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Discuss the general steps in empirical research in criminal justice.

Discuss the general steps in empirical research in criminal justice.. I don’t understand this Law question and need help to study.

BCJ 470 Research Methods in Criminal Justice and Criminology
Research Methods in Criminal Justice and Criminology9th Edition, 2014Frank E. HaganPearson
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Discuss the general steps in empirical research in criminal justice.

Introduction: Colonialism has had a major impact on most, if not, all nations of Oceania, it was experienced first-hand by our ancestors many years ago in its most raw stage of impact and undoubtedly many years later, it is but all so subtly still experienced here in the 21st century. This essay will focus on the relationship of colonial powers and the islands of Aotearoa and Samoa. It will focus on how the relationship of these nations and their colonial counterparts influenced colonial conflict and friction. I have examined a secondary source for each country, a reflection will be made on how these sources corelate to the course. Finally, I will discuss how the experiences of this colonial relationship in Aotearoa and Samoa showed the importance of leadership in trying to disempower and decolonise the structures enforced by colonialism Source 1: Samoa. The making of Modern Samoa Meleisea, M. (1987). The making of modern Samoa: Traditional authority and colonial administration in the history of Western Samoa / Malama Meleisea. Suva, Fiji: Institute of Pacific Studies, University of the South Pacific. In the book: The making of modern Samoa. Meleisea (1987) discusses the relationship of Samoa and it’s colonial powers, he examines the events that began to shape and make up the resistance of Samoa to colonial rule from the early 1900’s to its inaugural day of independence in 1962. It looks at how colonial powers had different interpretations than the natives on Samoan customs and structures. Meleisea indicates that Samoa shared a unitary system of dispersed politics, a communistic system that colonisers viewed as weak. So, when Germany and New Zealand settled in Samoa it became evident that their aim was to change this communal system and to terminate the customs in which the natives set their economic and political foundations on. They believed they could do this by “using what they understood to be the traditional political system, weeding out the customs they disapproved.” (pg. 4) This enabled the conflict between traditional understanding held by the natives and the Western ideals that colonial powers introduced. A lack of respect to Samoan cultural customs and authority is another influencing factor of conflict. This sense of disregard was shown through administrative leaders, Dr. Wilhelm Solf and Lieutenant Colonel Robert Logan. Solf became the governor of Samoa on March 1st, 1900. When he became governor of then German Samoa, he laid the foundations of future administration. Meleisea indicates that Solf was an intelligent and cultivated individual who was successful at hiding his long-term intentions in restructuring the administration. He was clever at showing his sympathy towards Samoan customs and his knowledge of the Samoan culture was so complex that it assisted him in his political aim to “restructure the administration in ways that would be immediately acceptable to Samoans and which would disguise his long-term intentions.” (pg. 50). These intentions emphasised by Meleisea was to terminate the Samoan political institutions and replace them with modern rationalised institutions that expanded the interests of Germany. Solf’s discomfort in Samoan customs became evident in his behaviour towards the distribution of ‘ie toga (fine mats). A significant event where this became evident was at the taligātoga ceremony arranged by Mata’afa’s family in recognition of him becoming “Ali’i sili” (pg. 51). Solf instructed Mata’afa “to make it quite clear…that he was not to be recognised by them as tupu or tafa’ifā” (pg. 51). His decision to distribute the fine mats to every chief of the district and force them to leave the ceremony was in total violation of Samoan customs, many other actions taken by Solf eventually influence the formation of the Mau a Pule. When the New Zealand administration took control of Samoa on August 24th, 1914 the tensions between Samoa and their former colonisers had most likely boiled over. Meleisea explains that Colonel Robert Logan put Samoa “under a military administration using structures introduced by the Germans.” (pg. 102) This indicates that New Zealand lacked experience in leading a country and making major changes therefore creating a dormant period. Samoan leaders saw this as an opportunity to regain control over of their affairs and they returned to their customary way of doing things, furthermore reasserting “communalistic and uncivilised” (pg. 103) values. Meleisea emphasises that the use of agency by Samoan leaders and the retaliation thereafter by the New Zealand administration revived the tensions between coloniser and colonised. This conflict intensified in the later years of the New Zealand administration period. The ineffective implementation of leadership by the New Zealand administration created the belief in Samoan leaders that they could resist the invasion of colonial rulers, hence the reformation of the Mau. Colonel Robert Logan is a significant individual during this period of colonisation. Meleisea indicates that Logan “remained aloof from the Samoans and their