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Digital Innovation In Cinema Film Studies Essay

Since cinema was born, it has been redefined lots of times for last 10 decades due to lots of new skills, tools and techniques were introduced and they were accepted to new production of cinema. Nowadays, computer media redefine the very identity of cinema but it also has brought the crisis of cinema’s identity. According to French film artist Christian Metz, most of film shots in 1970s tell a story in one same genre whether they are good or bad, original or not, ‘commercial or not. However, the effect of computerization based on 3-D computer animation and digital compositing on cinema creates its super genre. It is threatening the common feature of cinema which is relied on lens based recording reality. Cinema usually pursuit recording reality and naturalism what happens to be in front of the camera. So, cinema was called ‘the index of the art’. But, since it was possible to modify films from the stage of the post-production process in nineteenth century, when images were hand painted and animated, to the filmmaking process with digital techniques in the twentieth century, cinema cannot be distinguished from animation anymore. Also, it is no longer called as the index of the art but it is now understood as subgenre of painting. In the reading of ‘Digital Cinema and the History of a Moving Image’ written by Lev Manovich, he develops the argument in two stages. He first follows the history of developing techniques for creating moving images in nineteenth century to twentieth century cinema and animation. And then, he arrives that a variety of computer software are currently replacing tradition film technologies redefining the definition of digital cinema. To understand how cinema has been redefined, we have to look at the history of cinema first. According to his reading, cinema which was used to be named as Kinetoscope, cinematograph and moving pictures was understood from its birth as the art of motion, the art that finally succeeded in creating a convincing illusion of dynamic reality. Hand-painted and hand drawn images showed by magic-lantern were used for cinema techniques till 1985s. The real cinema was born when photography met the motor in the last decade of nineteenth century, but the objects on the screen were the same size and moving at the same speed. However, since that time, the moving image techniques such as loops intensified movement of images. This nineteenth century moving image techniques set the foreground for twentieth century animation. In twentieth century, animation was aligned to the graphic than photographic and it allowed animation to alter motion, detailed background and space constructed from separate image layers. Because of these changes by animation, cinema which had maintained capturing realities on film also has started image alteration as animation using rear-projection and blue screen photography, matt painting and glass shots, mirrors and miniatures, push development, optical effects, and other techniques. In 1996, Hollywood industry employed computer generated special effect into the commercial film, it was a start of digital filmmaking. A traditional film making is redefined by the role of digital media not only in Hollywood but also the whole filmmaking industry. Digital filmmaking is now creating all images and objects by 3-D computer animation without filming physical reality. Moreover, as long as the live footage is digitized, it is nothing more than raw material for compositing. Therefore, film based media are not essential for a film making now. In this point, the author defines digital cinema is a particular case of animation as well as the moving image also becomes a part of animation. Twentieth century avant-garde filmmaking also could not avoid the influence of digital revolution on cinema. Because the notion of avant-garde cinema was thought as painting, so it was easy to be combined with animation. Finally, avant-garde became a design technology for digital filmmaking. The value of cinema is recording documents of reality. However, it is being replaced with developed filmmaking skills and tools such as 3-D animation and special effect techniques by computer. Therefore, the role of cinema is not only capturing and store visible images as a media technology but it is also constructing images in twentieth century and cinema realism is being an option of digital filmmaking among many from the dominant mode. He also argues that cinema becomes a code in a computer age. New cinematic forms such as the genre of music video and video game have been introduced to commercial cinema, since hardware and software of computer started developing. These new visual languages were tending to emulate traditional cinema. An interface to narrative taking place in 3-D place was cinema language but it is encoded in the interfaces to all forms of computer data and media. Finally, new media now occupy the centre of the cultural forms and language. Because of that, the celluloid form of film is disappearing themselves, distribution culture is changing from off-line to on-line, and the way of filming is being