to see that work needs to be done on getting cash into the business more quickly after the products have been sold. Benny’s Bling, conversely, takes an average of 46 days to pay suppliers, yet receives payments in 26 days, showing a much better control over cash flow. Gearing Gearing simply shows the value of loans the company has in relation to shareholders’ equity. Ideally, the amount of shareholders’ equity should be higher than loans, as this indicates that the company has fewer obligations in terms of interest payments and is, therefore, considered to be in a better position financially. The lower the gearing figure the better. The ratio has remained reasonably consistent at 7.7% (down from 7.8% in 2007). This is healthy and indicates a low level of long term loans. Benny’s Bling has a gearing ratio of 50%, which is considerably higher and indicates a much larger amount of long term loans within the company[7]. Investments ‘Earnings per share’ is a basic measure of how much money is earned in the business for every share. In the case of the company, it is expected that this will be lower than in Benny’s Bling, due to the large levels of shares and the relatively low dependence on long term debts[8]. Price per share shows whether the purchase price of the share relates to the actual earnings the share is bringing in. If this figure is high relative to other companies in the sector, it indicates that the market is generally positive about the future of the company and is expecting an increase in performance in future periods. A low figure indicates a pessimistic view. The company has earnings per share of 0.21, which is down considerably from 2007 at 0.35; this is due entirely to the substantial drop in net profits between 2007 and 2008. The price / earnings ration is 18.10, considerably higher than the sector average of 9, indicating that the market is generally positive about the future of the company. Conclusions The company is in a generally positive position, with a good gearing position and solid sales. However, the company has potential difficulties in the way that it manages its efficiency and liquidity. Issues such as receiving money from customers and inventory management could have a dramatic impact on the short term ability of the company to meet its short term cash requirements[9]. If the company could deal with the inventory and cash issues it would have a long term profitable future, a view shared by the investors in the earnings / price ratio. Bibliography Atrill, Peter, Financial Management for Decision Makers, Pearson Education, 2005 Britton, Anne, Waterston, Christopher, Financial Accounting, Pearson Education, 2005. Chadwick, Leslie, Comparing financial performance: Ratio analysis and retail management, International Journal of RetailInvestment Analysis for Jewellery Business

Korean cultural

Korean cultural. I’m trying to study for my Nursing course and I need some help to understand this question.

Jay and Sue Kim, ages 29 and 26 years and married for 2 years, immigrated from South Korea and settled in Los Angeles. They have lived in a small one-bedroom apartment since their arrival. Both graduated from the same Korean university with baccalaureate degrees in English literature. They have one child, Joseph, age 1 year. When they arrived in the United States, Jay was unable to find a job because of his poor proficiency in English, despite his major in English literature. He eventually obtained a job with a moving company through a church friend. Sue is not working because of their son. Although the Kim’s did not attend a church before immigration, they are now regularly attending a Korean Protestant church in their neighborhood.
Sue is pregnant again, determined by a home pregnancy kit, with their second child and concerned about the medical costs. They did not use any contraceptives because she was breastfeeding. Because of financial limitations, Sue did not initially have prenatal care with her first pregnancy. However, she did keep up with the Korean traditional prenatal practice, tae-kyo. Eventually, she received help from her church and delivered a healthy son. She is not sure whether she can get financial help from her church again but is confident that her second child will be healthy if she follows the Korean traditional prenatal practices.
Jay is concerned about job security because he recently heard from colleagues that the moving company might soon go bankrupt. Although Jay has not been satisfied with his current job (he thinks that he is overqualified), this news is still a cause for concern. Moreover, Sue’s recent pregnancy has made Jay more stressed, and he has started drinking alcohol. Joseph cannot stand up by himself and still wants to be breastfed. Although Sue has tried to give foods such as oranges, apples, steamed rice, and milk (because she is now pregnant), Joseph refuses to eat them and cries for breastfeeding. Joseph’s weight is low-normal for same-age babies.

Describe the Korean cultural practice tae-kyo. Is this practice congruent with allopathic recommendations for prenatal care?
How do food choices among Koreans differ with pregnancy and postpartum?
Describe cultural attitudes toward drinking among Koreans.
Identify two or three culturally congruent strategies a healthcare provider might use to address Jay’s drinking.