customs.” (pg. 109) Similar to Solf, Logan was uncomfortable with the Samoan aspect of gift giving and this was evident on one occasion where Tupua Tamasese had presented the colonel’s wife with a lafo (gift honour). Logan had returned it, which signified that he was hostile. Logan, more so, mimicked Solf’s structural ideas and several events under his watch intensified the conflict between Samoa and their Colonial powers. Two events that were pinnacle during this time were the epidemic that killed 20% of Samoa’s population in 1918 and the events of Black Saturday in which Mau movement leader Tupua Tamasese Lealofi III died. These events are significant because it revitalised the formation of the Mau, a non-violent movement formed with the aim of gaining self-governance. Leaders such as Lauaki Namulau’ulu Mamoe, O.F Nelson and Tupua Tamasese are significant in the objective of this movement, they urged the Samoan locals to resist Germany’s plan, and were exiled for using their agency. Meleisea allows us to be open minded about the events that took place during this time, he enables us to experience the severity and rawness of these events in the hope that it makes us understand how the natives felt at this time and why they decided to be agents of resistance. Source 2 Aotearoa: Two Peoples, One Land, The New Zealand Wars. Wright, M. (2006). Two peoples, one land : The New Zealand Wars / Matthew Wright. Auckland, N.Z.: Reed. The book Two Peoples, One Land, the New Zealand wars: provides a unique focus on the conflict between Aotearoa and Britain. Matthew Wright (2006) investigates and researches the conflicts that took place in Aotearoa during its colonial era. He aims to identify the underlying reasons behind these conflicts to gage an understanding from two different perspectives. Wright indicates that these wars “were driven by issues flowing from the basic colonial dynamic of one people moving into the area occupied another.” (pg. 7) Wright suggests in this book that colonial conflict between the Māori and the British were ignited by cultural miscommunication. He states that these conflicts were “a product of settlement and culture clash shaped in ways the peoples of both sides struggled to understand.” (pg. 8) This indicates that when the Europeans settled in Aotearoa, they had no historical knowledge of the land and its people, in contrast the natives had a lack of knowledge on the structures that their colonial counterparts had introduced. This misunderstanding became a factor to colonial conflict between the two nations. The wars between the British and Māori intensified in the 1840’s – 1860’s and these wars broke out into three separate periods. Most of these wars were fought over land and sovereignty of Aotearoa and a significant period to discuss in this book was the Northern war of 1845 – 1846. This is a period of confusion between both sides. Wright emphasises that a cause of this war was the different interpretations the Māori and British had in understanding the Treaty of Waitangi especially after it’s translation. The natives had understood that they were promised autonomy however, as far as the colonial government was concerned, “Māori had signed over their sovereignty” (pg. 34). This misunderstanding caused the first major conflict, in which Māori leader Hone Heke physically took matters into his own hands at Kororareka. For both sides, land and sovereignty were at the heart of this conflict. Wright emphasises that although the hot phase of war was over, the conflict between the Maori and the British colony was never really resolved. When the physical wars for land petered out in the 1870’s, it transmuted into political and legal argument, so this war now is fought within court proceedings and political debates. This book takes a dive into the several conflicts and wars between the natives and the colonisers, it researches and documents the reasonings behind this conflict with an understanding of both perspectives. Throughout the book Wright argues that the differences in perspectives of land and cultural clash constituted a major war of sovereignty fought between Māori tribes and European settlers. This enables us to understand the importance of whenua and sovereignty as an issue between Māori and their colonial counter parts. It shares the significance that land has to the natives and it gives us and understanding of the experiences faced by both parties during this colonial time. Comparison: The two sources provide many similarities as well as differences between each other and these differences and similarities need to be considered for purpose of analysis. Both these books indicate similar factors that influenced the resistance for each country. Both Meleisea and Wright indicate that a causing factor of this colonial conflict was the differing interpretations of both the colonised and the coloniser. In Samoa we see that there were differing interpretations on land and titles during its colonial era. The German and New Zealand administration saw land as an economic capability that aided their own interests and disregarded the “tapu-ness” of land and chief titles in Samoa. In New Zealand the same aspect of land considered as tapu to Māori were trampled on when the British settled and started buying land. Another compelling similarity to make note of is that both these sources presented a sense of urgency, by the colonisers, in establishing and enforcing a sense of mana on the colonised nations. Wright emphasises this when he discusses that the British understood that sovereignty and mana was given to them through the signing