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digital currencies Essay

The conversation you will be joining for this essay is digital currencies. As with all of our Join the Conversation essays, this one can be no more than three (3) pages in length, must include at least one “They Say” from any of the sources on the Gale Global Issues in Context database, and follow MLA guidelines for formatting and documentation.
ORG 405 Oakland University Principles and Practices of Effective Leadership Essay.

A. describe and apply the principles of authentic leadership. Write a response for each of the following:Describe the term authentic leadership. Summarize two examples of authentic leadership practices that would positively influence the workplace. Describe three approaches to becoming an authentic leader.Name and describe one positive outcome for being authentic in the workplaceB.Begin by locating an article related to leading by example. After you have read the article, give a response to each of these statements:Summarize the importance of leading by example as supported by the author.Name two ways the article supported this concept. Describe two positive outcomes of this approach according to the article.
ORG 405 Oakland University Principles and Practices of Effective Leadership Essay

Study On The Portuguese Conquest History Essay

The Malacca, because the strategic position on the strait bearing the same name, it become more and more important for trading and shunting of spices like pepper, cloves, ginger, cinnamon, and nutmeg. The Malacca also become a remarkable trading center or port for all the merchants from all the Asian nations of the time, for example, Persia, Arabia, China, India, Bengal, Indonesia, Ceylon, and Japan. After Portuguese conquering Goa in India, the Portuguese start awareness about the importance of Malacca. They started to gather all the information about the Malacca from every seaman who came to Goa. In order to access the strength of Malacca, an expeditionary force was sent there in five ships commanded by Diego Lopez de Sequeira and they arrived in Melaka on 11th August 1509. After that de Sequeira sent one of the captains ashore and negotiated with the Sultan of Malacca. But this action has been failed because of Indian and Arab Muslim persuaded the Sultan and the Bendahara of Malacca does not trust the Portuguese. At the end many of the Portuguese were capture and imprisoned by the Sultan Malacca. In 1511, Afonso de Albuquerque, the Governor and Captain-General of the East were decided to organize an expedition to conquer Malacca. Afonso de Albuquerque collected a fleet of 18 ships and 1,400 men and arrived the Malacca harbor on 1st July 1511. The Afonso de Albuquerque demanded the return of prisoner but the Sultan of Malacca, Sultan Mahmud Syah made an excuse to delay the time so that they can strengthen the fortifications and stockades on both sides of the bridge and the river but Afonso de Albuquerque didn’t waste their time. When 25 July 1511, they attacked the town by concentrating attack the assault on the bridge on the river dividing the town. After released the Portuguese prisoner, Afonso de Albuquerque was not satisfied, when 25 July 1511, he ordered attack again on the city. The city was divided into two parts, which is the main town on side of the river, and the suburbs where the traders lived on the other. But this time of attack was failed; they forced to retreat when at nightfall. After a few days preparation, Portuguese attacked Malacca again and this time finally Malacca fell to the Portuguese on August 1511. On 24 August 1511, Portuguese discover Sultan Mahmud Syah and his family escape and retreat to Ulu Bertam, Pahang. Portuguese sacked the town, but following Albuquerque’s orders, they respected the property of those who sided with them. After conquest Malacca, to strengthens and defend the Portuguese base, Portuguese immediately built a fortress which is call “A famosa” on the south side of the Malacca river. Beside built the fortress, Portuguese also built Governor’s Palace, the Bishop’s Palace, the Government council chambers, several churches, barracks, two hospitals, monastery and a prison. Ruy de Brito Patalim was appointed by Albuquerque as the Governor and Nina Chattu as the Prime Minister. After established the Malacca, Albuquerque was encouraged the merchants to reopen their businesses and built up the friendship to Siam, Java, China, and to the Moluccas island. In order to make buying and selling easier, Albuquerque issued a new coinage at Melaka. Although most of the trading was done by barter, there was some trading by using the Malay tin coins. The new Portuguese coins were of tin or copper, silver and gold. Although Malacca had fallen to the Portuguese, the Sultan Mahmud Syah have a base at Johore. During from 1511 till 1526, Sultan Mahmud Syah and his son Sultan Ahmad had continuous sent their army to attack the Portuguese. At the end, in 1583, a peace treaty was signed. However, the Portuguese strong enemy is Acheh in North Sumatra, which was across the Straits of Melaka. It is because the Sultan of Acheh was the champion of Islam and have a big trading pepper in Sumatera. The Sultan of Acheh wanted to capture Melaka and attacked it several times, but at the end they were not successful. In 1602-1603, the Dutch blockaded Malacca by sea, but this was only a first timid attempt. In 1606, Johore and the Dutch concluded an alliance against the Portuguese and in 1607 they set again the town under siege. The Dutch made several fruitless attempts between 1623 and 1627, and in 1633. The defenders of Portuguese run out of their gun power and with a severe scarcity of food when the last siege of combining the Dutch-Johore fleet of 1.500 Dutchmen, 1.500 Malays, 12 Dutch ships, 6 sloops and 40 Johore vessels during in June 1640. Dutch commander Willmsoon Kartekoe ordered the last desperate assault on January 1641 but the Portuguese defender made a fierce resistance and finally Dutch driven back. But in situation desperation, honourable terms of surrender have been offered by Dutch