Submission Instructions:

Your initial post should be at least 500 words, formatted and cited in current APA style with support from at least 2 academic sources.

Korean cultural

CS 470 Southern New Hampshire University Mod 3 Databases & Angular Code Lab

write my term paper CS 470 Southern New Hampshire University Mod 3 Databases & Angular Code Lab.

I’m working on a databases exercise and need a sample draft to help me learn.

OverviewIn this assignment, you will create an S3 bucket and copy over the Angular distribution built for running in AWS. You will configure S3 as a webserver and eliminate the need for the original server. Along the way, security policies will be set for buckets and objects within the buckets.PromptIn Module Two, you forked and cloned the learn-angular-from-scratch-step-by-step code into the lafs-web directory on your computer. Now you need to do some work to make that codebase ready for use on Amazon Web Services.You will be using the CS 470 Module Three Assignment Guide to set up a static website in the cloud.Specifically, you must address the following rubric criteria:Prepare the Angular application.Create the S3 bucket.Copy the frontend to S3 file storage.Configure the static website.Configure S3 Public access.Configure the S3 bucket policy.Guidelines for SubmissionSubmit screenshots of the following items, which must contain your unique bucket name:Static website hosting dialog that shows S3 configured as a serverSettings showing the permissions of the bucket with public access allowedThe S3 bucket showing Angular filesIn addition, submit a JSON file with the bucket policy showing read-only. Also provide the bucket name URL. There is a template for this: http://{bucket-name}.s3-website-{region-name}.amazonaws.com. So for example, if your bucket name is “example” and region is “us-east-1”, the URL would be “http://example.s3-website-us-east-1.amazonaws.com/ (1,2,3,4,5)”.Submit all three screenshots, the JSON file, and the bucket URL to Brightspace.
CS 470 Southern New Hampshire University Mod 3 Databases & Angular Code Lab

ECPI College of Technology Concord Cloud Computing Services Executive Summary

ECPI College of Technology Concord Cloud Computing Services Executive Summary.

I need support with this question so I can learn better.you will submit the one- to two-page executive summary that you started last week. This summary is for the owner of Don & Associates, where you are employed in this scenario.Use this Executive Summary Template. In the template, you will see specific instructions. Delete the instruction text before you submit the project.Your summary should include:the types of cloud computing (private, public, hybrid)three major cloud service providersthree cloud computing service modelspotential benefits and risks of migrating the company’s technical infrastructure to the cloudBe sure to cite any sources you use
ECPI College of Technology Concord Cloud Computing Services Executive Summary