of the treaty, therefore trying to reinforce this during the land war period. Similarly, in Samoa, colonisers were threatened by the matai system and used their agency to try and reassert the mana and control they had over Samoa during this period. Agency used by both nations is of significant difference. Samoan agents approached this non-violently and Māori agents approached this through physical force. This is significant because we begin to identify that both nations had mana in resisting, but the outcomes were significantly different. For Samoa, their nonviolent approach resulted in their independence. In contrast, the use of force by the natives of Aotearoa prolonged the colonisation of the country. Both nations used their agency with the intended aim of regaining the mana that had been taken away, therefore it becomes more significant to identify that through these different approaches only one country managed to reach the intended goal of self-governance. In both sources you can see an urgency for the use of agency from the natives to ensure their mana and structures were undisturbed and maintained. It therefore becomes important to note the significance of political leadership. Both these sources had significant leaders who were important agents of resistance. It is important to recognise the work of these political leaders because it was through their use of agency and mana that initially started this resurgence and this revival for self-governance and sovereignty. Reflection: Through this assignment, I have been able to drift away from the black and white view of historical events in Polynesia, I have been able to understand that Oceania is not homogenous, and they did not offer their sovereignty on a platter. They fought for their sovereignty and were agents of change and resistance. I have also been able to make this understanding through historically thinking about why a certain event happened and what forces were influential in making decisions in such a time. Through reading books and articles written through a Pacific lens I have been able to disempower the structure of thoughts and perspectives that were implemented by Western ideals and furthermore make connections and distinctions between islands in Polynesia. Colonialism is a big theme of the course and focusing on colonial conflict, I have become more inclined with the need to decolonise the structures put in place that have washed away the purity of indigenous customs in Oceania. The structures of indigenous people of Samoa and Aotearoa for instance have been pushed aside and replaced by a systematic structure. This in turn has altered our values in the sense that these western ideals have stripped away the tapu-ness of our customs. In the process of decolonisation, one must understand that leadership is a big component of this process. Through this course I have been able to identify that Polynesian people are leaders, we have a duty to further decolonise the colonial structures that have been implemented and this first begins with acknowledging our own sense of mana. It’s our duty to continue the work laid by our ancestors, this also means that in order to further decolonise the structures around us we must remember our historical past in order to move forward as agents of change. List of 10 sources: Samoa: Alofaituli, B. (2018). Tautai: Samoa, World History, and the Life of Ta’isi O. F. Nelson. Contemporary Pacific, 30(2), 560-562. Davidson, J. (1967). Samoa mo Samoa : The emergence of the independent state of Western Samoa / J.W. Davidson.Melbourne ; New York: Oxford University Press Field, M. (1991). Mau : Samoa’s struggle for freedom / Michael J. Field. (Rev. ed.). Auckland, [N.Z.]: Polynesian Press. Meleisea, Malama. (1988). Change and Adaptations in Western Samoa. University of Canterbury, Christchurch: Macmillan Brown Centre for Pacific Studies. Meleisea, M. (1987). The making of modern Samoa : Traditional authority and colonial administration in the history of Western Samoa / Malama Meleisea. Suva, Fiji]: Institute of Pacific Studies, University of the South Pacific. Aotearoa: Crawford, J.,
Artificial Intelligence Impact on Strategy Position and Supply Chain Paper.

Position Paper on AI Impact on Strategy Individual assignment, 5 pages and APA required Take a position, assess and argue. Support your argument with data, information, expert perspectives from the readings. Based on the readings, class discussion and any other materials you desire, please write a position paper that reflects your assessment of the strategic impact that AI in Supply Chain. Some potential topics that you may consider for focusing your paper are: workforce planning, innovation, investment in technology, competing in the age of AI, privacy issues, other? Note that the best approach will be to focus on one area (not all of these that I am suggesting above), take a position, assess and argue. Be sure to include some strategic recommendations. Also, be sure to support your assessment and arguments with data, information, expert perspectives based on the readings and/or other materials. Cite properly. Please use the link below and the attached documents for reference and citations, no outside sources.Niu, B., & Zou, Z. (2017). Better Demand Signal,
Better Decisions? Evaluation of Big Data in a Licensed Remanufacturing Supply
Chain with Environmental Risk Considerations. Risk Analysis, 37(8),
Artificial Intelligence Impact on Strategy Position and Supply Chain Paper

Purdue University Sustaining Change in Organization Paper

Purdue University Sustaining Change in Organization Paper.