remediated. I understood the reading of his point as the notion of cinema does not only seem to be redefined but it is also dismissing itself due to cinema realism is merged to digital cinema as an option of animation, and computer generated technologies for filmmaking is now entirely embedded in cinema. This is obvious that digital computer technology on cinema is not only used for the special effect such as the flying leaf in the first shot of ‘Forest Gump’, but it is now a dominant option for contemporary filmmaking. For instance, the actual filming of ‘Star Wars: Episode 1 – The Phantom Menace (Lucas.1999)’ took only sixty five days, but post-production which 95% of footage covered by computer construction took more than 2 years. Moreover, the most popular film in 2010 ‘Avatar’, it would be impossible to create character, the virtual places and lots of props, if they did not use digital technologies. In the contemporary film industry, digital technology is unavoidable and it is called a certified check of box-office. This is sad but true. The contemporary film has got a variety of genre. There is no need to talk about new media technologies are dominant on film genres of science fiction and fantasy. However, even filmmaking for other genres which are commonly popular to audiences are still telling the story of human being and human stories such as romance, comedy, thriller, drama and et cetera employ special effects by computer generating is being used for some part of those films, or it is creating realistic images and backgrounds. Moreover, digitised film is not only the converted version of celluloid film which makes editing much conveniently and faster, and it costs much cheaper but it is also the way of distribution. Processing of cutting out and paste digitised frames on timeline of the digital editing programme seems to be similar to the traditional film editing process but producers and editors can handle much faster with lots of shortcut key and special function of the editing programmes, and they make easier to modify images, add graphics and paint directly on films. Therefore, the avant-garde cinema even could move to combine digital cinema technology. Since digitised films started paying on the computer screen and home theatre system, audiences does not want to get bothered to be in a queue to buy and get into the cinema anymore, and we can only pay $2-20 for downloading a film from online website whatever how many times we watch it (Cost 2011). Moreover, In UK, Digital Screen Network (DSN) supported new facilities for digital cinema system in 211 screens out of a total of just over 3300 screens in the UK across country because digital technology was seen to more cost effective and logistics-light. It is cheaper and much less stressful to send films as computer files across the UK than deliver many tins of films in the back of vans (Sin D. 2004). However, cinema realism is being displaced from the dominant mode to merely one option among many as he mentioned. But I would say, cinema realism is being eliminated now, not even an option. According to the notion of cinema when it was born, it was art of motion and creating a convincing illusion of dynamic reality which was supposed to be maintained as the cultural form. But this has not been redefined but actually devastated. Colours, dynamic range and image quality on digitised film could not be presented properly as well as which are on traditional celluloid film. Film records and reproduces a broader range of colour such as deep red or reddish orange which it cannot be well presented in digital film because all colours and images encoded as codes so they which could not be converted to codes cannot be presented on the screen. This is important to present a reality of cinema. Moreover, film has an advantage in recording highlight. Film producers take for granted the fact that specular highlights and bright sunsets look the way they do in painting and on film, but digital has a huge problem with this. High Definition technique also has been employed to digital film industry, but it is still not enough to present the reality rather than recording in 35mm celluloid film. As above these examples, digital technique in digital cinema cannot be replaced a traditional film technique, but it is actually devastating the notion of cinema and eliminate cinema realism. To sum up, digital innovation on cinema seems to be inevitable and lots of techniques have been already used for contemporary filmmaking. Thanks to these, virtual world where we have always dreamt could be presented on the screen and audiences are now able to watch their fantasies with their eyes. Special effects on films intensify the tension of narrative and bring lots of material for the story. However, the identity of cinema is possibly destroyed by technologies of digital cinema and audiences will be confused with the existence of a virtual world due to they will be only watching things created by computer graphics. The projector will be disappeared, and we cannot hear the sound of the projector rolling the film which we definitely will miss it.
UK Social Work Personal Values and Beliefs Exploration Discussion.