Behavioural issues within a primary school

Introduction. This proposal sets out the rationale, aims and methodology, for a research project into behavioural issues within a primary school setting, and their impact on teaching and learning. The specific enquiry being pursued is whether or not current mainstream thinking and official policy on teaching and learning represents an effective means of influencing pupil behaviour. The weight of expectation regarding the moderation and re-shaping of behavioural problem now appears to rest significantly upon the teacher, their, planning, assessment, and delivery of learning: if poor behaviour is exhibited, it is often attributed, to a significant degree, to failures in these areas. It is argued here that important questions are raised by this position. For example, what is the provenance of this logic in evidential, i.e. research terms? How widely should the teaching/learning and behaviour relationship be interpreted, i.e. are all behavioural difficulties supposedly mediated through such means? These are immediate issues of concern to all teachers, with extensive implications for their professional classroom practice, and school praxis as a whole. From my own position as new practitioner, this raises both specific and wider issues for personal practice, as well as the way in which I apprehend the overall educational system: what skills-sets are required in order to implement this approach successfully, and how might they be developed? What are the implications for planning and assessment in terms of different kinds of behavioural difficulty? Going beyond this level of interaction, how should I, as a practitioner, assess such policies and frameworks as they emerge and are disseminated across the profession? Is it appropriate that teachers, schools and parents simply accept the logic each successive policy change as given, or should there be a more fundamental dialogue between practice, research, and theory? Literature Mapping, As might be expected regarding such an important issue, there is a large canon of literature around the subject of behavioural issues: the same is true of teaching and learning. It is far beyond the scope of this limited review to comprehensively survey all of the related sources: instead, they are examined here through some representative texts, concepts and controversies. It is also the case that these literatures overlap to a significant degree. However, it is not particularly helpful to envisage such genres as cumulative and undifferentiated, or informed by the same logic or perspective: quite the reverse is true. In fact it is probably more helpful, in reality, to regard them as being composed of distinct sub-genres, whose character and focus is determined largely by their intended audience and substantive function. For the sake of this discussion, these sub-genres may be envisaged as the official, i.e. government publications, the semi-official, i.e. teacher’s network and other local authority texts, the academic or analytical, in the form of research publications by higher education specialists, and the self-help or didactic sub-genre. The latter is probably the most expansive, and incorporates texts developed specifically for teachers, parents, and other agents with an interest in the classroom praxis created around behavioural issues and learning. It must be acknowledged that, although it is being represented collectively here, this group incorporates multiple strands of thought and opinion: one noticeable contrast occurs between those who echo or endorse successive official interpretations, and those who critique them. One theme which features pervasively across all of these sub-groups, is the subjective and qualitative nature of the subject analysis itself. After all, in discussing behavioural problems, we are dealing with a phenomenological social subject, which can never be known or defined in absolute and specific terms. Consequently, one issue which is raised from a holistic overview of this literature, is the nature of the relevant research, and its translation into both official policy, and classroom practice. In an environment where – for better or worse – these two are intrinsically bound together, is it not important to ask how such transitions are made, and how the objective integrity of such processes is assured? In other words, in the construction of an increasingly evidence-based practice, who assesses the relevant architecture, and ensures that behavioural issues are being weighed effectively in the educational mix? Since there is a clear tautology running between the research, policy, and practitioner discussion of this praxis, it is not surprising that there areas of agreement, and also, significant areas of contention. It is around these areas that the rationale for this research has been developed. As Croll has observed, the claim of any educational research to have established best practice in absolute terms is at best questionable, and yet this is essentially what happens in practice. (Croll 1986: p.182) As Taber warns, despite the tautology which runs from the political centre and through the relevant intermediaries, it is ultimately the teacher’s responsibility understand and assess what truly represents ‘best practice.’ Teachers are essentially apprised of the research findings deemed most relevant when initially training, and subsequently updated through continuing professional development, but this is a discourse rather than a dialogue. The government initiates research, construes its findings, formulates policy, and issues guidelines in sufficient quantities, some judge, ‘…to allow teachers never to think for themselves again.’ (2007: p.4). This is obviously an extreme view, and part of a separate debate about the wider nature of training and practice as a whole: it does nevertheless, raise questions about how teaching staff should collectively assimilate and interpret the continually evolving policy framework. Official Sources. In its latest exposition to parents, the DCFS concedes that ‘Teachers cannot teach effectively and pupils cannot learn effectively in classes disrupted by poor behaviour.’ (2009: p.4) This and similar documents outline the various rights and responsibilities contingent upon this requirement. A re-occurring point, and one which seems to have achieved hegemony in OFSTED and other official circles, is that behavioural standards and the quality of teaching and learning are closely linked. Sir Alan Steer’s review of behaviour in schools concluded that ‘…all schools should be required to produce a written policy on teaching and learning..’, with specific regard for its behaviour implications. (Steer 2009: p.5) The notion that ‘…bad behaviour in schools is a complex problem which does not lend itself to simple solutions…’ is specifically balanced by the assertion that ‘…Consistent experience of good teaching promotes good behaviour.’ (Steer 2009: p.72) This theme is echoed in many OFSTED inspections, reports and publications, including Improving behaviour and attendance in primary schools, (2005), which advises that, where the prescribed Behaviour Improvement Plan has been implemented, ‘…small but significant changes have…improved attitudes, motivation and pupil behaviour…An ethos that values pupils’ academic and social achievements has been created…’ (2005: p.2). This is obviously a desirable state of affairs, but the way in which it is achieved will probably vary between each context. The important point here is that, in contemporary official parlance, good practice is that which takes account of the Assessment for Learning framework, using it to mutually reinforce achievement and behaviour. For example, as the QCA points out with regard to primary mathematics, there are many classrooms where ‘…pupils do not perceive the structure of the learning aims that give meaning to their work. Therefore they are unable to assess their own progress.’ (QCA 2003: p.3) As children’s progress is measured incrementally through objectives and outcomes, and constantly updated through day-to-day and periodic assessment, the next target should be both challenging and supportive, and sensitized to each learner’s capabilities. By ‘capabilities’, we are here referring to their operational and higher order skills, as well as their emotional capacity to push themselves through the next learning barrier. Therefore, day-to-day objectives should be mediated partly through previous feedback, self and peer assessment, facilitating the engagement of the learner: periodic assessment should bring the relevant national standards into the classroom, but with the same loop operating between the positioning of the learner’s progress, and promulgation of the next medium-term planning task. In this model, both practitioner and learner can regularly ‘step back’, visualising progress in value-added terms, thereby merging day-to-day and periodic assessment. In terms of behaviour, this mechanism supposedly helps to avoid the suspension of learning which occurs when a learner encounters objectives which are poorly matched to their ability level, insufficiently attentive of previous progress, and poorly adapted to their learning style. As Meadows points out, when certain emotional states are experienced frequently and saliently, they effectively become ‘fixtures’ within feelings about the self, subsequently influencing a wide range of behaviours, such as ‘….perception, emotional expression, cognitive processing and social relations.’ (Meadows, 2006: p.438). It is as this point that poor, learning-contingent behaviour might occur. The official literature therefore reflects the fact that a Goleman-esque focus on emotional intelligence has become deeply embedded in the teaching, learning, and behaviour management approach: the most literal expression of this is to be found in the primary Social and Emotional Aspects of Learning initiative. (DFES 2005). Unofficial Sources. The self-help or practitioner genre is effectively split between those who examine behavioural issues in isolation, and those who discuss them in more holistic discussion of teaching and learning. The work of Rogers, Muijs, and Reynolds falls into the former category, whilst that of Cowley and Robertson features in the latter. As Lawrence et al. point out, the real extent, nature and effect of behavioural problems in schools, and their effect upon teaching and learning, have always been, for a variety reasons, opaque issues. (Lwrence et al. 1984: p.6) In his study of behaviour ‘recovery’, Rogers notes that, whilst teachers provide significant emotional and social support for students, they do so ‘…at a cost.’ (Rogers 2005: p.5) He also notes that teachers themselves are part of a stakeholder chain in addressing such problems: often however, they operate in a kind of ‘structural isolation’: part of this problem is their ‘…natural reluctance to share concerns…for fear they may be seen as failing, or…incompetent.’ (Rogers 2005: p.6). The important point here is that behavioural difficulties, like special educational needs, are the responsibility of the whole school. The rise of the Inclusions role and multi-agency working remains implicitly focussed on achievement in school, placing teaching and learning at the centre of the multi-disciplinary support effort. (DCSF, 2007: p.1) Research Question and Aims and Objectives. The thematic objective of this research is to examine the relationship between contemporary teaching, learning, and behaviour in a primary context. It does not, however, envisage this issue in simple pejorative or attributive terms: it would, after all, be simple to engineer which illustrated the fact that there are behavioural problems in primary classrooms, and yes, they do affect both teaching and learning in different ways. Arguably, this would be something or a cul-de-sac, as well as merely repetitive of much earlier published material. Instead, it attempts