Using the organization that your professor has approved, synthesize the organization’s readiness for change. Evaluate whether or not to implement your new program, policy, practice, or procedure. . submit a 4–6-page paper submission. Hodges, Julie & Gill, Rogers, 2015. SUSTAINING CHANGE in info chapter 11InstructionsPrepare and present a video that is a maximum of 5–7-minutes or write a 4–6-page paper in which you:Describe the company in terms of industry, size, number of employees, and history.Analyze in detail the current HR practice, policy, process, or procedure that you believe should be changed.Formulate three valid reasons for the proposed change based on current change management theories.Appraise the diagnostic tools that you can use to determine an organization’s readiness for change. Propose two diagnostic tools that you can utilize to determine if the organization is ready for change. Defend why you believe the diagnostic tools selected are the best choice for diagnosing change in the organization.Using one of the diagnostic tools you selected, assess the organization’s readiness for change:Provide results of the diagnostic analysis.going to write about the Glenwood Resource Center
Purdue University Sustaining Change in Organization Paper

Opecs oligopolistic market and effects on oil prices

online assignment help The main focus in this essay is to explain the characteristic of the Oligopoly Market Model and explain how the dynamics of the Oligopolistic market can influence the price of a product and different strategies used by firms together to create an inelastic demand for the product to optimize profits The second part of the essay concentrates on how OPEC as organizations has control on the world’s Oil prices. Different scenarios are enumerated in the following report, where OPEC has used strategies to control the market and capitalized on the Oligopoly model TABLE OF CONTENTS Sr. No. Particulars Page No. 1. Executive Summary 2 2. Introduction 4 3. Characteristics of the Oligopoly Market Model 5 4. Analysis on how OPEC as an Organization manipulates the World’s Oil prices 10 5. Recent news on OPEC and its control on oil production , whilst the instability in Middle East and the African region 13 6 Reference list / Bibliography 15 Introduction: Microeconomics entails the economic activity of consumers, producers or group of producers and consumers and the market in which they interact. It is study of buyers, sellers, prices and profits. Market economy refers to the developed and the industrialized economies in the world. Market economy is in which people specialize in the production of array of goods and services and meet their food and material needs through exchange ( Market economies can vary based on the supply and demand and it is the best determinant to analyze the Market. While most of the developed nations can be classed as having a mixed economies because they allow market forces to drive most of their activities like the government interactions in order to provide stability. ( There are a number of market structures like: Perfect Competition Model; Monopolistic Model; Monopoly and Oligopoly with each having their own characteristics for the economists to understand why each business behaves differently in that market. However the objective of this assignment is to understand what happens in Oligopoly market structure. The latter part of the assignment, we are going to analyze how the OPEC is acting as oligopoly in the petroleum industry and the impact it has on the oil prices and how it has impacted the economy of the world. Analysis OF Oligopoly MARKET MODEL An oligopoly is a market dominated by a few producers, each of them has control over the market. The word ‘Oligopoly’ is derived from Greek words oligio, meaning ‘few’ and polein, meaning ‘to sell’. The few leading dominant firms have a high level of market concentration in the Oligopoly structure. Oligopoly is best defined by the behavior of the firms within a market than its market structure. Generally an oligopoly exists when the few leading firms have nearly 60% of the market share and when the demand is inelastic and accounts for the maximum sales. Few Characteristics of an oligopoly Although there is no definite method to predict how firms determine the price and the output in Oligopoly, but generally an oligopoly exhibits the following features: Product branding: Each firm in the market sells a differentiated product and has its own niche in the market. Entry barriers: There are significant entry barriers for smaller firms in an oligopoly market, which prevents the dilution of competition in the long run and maintain enomorous amount of supernormal profits for the dominant firms. Smaller firms generally operate on the periphery of the market, but is not significant enough to make the impact on output and market prices. Interdependent decision-making: Dominant firms collude with each other and determine the price and taken into account the reaction of their rivals to change in market price or output Non-price competition: Non-price competitions are a consistent characteristic of the competitive strategies of oligopolistic firms. There are two types of Oligopoly namely collusive and un collusive oligopoly. In collusive oligopoly, Firms directly collude with each other and forms cartels to have a control on the market price. In Tacit collusion, firms have a mutual understanding to cut out competition. Price leadership is where the dominant firm has the power tro change the price and then the rest of the market follows suit. In un-collusive oligopoly Game Theory is used where the firm makes a strategic decision to either make immediate profits or destroy the rivals market share, which in turn has a huge effect on the market. Diagram of the firm and the Market in an Oligopoly**http:/ The Kinked Demand Curve Theory: Paul Sweezy, an American, developed the Kinked Demand Curve Theory in the late 1930s. Normally in an oligopoly market the firms are in consensus to maintain a standard and constant price of the product, which creates inelastic demand and generates supernormal profits. If a firm decides to