I’m working on a social work writing question and need support to help me understand better.

Personal Values and Beliefs Exploration Paper (2-3 pages, do not include the ecomap or genogram): This assignment encourages students’ broad utilization of different theoretical approaches associated with social work practice. Students will identify and briefly explain core personal values and compare these with professional social work values in a two page reflection. Students will discuss how to evaluate the fit of personal values with those of social work as well as identify potential conflicts with values. Students must provide at least one example to illustrate the assessment of values and core beliefs.Papers need to be formatted according to APA publication guidelines (6th edition) so that all written work is typed using 12 point font, double space and has 1” margins on all sides. Students should submit papers free of grammatical and spelling errors, and use citations if appropriate. Writing should have clarity and ideas and assertions should be supported with sound, informed reasoning. The ability to explain your ideas in writing is absolutely essential for sound, professional practice. Please use spell check, grammar check and proof reading work prior to the submission of any assignments. Grades will be lowered for work submitted not in accordance with these guidelines.
UK Social Work Personal Values and Beliefs Exploration Discussion

UMGC Wk 7 Communicating New & Revised Guidance to Employees & Managers Essay.

I’m working on a computer science Discussion and need a sample draft to help me study.

In Week 4, you developed a plan for how to inform employees and managers about a new policy. For this discussion, you must develop a new and more comprehensive communications strategy which responds to an audit finding that the previous Communications Strategy was not sufficient and had contributed to a controls failure.A recent internal audit uncovered a lack of knowledge on the part of employees and included a finding that this lack of knowledge contributed to a compliance failure for IT security controls related to privacy and data security. The auditors recommended that the company needed to improve its communication of policy changes and revisions to both employees and managers. The auditors also noted that Red Clay Renovations has been experiencing a great deal of change especially with respect to how the company protects information from unauthorized disclosures, including theft of data by cyber criminals. The company agreed with the finding and in its response noted that it has developed a substantial number of new and revised policies, plans, and guidance procedures to help manage the associated risks but that it could improve internal communications about those changes. Now, the company needs to fix the “communications” problem. The CISO has asked you to help develop a communication strategy that can be used to explain the cybersecurity and privacy related policies to a non-technical workforce.Your Task: Prepare a briefing that identifies your top 5 strategies and explains why you chose each one. Provide examples of the types of policies which need to be communicated to the workforce (use your work for Projects 1, 2, & 3 and your weekly discussion papers). To get started, review the communications strategy that you developed for the Week 4 discussion. Then consult the resources (listed below) which were provided by the company’s Human Resources office.Provide in-text citations and references for 3 or more authoritative sources. Put the reference list at the end of your posting. Make sure you use the discussion rubric as well as the above instructions to ensure you include all the required elements in your response.Reading List provided by the Human Resources Office: 4’s disscussion post is attached for your refernces.
UMGC Wk 7 Communicating New & Revised Guidance to Employees & Managers Essay

Care giving and Elderly Mistreatment. The National Centre for Social Research (NatCen) and King’s College London (KCL) carried out a Study on mistreatment of Older People in UK, Over Two thousand people in England, Scotland, Wales and the Northern Ireland took part in that research study which took seven months between March and September 2006. This study included people who were aged 66 and over but were living in private households it focused on the group of elderly people aged 66 years and above, the service-providers and the stakeholders, qualitative interviews were carried out on the older people who had experienced mistreatment. (Mowlam., Tennant., Dixon

2.7 Chapter 4 (ASSIGNMENT)

2.7 Chapter 4 (ASSIGNMENT). I’m studying for my Psychology class and need an explanation.

In a few sentences, please respond to each of the following questions. Up to 10 points can be earned for a completed assignment, with partial credit available for incomplete responses.

Identify and describe the key structures and functions of a neuron that enable us to experience neural communication such as dendrites, axon, nucleus, myelin sheath, axon terminals and synaptic gaps
Discuss how neural signaling among the neurons takes place including how an action potential is generated within the neuron
Identify and describe the two major divisions of the nervous system (central and peripheral nervous system) and differentiate between the somatic and autonomic divisions as well as the sympathetic and parasympathetic parts of the autonomic nervous system
Identify and describe the significant structures of the forebrain, the midbrain and the hindbrain including key structures for each division (such as the hypothalamus, thalamus, cerebral cortex, limbic system, etc.)
Identify and describe several approaches to understanding biological psychology
Identify and describe the purpose of each gland of the endocrine system
Identify and describe several key neurotransmitters and role that each plays

2.7 Chapter 4 (ASSIGNMENT)

Florida National University Health Care Policy Reflection

best essay writers Florida National University Health Care Policy Reflection.