to explore how the relationship between these two elements is being – or could be – mediated by the contemporary policy frameworks. Specifically, How effectively are pupils’ behavioural problems addressed through the current teaching and learning approach, including day-to-day and periodic assessment, objectives, planning, and teacher, peer and self assessment? By what criteria is this relationship assessed within school(s)? How do the learners themselves consider that their behaviour is changed, modified, or affected by the above framework? Do they see improved and assessment-informed teaching and learning as an effective way to remove any residual barriers to learning which obtain through behavioural problems? With specific regard to learners with recognised behavioural issues, how do they perceive that their learning is affected by their own behaviour? To what extent is it possible to objectively assess this relationship, i.e. through the triangulation of planning, assessment, and behaviour records? What are the attitudes, and what have been the experiences, of practitioners themselves, in attempting to mediate recognised behavioural problems through an improved teaching and learning practice? The aim will be to elicit responses to questions based around these lines of enquiry, and pitched appropriately for each cohort of respondents. Methodology. The qualitative nature of the wider research base has already been discussed in the context of the relevant literature: it is, however, equally important to examine this issue with regard to the methodology for this particular work. In paradigmatic terms, this is a predominantly phenomenological piece of work, however it is also planned to employ some element of positivist analysis: consequentially, it is important to assess the implications and limitations of both paradigms. As Collis and Hussey have indicated, in the context of practical research, and especially where it concerns a social context, positivist and phenomenological data should be visualised, not as discrete disciplines, but rather the two ends of a spectrum which the researcher will inevitably move along, stopping at the most appropriate point. (2003: p.48) They are in fact ‘ideal types’ of data, whose claims to that identity seldom stand up to rigorous scrutiny in the context of published research. In other words, statistical data is only completely positivist where used to illustrate the exact values it expresses: qualitative data is only genuinely so when used to describe the specific behaviour or events from which it was recorded. The important point here is that neither type of data is usually afforded this degree of care in research interpretations: statistical data is frequently extrapolated to suggest tendencies amongst a much wider sample than that which produced it, whilst qualitative data is used to illustrate phenomena which did not generate it. In some respects, this is of course unavoidable: the total population(s) results, especially in terms of educational cohorts, are unobtainable, unless particular statutory output figures, i.e. examination results, are considered. The only research body with the resources to achieve a 100 per cent survey of any given population is the state, and it only does so in particular contexts. Considering these qualifications, this particular work will be predominantly qualitative, whilst some limited statistical data will be employed to suggest trend s along which a more expansive study might be pursued. It also has to be acknowledged that the reception of research findings may itself be mediated through the supposedly dominant paradigm. This may especially be the case However, as Muijs points out, to attach ‘radical subjectivist views’ to quantitative researchers is misleading, whilst to envisage all quantitative researchers as ‘positivists’ is ‘…equally inaccurate.’ (Muijis 2004: p.5) The planning of the research also had to encompass decisions regarding other epistemological options, especially whether it would use probability or non-probability sampling, a cross-sectional or longitudinal approach, and an exploratory or descriptive questioning framework. In practical terms, the sampling options were prescribed by practical and ethical issues, as well as those of availability, and the necessary authority to proceed. However, it remains important to distinguish between the relative merits of the two models: probability/random sampling allows the researcher to claim that their cohort of respondents is representative of the wider population, due to their selection at random. This means that, in theory at least, each sub-group within the whole has a chance of inclusion. (McGivern 2006: p.277). A non-probability/purposive model is instead composed of specifically elicited respondents, eliminating the grounds for any claim to representation of the whole population, but assuring their relevance to the research. (McGivern 2006: p.277). A cross-sectional design focuses on one chronological context in depth, and can therefore be used to detect trends, patterns, and suggest possible causality: however, due to its discrete timeframe, it cannot usually prove causality. (McGivern 2006: pp.99-100). By contrast, a longitudinal design allows a cumulative series of contact with the subject(s), so, depending on its duration, it may allow firmer conclusions to be drawn from a more extended set of data. (Malhotra and Birks 2003: p.68). Deliberating between an exploratory or descriptive format of questioning is basically informed by the direction of the research and the amount and quality of the data already held. A descriptive approach relies on a firm hypotheses and a correspondingly defined set of parameters, (Malhotra and Birks 2003: p.65). whilst the exploratory alternative implies a lot of holistic or ‘open’ questioning, to identify trends and further refine the research. In consideration of these options, it is proposed that this research be conducted as follows. Non-probability