increase its price, without colluding or collaborating with the other dominant firms, the other firms in the market decides retain the same price. In this case the firm that has increased the price will soon lose its market share and a considerable amount of revenue. On the other hand, if that firm in the oligopoly market decides to lower its price, the other firms in the industry too will have to do the same to retain their market share and then all firms will lose its revenue. It is then better to remain at a constant price to avoid losing revenue or market share. This is what Price Rigidity means. If there is a change in the price , the demand curve will kink around the prevailing market price as it will undergo further stabilization of the price when the firms will take care of the changes in the cost. In the figure shown below, the MR curve is discontinuous because at ‘a____b’ there will be no change in demand as the production and the price is the same. When the cost increases, the marginal cost curve moves upward from MC 1 to MC 2 and the demand curve kinks. Thus the firm can maximize profit only at price P and quantity q. Dollars per unit MC2 p Kink curve MR¢ MR D D¢ MC MC1 b a q q/t 0 The kinked demand curve model predicts periods of relative price stability under an oligopoly and businesses will focus on non-price competition to reinforce their market position and to boost sales , revenues and profit. The importance of non-price competition under oligopoly Non-price marketing strategies have two separate aspects : Product differentiation strategy is used by firms to convince the buyers their products are different from those of competitors. Product variation strategy involves in creating minimal variation to the product to attract buyers Non-price competition also involves huge amount of advertising and marketing strategies like special packaging, promotional events, sponsorship, having a Brand ambassador for the product, which will boost the brand image to attract demand and generate brand loyalty among consumers. Price leadership Many economists, such as Stigler (1947b) , Bain ( 1960) have described various type of price leadership. These have been classified by Scherer (1970) into three types: dominant, collusive and barometric price leadership. The dominant type is considered to describe where the dominant firms, which are larger in size and has the major chunk of market share establishes the price leadership position and the other minor firms being the followers . In the collusive type, the principal firms set prices, which are then followed by the other minor firms and the price level is rather monopolistic than competitive. Scherer ( 1970 p170 ) has stated that the price leaders temper their price policies in order to suppress intra – industry conflicts in this case . Finally in the Barometric price leadership the price is set around the competitive level (Ono, Y. (n.d.). Price Leadership: A theortical Analysis. In Economica (pp. 49, 11-20). Musashi University). Explicit collusion under oligopoly In the collusive Price leadership, in order to curb market uncertainty, dominant firms engage in some form of collusive behaviour and decide to engage in price fixing agreements or cartels. The aim of this is to maximise joint profits .This behaviour is considered as illegal by the UK and European competition authorities. Collusion is often deemed as a desire to achieve joint-profit maximisation within a market, to control supply and to prevent price fluctuations in an industry. It can be concluded that cartel as a whole is maximising profits, but the individual firm’s output is unlikely to be at their profit maximising point and if any of the firms breaks their agreement with the cartel, there will be excess supply in the market and sharp decline in the price. Collusion in industry is easier to achieve when: There are only a small number of firms in the industry. Entry barriers are protected by larger firms Demand is fairly inelastic in price and the market demand is not too variable Output of the firms in the cartel is easily monitored and to keep a control on the total supply and it will be easy to identify if any of the firms are trying to cheat on their output quota Most cartel arrangements experience difficulties and tensions among them and some producer cartels collapse completely . There are several factors that can create problems within a collusive agreement between suppliers: Falling market demand during a slowdown or recession puts pressure on individual firms to reduce prices to gain profits or least maintain their revenue. Exposure of illegal price fixing by market regulators Vested interest: The firm in the cartel aims finds it profitable to raise its own production to gain more profits and not adhere to the cartel output quotas. Disputes among the cartel how to share out the profits. ( Followed is Analysis how OPEC as an organisation has collusively collaborated to form a cartel to control the world’s oil prices, thereby depicting the Oligopoly Market model. The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) is a intergovernmental organization, consisting of 12 oil producing and exporting countries. The members are Algeria, Angola, Ecuador, the Islamic Republic of Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, the Socialist People’s Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, Nigeria, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates

Qatar’s Economic Diversification Qualitative Research Essay