1. Complete this week’s assigned readings, chapters 39-43. 2. After completing the readings, post a short reflection, approximately 1 paragraph in length, discussing your thoughts and opinions about one or several of the specific topics covered in the textbook readings. 3. Identify which one MSN Essential most relates to your selected topic in your discussion.TextbookAuthor: Diana Mason, Deborah Gardner, Freida Outlaw, Eileen O’GradyPublisher: Elsevier – Health Sciences Division Edition: 7th, Seventh, 7eYear: 2016ISBN 13: 978-0323241441ISBN: 0323241441• Essential I: Background for Practice from Sciences and Humanities
o Recognizes that the master’s-prepared nurse integrates scientific findings
from nursing, biopsychosocial fields, genetics, public health, quality
improvement, and organizational sciences for the continual improvement
of nursing care across diverse settings. • Essential II: Organizational and Systems Leadership
o Recognizes that organizational and systems leadership are critical to the
promotion of high quality and safe patient care. Leadership skills are
needed that emphasize ethical and critical decision making, effective
working relationships, and a systems-perspective. • Essential III: Quality Improvement and Safety
o Recognizes that a master’s-prepared nurse must be articulate in the
methods, tools, performance measures, and standards related to quality, as
well as prepared to apply quality principles within an organization. • Essential IV: Translating and Integrating Scholarship into Practice
o Recognizes that the master’s-prepared nurse applies research outcomes
within the practice setting, resolves practice problems, works as a change
agent, and disseminates results. • Essential V: Informatics and Healthcare Technologies
o Recognizes that the master’s-prepared nurse uses patient-care technologies
to deliver and enhance care and uses communication technologies to
integrate and coordinate care.
• Essential VI: Health Policy and Advocacy
o Recognizes that the master’s-prepared nurse is able to intervene at the
system level through the policy development process and to employ
advocacy strategies to influence health and health care.
• Essential VII: Interprofessional Collaboration for Improving Patient and
Population Health Outcomes
o Recognizes that the master’s-prepared nurse, as a member and leader of
interprofessional teams, communicates, collaborates, and consults with
other health professionals to manage and coordinate care.
• Essential VIII: Clinical Prevention and Population Health for Improving
o Recognizes that the master’s-prepared nurse applies and integrates broad,
organizational, client-centered, and culturally appropriate concepts in the
planning, delivery, management, and evaluation of evidence-based clinical
prevention and population care and services to individuals, families, and
aggregates/identified populations. • Essential IX: Master’s-Level Nursing Practice
o Recognizes that nursing practice, at the master’s level, is broadly defined
as any form of nursing intervention that influences healthcare outcomes
for individuals, populations, or systems. Master’s-level nursing graduates
must have an advanced level of understanding of nursing and relevant
sciences as well as the ability to integrate this knowledge into practice. .
Nursing practice interventions include both direct and indirect care
Florida National University Health Care Policy Reflection