or purposive in terms of sampling, due to the practical considerations of suitability, the voluntary nature of the sample, the contingent availability and permission, and the ethical screening of some participants. A random or probability-based sample could be a viable alternative for a larger study, if greater resources and time were available to take account of the potential drop-out rate and self-exclusion. A cross-sectional approach, due to the practical constraints of time upon the study. However, this does not preclude the development of a more extended, longitudinal variant, once further research options become are identified. A balance of descriptive and exploratory questioning. There are two strands of reasoning supporting this approach. Firstly, the questioning must be supported by some prior knowledge of the issues involved, as well as knowledge of the respondents themselves: the former has been generated by a combination of academic study, and placement experience. The latter is unavoidable, because of the cooperation and engagement involved in identifying the suitable participants, and the ethical considerations contingent upon their particular needs or vulnerabilities. In essence the ‘random’ element has already been eliminated by the use of a non-probability approach: the logical corollary is that the questions, although standardised, should be well adapted to the subjects themselves. Complimentary elements of ‘closed’ and ‘open’ questioning, to achieve a balance of positivist and phenomenological outcomes. Although substantially a qualitative piece of research, it is hoped that some binary ‘yes/no’ responses will generate some quantifiable data, suggesting patterns which can inform the direction of further research. Questions will be standardised, to avoid unnecessary variation in responses. (Bryman and Bell 2003: p.116) Ethical Dimensions of the Study As Padgett points out, there are two generic levels of ethical responsibility present in any research process: the macro-level, which demands the objective framing, conduct and interpretation of the research, and the micro-level, which requires ethical treatment of the respondents and their disclosures. (Padgett 1998: p.44) The first level of hierarchy arguably implies particular responsibilities in the context of qualitative research, due to the flexibility of the paradigm. As Padgett points out, the absence of a rigid epistemology can liberate the researcher, but carries with it additional responsibilities for the design, conduct and assessment of the process. (Padgett 1998: p.106) The second level concerns not only the respondents themselves, but everyone in the wider stakeholder group around them, who have a professional or vested interest in ensuring their care and development. As Black cautions, disclosures in research have the potential to damage feelings, reputations, careers, or even lives, and may affect institutions as well as individuals. (Black 2002: p.63) At the most basic level, individual participants effectively entrust their anonymity to the practitioner, and there are multiple ways of compromising it, even if their name does not appear anywhere in the published findings. (Padgett 1998: p.38). The overriding point here is that this research is being conducted by a putative practitioner, and this in itself implies additional and particular responsibilities during the process. As the British Educational Research Association points out, this dual role always places additional responsibilities on the researcher. (British Educational Research Association, 2004: p.6) As Cohen et al. have argued, ‘procedural’ ethics are, in themselves, not enough to ensure a consistently ethical approach. One obviously has to ensure how the research ‘….purposes, contents, methods and reporting and outcomes abide by ethical principles and practices.’ (Cohen et al. 2007: p.79). However, there should also be a heightened level of sensitivity to the attitude and emotional state of the primary-age respondent during the research process itself, as well as their attitude to the findings. As the Social Research Council puts it, ‘…The boundary between tactical persuasion and duress is sometimes very fine and is probably easier to recognize in practice than to stipulate. In any event, the most specific generic statement that can be made about adequate consent is that it falls short both of implied coercion and of full-hearted participation.’ (Social Research Council, 2003: p.29) One example of this would be the unintentional exacerbation of situational stressors amongst peer groups. It might, for example, be interesting or useful to elicit the views of other learners, whose experiences of class-based teaching and learning are mediated through the behavioural problems of other pupils. However, this might be deemed unethical in terms of the residual tensions raised, and the subjectivity of interpersonal or peer reflection. Similarly, there may be defined parameters of the questioning which could be employed with regard to practitioners themselves. It would, for example, be unethical to ask teachers to comment pejoratively on official policy, given that this kind of dialogue does not have an obvious place or precedent in contemporary educational management discourse. As Mann has cautioned, any qualitative research process bears implications, both for those in an institution context, as well as for the researcher themselves. However, such implications may not be immediately obvious to either, until the ramifications of disclosure become clear. (Mann, 2003: p.67). This does not mean however, that questions constructed with due consideration might not illustrate areas for development in current classroom practice. The important point here is that neither an ostensibly ethical approach, or the legitimate securing of consent, absolves the researcher from apprising respondents of the likely consequences of participating. (Social Research Council, 2003: p.35).