Abstract With the aim to investigate, the economic diversification of Qatar, this paper has looked over the relevant literature review of economic diversification that encouraged and developed the conceptual framework of such economic strategy. By using secondary data, this paper scrutinized the economic diversification of Qatar from three arguments, such as, development of financial sector as diversification efforts, expansion of knowledge-based economy as diversification efforts, progress of other service sectors as diversification efforts by using most recent data. The paper concludes that the progress of economic diversification of Qatar has gained a significant progress, but due to the changing nature of global economy, the authority of Qatar needs to consider the economic diversification as a continuous process to mitigate any further risk. Introduction Qatar is the pioneer of economic diversification among the GCC nations; although the country has been facing different economic obstacles following the impact of global financial crisis and economic downturn, the country uphold a strong record of economic development due to its diversified economic planning and moderate leadership in this region with a balance between oil and non-oil sector. Staring from the independence in 1971, the country has discovered a vast reserve of hydrocarbon resources, but the government of Qatar introduced most dynamic economic planning to reduce its extreme dependency on the oil sector and emphasized to develop the non-oil sector taking into account of domestic needs and international market, along with regional collaboration, technical feasibility, and fiscal challenges. This paper has aimed to investigate the degree of economic diversification of Qatar from the theoretical viewpoint and practical data available from different research in this area with to aim to provide a better understanding in this discipline that would ultimately explore new area for further research. Literature Review of Economic Diversification This literature review of economic diversification of Qatar has organized with the prevailing idea and inspiration of the most prominent economist in the theoretical and institutional field working with sustainable development of the global economy along with their linked data where Qatar is the focal point in this regards wit the aimed to provide greater insights with practical implication. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Ahmadov (1) pointed out that the economic diversification is the pathways of gaining economic growth of a country through the different means without providing excessive pressure on the plentiful in natural resources of that country due to the reason that the natural resources are not renewable and the overall stock is limited. Many scholars argued that unaccountable use of natural resources would bring profound deformation in the economy with less industrialization and reducing employment opportunity, less saving and investment that ultimately provide deprived mobility economic activity and economic growth of the country. Klinger and Lederman (11) and Humphreys (3) added that extreme national wealth gathered from the natural resources would lead the government to turn into the autocratic regimes violating human rights and democratic values that ultimately lead to the civil war or armed conflict in the country and even foreign countries make interference in the local confects with different interests. Thus the significance of economic diversification is that it would generate a balanced economic level where the government may not impose tremendous pressure on the natural resources for quick economic development, but balance it through right use of resources ensuring transparency, stabilizing expenditures, national saving, and investment to generate employment opportunity. At the same, time the economic diversification initiatives would also lead to accelerate privatization, right allocation of resources, homogeneous development of different regions of the country, establishment of special economic zones, welcome foreign direct investment, including the institutional development along with the development of the capital market and legislative reformation. Kozeibayeva (3) demonstrated that the abundant natural resourceful countries may not gain economic growth as faster as the less-resourced countries perform, the historical data of Nigeria and Venezuela and GCC counties evidenced that their over all economic progress is lesser than the poor natural resourced countries like Japan and Taiwan where rich natural resource as curse rather than blessing. A variety of research demonstrated that resource curse in the developing countries functions to prevent economic transition with shocking effects in the structure of deep debts in the public and private sector, collapse of export and tradable sector, generate civil wars, and increase poverty with economic and political instability that destroy normal economic performance. We will write a custom Critical Writing on Qatar’s Economic Diversification specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Moore (1) pointed out that the economic diversification drive would provide an assortment of reimbursement to the national economy that increases economic growth by creating job opportunities with attractively high-wage that increase the living standard of the working class, increase saving and further investment and the economy gets more stability than ever by economic diversification. The consequence of economic diversification could be indicated by the sector-wise GDP contribution, but the actual measurement of economic diversification could be assessed by the job statistics and wage incensement data provided by the employment department of a country that generates an economic diversification index. Ahmadov (2) also argued that in the countries with enormous natural resources have the same scenario of political instability and conflict could find a balanced solution though encouragement of economic diversification that would provide long-term solutions to overcome socioeconomic unrest providing huge economic benefits by improving education, democracy and human rights. The rising demand for economic diversification generating continuous pressure on the governments to diversify their economy, although the real scenario of all heavy hydrocarbons resourced countries in the Middle East does not prove that that the diversification is only solution for socioeconomic progress, rather it is a primary concern while political willingness of the government is a major concern. QPC (1) added that the success of the economic diversification underlies on the dynamic leadership of the country that aimed to establish the nation upon a knowledge-based economy