Oscar Wilde’s “The Portrait of Dorian Gray” Essay

British Victorian Era writer Oscar Wilde’s book ‘The Picture of Dorian Gray’ has the distinction of being the only novel ever written by its author. The predominant theme running through the novel is that there is a deep-rooted evil prevalent in mankind. Dorian Gray, around whom the story revolves, is initially a compassionate and morally upright man. As the events in the novel unfold, he gradually develops into an evil, wicked and merciless man who feels no guilt or regret for any of his wrongdoings. He succumbs more and more to the influence of evil that leads to his ultimate tragic end. The development of Dorian Gray’s character is an excellent elucidation of how evil in humans can surface, fester and get out of control if left unfettered. At the outset, Dorian is the model of perfection of male youth and handsomeness. The innate evil in him is initially provoked by Lord Henry Wotton, a rich man with a venomous tongue. Wotton, is enthralled by the “full-length portrait of a young man [Dorian] of extraordinary personal beauty” (Wilde: 2) as painted by Basil Hallward, and befriends the young man. He praises Dorian’s handsome physique but snidely remarks that it is just caused by youth that is not an everlasting part of life – it would soon end and the person would change and become ugly and disfigured with age {“Youth! Youth! There is absolutely nothing in the world but youth!” (Wilde: 26)}. Dorian is totally taken in by Wotton’s glib flattery along with his fascinating theories, and begins developing a paranoia about youth, fervently wishing {“I would give my soul for that” (Wilde: 29)} that his portrait would take his place in real life, and wither with the vagaries of age while Dorian’s physique does not undergo any change. Dorian’s spiral downward into the abyss of evil begins with his rude rejection of his lady love Sibyl Vane whom he earlier professed to have loved. Sibyl takes his rejection very badly. She feels that her whole world has caved in and that she has got nothing to live for. Fatally heartbroken, she commits suicide. Dorian’s response upon hearing the news is to callously admit his role in the tragedy but dismiss it as unimportant, talking instead about nature and surroundings (“Yet the roses are not less lovely for all that [Sibyl’s death]” (Wilde: 111)}. As time passes, Dorian’s wrongdoings grow worse. He starts robbing jewelry and gets involved with the cream of top society as well as the morally degraded robbers and ruffians at street level. Dorian then commits his worst sin by killing of Basil Hallward, the innocent man who was always ready to help him. Basil’s killing signals the start of Dorian’s last lap in life. Unable to shake off his guilt at killing his best friend, Dorian tries to destroy his conscience as symbolized by his portrait, but ends up kills himself in the process. He is found “withered, wrinkled and loathsome of visage, lying on the floor in evening dress with a knife in his heart,” while his portrait has miraculously returned to its original state, a “splendid portrait” of their master as witnessed by Dorian’s awed servants (Wilde: 254) Lord Henry Wotton is motivated by desire for sensual pleasures, a man full of “wrong, fascinating, poisonous, delightful theories” (Wilde: 87). His theories are radical and designed to shock and deliberately try to degrade traditional notions of truth . Basil has deep affection for Dorian and tries his best to dissuade him from getting too deeply involved with the weird theories and influence of Wotton. Basil’s affection for Dorian, like Sybil’s love for the misguided man, turn out to be ruinous to them both. In the end, ‘The Picture of Dorian Gray’ does well to highlight the evil present in human beings. The only barricade that prevents evil have a domineering influence over mankind is the specter of negatives results that humans believe will ensue; this possibility acts as an effective deterrent against evil controlling human life and behavior. Wilde himself wistfully identifies himself with the three main characters: “Basil Hallward is what I think I am; Lord Henry what the world thinks of me; Dorian what I would like to be – in other ages, perhaps” (Wilde: Back Matter). Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The novel exemplifies Wilde’s outstanding ability to inject a mixture of fantasy and realism into his writing. He displays his excellent mastery of morbidity by depicting fascinating scenes such as “He [Dorian] rushed at him [Basil], and dug the knife into the great vein that is behind his ear, crushing the man’s head on the table, and stabbing again and again” (Wilde: 179), and Basil’s lifeblood dropping “drip, drip on the threadbare carpet” (Wilde: 180), that provide a clear and chilling picture to his readers. Another characteristic of his writing is his preference of dialogue over real action. The characters in the novel interact with each other more by word of mouth while action events are relatively few . A third characteristic of Wilde’s writing style is his penchant to use paradoxes. Henry Wotton , Dorian and Basil frequently exchange paradoxes throughout the novel. Reference Wilde, Oscar. “The Picture of Dorian Gray.” USA: Modern Library. 1998.

2- Different 1 to 1.5 pages summary papers

2- Different 1 to 1.5 pages summary papers.

Write (2) different papers (articles in the media (local, national or international) of problems to be solved or decisions recently made) from real-world scenarios to be shared in class. Write up a one page summary that describes the ‘real’ problem, and potential alternatives, your recommended solution and why you chose that solution using this formula. Please no political articles Identify the problems to get to the root problemList ideas for solutionsBrainstorm for solutionsi.Mindmapii.Post-it notesiii.Listsiv.Ask for feedbackv.Historical solutions – what has or has not worked – lessons learnedvi.Gather dataAnalyze and prioritize solutionsi.Evaluate organizational impactii.Relationships and opportunity costsiii.Relate to goalsiv.SWOTv.Alternatives vi.Feasibilityc.Verify solution addresses the problem statementi.What, Why, Where, Who, When, HowPick solutionImplementFacilitateEvaluateConsequences/repercussionsConsistent/sustainability i.Continual reviewReview the results
2- Different 1 to 1.5 pages summary papers

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