for last three decades with the economic policy focused on the balanced use of de natural hydrocarbon reserves with substantial use pointing to the local and international market demand. Still the government is striving to explore further diversity with different energy projects coordinating between the public and private investments with the participation of representatives from different sectors including civil society that upholds knowledge economy estimation of Qatar along with the establishment of the knowledge-based economy as an integral part of its National Vision 2025. Methodology This paper will carry out research following several steps to assess Qatar’s economic diversification, such as, formulation of problem statement along with objectives, and completion literature review are the key tasks in this case; however, the following figure describes other steps more elaborately – Figure 1: – Research Methodology Flow Chart Not sure if you can write a paper on Qatar’s Economic Diversification by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Source: – Self generated Research methodology is a technique of scientifically resolving the research dilemma; therefore, the researcher of this paper used case study approach and descriptive research method considering the prior knowledge and available information regarding the research problem area to discuss on economic diversification of Qatar. Importance of Case Study Approach Case studies enable a rich, holistic, and in depth description of data; This approach would help the researcher co-ordinate the understanding with proper evidence; In addition, it is helpful to study complex phenomena (Yin 6); At the same time, it is useful method when the topic needs to discuss within a real-world context like assessing the impact of economic diversification in Qatar; Secondary Research This paper mainly based on secondary data sources and the researcher particularly focus on the internet databases because it is one of the most cost-effective and familiar ways to collect processed data; however, the next figure shows secondary data collection method – Figure 2: – The categorization of published secondary data sources Source: – Self generated In order to evaluate the impact of economic diversification in Qatar, the writer of this study considered a number of secondary sources, for instance, scholarly articles including Al-Ghorairi’s article in the development of the financial sector of Qatar, reports of Qatar Statistics Authority, World Bank, journal publications, and so on. Limitation of the Study Limited words were one of the main problems to organize this paper as the topic “assessing Qatar’s economic diversification’ is the vast area of research and should point out too many relevant factors in this regard; In addition, the deadline was not sufficient to formulate the study; There were no scope to collect primary data due to short word limit; consequently, it is not possible to know the opinion of the mass people regarding economic diversification of Qatar Results and Discussion Al-Ghorairi (30) pointed out that there are insufficient accessible literatures, which are concerned with Qatar exclusively, even though it is to certain extent, enclosed in some studies, which deal with oil sector industry in the Arab states; in addition, the investigations published thus far does not take into account the latest considerable socio-economic changes or economic diversification of Qatar. However, Al-Ghorairi (31) also suggested that in order to assess the economic diversification of Qatar, it is highly essential to closely observe the financial sector development, banking industry, expansion of insurance sector, and emergence of new financial services as well as the oil sector of the country. Monetary circulation in an oil-based economy as Qatar depends on how much the government expends outside of the amount of credit that bank and other financial institutions provide to private-investors; however, it is notable that Qatar has been one of the fastest-growing economies in the world throughout the last ten years both in terms of financial and oil-sector development. The nominal growth rate in GDP in 2008 was 44%, headed by 25.1% and 33.7% in 2007 and 2006 correspondingly; the GDP per capita was USD $103500 in 2008, making it one of the wealthiest countries in the planet; conversely, Qatar’s banking sector has gone through a course of evolution that has mirrored the alterations in the economy (Al-Ghorairi 55). The following figure illustrates that currently, three-forms of banking operations exist in the country, which are, namely, commercial-banks (both local and international), Islamic-banks (which focuses on Sharia law for operations), and specialized-banks – Figure 3: Forms of banking operations Source: Generated from Al-Ghorairi (59) This chapter has organized with the following economic diversification efforts of Qatar with the objectives to evaluate to what extent the country has succeeded its diversification drives – Development of Financial Sector as Diversification Efforts IMF (4) pointed out that among the petroleum-producing countries, Qatar is the third-largest owner of hydrocarbon reserves while t placed at the top position for it of LNG conversion, but the country has halted to develop any new petroleum production facilities until 2015 as an economic strategy to accelerate its economic diversification. The most dominant effort to Qatar’s economic diversification is to strengthening and emergent of the financial sector while the banking system is very flexible to shocks that already influenced by the global financial crisis; however the authority has emphasized to enabling its banking sector enough stronger to protect any vigorous risk and stress by taking macroprudential strategy framework. The reformation in the banking sector has introduced dynamic initiatives providing a scheme to support for emergency warning system before any shocks that would lend a hand to mitigate the risks of the banking system of Qatar that would ultimately strengthen the financial stability of the country while the initiative would continue to build up the domestic bond markets. Al-Ghorairi (56) pointed out that the banking system in Qatar remains backward due to its historical and political background that engendered with the independence and the country gained the membership of IMF in 1972 while the country had not any private banking system prevailed and following the IMF membership guidance the country introduced commercial banking system in the country. At present, there are eighteen (18) banks operating their business in Qatar, some of them domestic and the others are foreign operation introduced through the license of Qatar Central Bank the national central monetary authority that administer and control fiscal and monitory policy of the country. The banking system of Qatar was quite different from the global banking operation while the oil export remittances transferred by the collaboration of Arab and foreign banks, now the reformation of he banking sector has aimed to explore it in context of global banking system to coup with the changing economic dynamics of the country. Now the banking sector of Qatar has gained the capabilities to attract funds and utilize that fund in the financial instruments as well as asset-backed trading, moreover the banking sector has gained enough strength to provide equity finance in context of risk sharing, it also generated saving habit of the local people as part of their corporate social responsibility. Like other Islamic countries, Qatar has introduced Islamic banking system called which is a profit loss-sharing scheme rather than fixed interest-based baking derived from the Islamic ‘Shariah’ law as the religion stands against interest and to prohibited interest-based transaction, this agenda aimed to legalize the banking system from the religion viewpoint. The model of Islamic bank has facilitated the banking system with a great opportunity to impose the extreme burden of loss on the customers account in the name of Islamic banking while the modern baking sector collapsed due to the credit crush in 2009 following the global financial crisis. Besides the banging sector, Qatar has significantly developed its stock market named Qatar Exchange and integrated it with the GCC Stock Markets, it has introduced bond market, and private equity market, including new financial services like insurance industry along with the growth of Takaful Market that explored the non-banking financial service sector with landmark success through contribution to the GDP. In 1995, the government encouraged equity market of Qatar by establishing the Doha Securities Market (DSM) that generated huge domestic investment facilities and the development measured through the number of listed companies which was 43 during 2008 and the market capitalization was QAR six billion and explored up to QAR 279 billion in that period. The stock markets of the GCC nations have been improving day by day with a greater openness for the foreign investors along with expatriates, the highest degrees of readiness of the Qatar has evidenced by permitting GCC citizens and foreigners to take part in the large level of capital market that sincerely increased the trading levels with superior foreign ownership. Development of Knowledge-based Economy as Diversification Efforts Planning Council (8) reported that the knowledge economy in Qatar based on four pillars, such as, ICT, education, innovation, and econ incentive regime; however, the government has already created a national ICT policy for the future development of the nation societal issues in profound ways, enhancing educational sector and offering outstanding healthcare services. In addition, ICT Qatar (3) stated that ICT based economy of Qatar would develop rapidly while Qatar’s mobile penetration stands at 167%, more than 89% people have computer, and near 70% people of this country use broadband. At the same time, ICT Qatar (5) and Planning Council (8) argued that improvement of ICT sector would enhance digital literacy and develop the skills for innovation, foster economic development, advance the quality and cost-efficiency of present manufacturing process, building a centralized government data center. The government initiated to develop ICT sector as part of their diversification process; however, the following figure demonstrates that ICT strategy – Figure 4: Qatar’s long-term initiatives as the basis for ICT master plan Source: Al-Jaber

Family History

Family History. Paper details Taking a family history is an important step in determining current and future health needs and education. There are many tools available to complete a comprehensive health history. The Surgeon General’s tool, “My Family Health Portrait,” located in the study materials, is part of the larger Family Health History Initiative that encourages people to talk about and write down health issues that seem to run in the family, bringing a larger focus on this important issue. This assignment allows the learner to use the tool and become familiar with this initiative. General Guidelines: Use the following information to ensure successful completion of the assignment: This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion. Doctoral learners are required to use APA style for their writing assignments. The APA Style Guide is located in the Student Success Center. This assignment requires that at least two additional scholarly research sources related to this topic and at least one in-text citation for each source be included. Directions: Perform the following to successfully complete the assignment: Use the Surgeon General’s tool, “My Family Health Portrait,” located in the study materials, to document your own family history. Designate a proband for the pedigree with a disease or condition of interest. Write a summary (750-1,000 words) of your findings that includes the following: (a) Discuss of the heredity patterns discovered; (b) Evaluate the risk of transmission to other/new family members; and (c) Propose the feasibility of using this tool in your own practice. NOTE: Read: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2020). My family health portrait: A tool from the Surgeon General. URL: History