commander to Portuguese and the Portuguese commander accepted the generous terms. After the Portuguese commander dying, he was buried by the Dutch with military honours in the church of S•o Domingo. The city of Malacca was thus in Portuguese hands from 24 August 1511 till 14 January 1641. Reason Portuguese venture to the East The Portuguese were the first Europeans to dominate trade in SEA and the first to set up trading posts in military-occupied ports . They defeated Moslem naval forces in 1509 and seized Malacca in 1511 , until the Dutch captured it in 1641. Southeast Asia felt Portuguese impact the least. The Portuguese controlled only the small territory of East Timor During the 15th century, Portugal heralded its Age of Discovery and became inexhaustible in its quest to discover foreign lands and expand its tiny kingdom. Initiated by Infante Don Enrique, popularly known as Prince Henry the Navigator (1394-1460), who encouraged his people to increase their knowledge and expand their trading activities to the Far East, the Portuguese embarked on countless missions by land and sea. Their purpose, in addition to searching for “Guinea gold” and expanding their tiny kingdom to become one of the most powerful nations in the world, was to spread the Christian Gospel and reduce the influence of Islam in the East. Portuguese were bent on spreading the gospel to the East and replacing Islam with Christianity. The Portuguese also had another important reason to venture to the East is to search for Guinea gold where precious Asian spices which had become essential in their part of the world, in flavouring and preserving their food. Keeping consistent in their animosity against the Muslims and fuelled by their search for Asian spices, the Portuguese were intent on diverting the Asian spice trade away from the Muslims. The only way to do this was to stop obtaining the Asian spices from the Muslim Empire in Egypt and Syria, and instead, chart a new spice route around the Cape of Good Hope. The efforts of the Portuguese made them the first European nation that came to the South East Asia in search of Asian spies. Another reason for the Portuguese venturing to the East is to search for the mythical priest-king, Prester John, ruling over a powerful Christian kingdom in known as, ‘the Indies’. They believed that with his help, they could conquer the Muslims in the East. In addition, since Muslims had dominated the route via land, they decided to find a new route by sea to the East. The Administration of Portuguese in Malacca Captains-Major of Malacca (1512-1641) Captains-Major From Until Rui de Brito Patalim 1512 1514 Jorge de Albuquerque (1st time) 1514 1516 Jorge de Brito 1516 1517 Nuno Vaz Pereira 1517 1518 Afonso Lopes da Costa 1518 1519 Garcia de Sá (1st time) 1519 1521 Jorge de Albuquerque (2nd time) 1521 1525 Pero de Mascarenhas 1525 1526 Jorge Cabral 1526 1528 Pero de Faria 1528 1529 Fortaleza de Malaca Fortaleza de Malaca is a fortress system which is a quadrilateral tower. It was constructed at the foot of the fortress hill, next to the sea. To its east was constructed a circular wall of mortar and stone with a well in the middle of the enclosure. This construction is fully fortify the fortress hill. The four gateways were built for the cities are Porta de Santiago, The gateway of the Custom House Terrace, Porta de Sao Domingos, and Porta de Santo Antonio. All of these gateways only two were in common use which is Gate of Santo Antonio and the gateway of the Custom House Terrace. Gate of Santo Antonio is linking to the suburb of Yler and gateway of the Custom House Terrace giving access to Tranqueira and its bazaar. Porta de Santiago porta de santiago.jpgporta de santiago2.jpg The Porta de Santiago is one of the four main gates of the A Famosa fortress. It was built by the Portuguese in 1512 under the command of Alfonso de Albuquerque. This magnificent fort had successfully protected the Portuguese position in Melaka, until it was overrun by the Dutch. It was damaged during the attack, but the Dutch later repaired and renamed it VOC with an embossed emblem. But unfortunately what is left until today is nothing more than a gateway called Porta de Santiago. The town of Malacca during the Portuguese era Tranqueira The most important suburb of Malacca is at Tranqueira. The suburb was rectangular in shape, with a northern walled boundary, the straits of Malacca to the south and the river of Malacca and the fortaleza’s wall to the east. It was the main residential quarters of the city. However, in war, the residence of the quarters would be evacuated to the fortress. Tranqueira was divided into a further two parishes, which is São Tomé and São Estêvão. The parish of S.Tomé was called Campon Chelim or we call it Kampung Keling. It was described that this area was populated by the Chelis of Choromandel. The other suburb of São Estêvão was also called Campon China or Kampung Cina. Erédia described the houses as made of timber but roofed by tiles. A stone bridge with sentry crosses the river Malacca to provide access to the Malacca Fortress via the eastern Custome House Terrace. The center of trade of the city was also located in Tranqueira near the beach on the mouth of the river called the Bazaar of the Jaos that is Javanese. Tranqueira, this part of the city was still called Tengkera. Yler Yler or we call it Hilir roughly covered Buquet China which is bukit cina and the south-eastern coastal area. The important water source for the community is the Well of Buquet China. The Church of the Madre De Deus and the Convent of the Capuchins of São Francisco is at the Buquet China. Another notable landmark included Buquetpiatto which is built piatu. The extreme boundaries of this unwalled suburb were said to be as far as Buquetpipi and Tanjonpacer. Tanjonpacer or Tanjung Pasir was later renamed Ujong Pasir. A settlement of Portuguese descent community is located there in present day Malacca. This suburb of Yler is now known as Banda Hilir. Sabba The houses on this suburb were built on the water edges of the river. Some of the original Muslim Malay inhabitants of Malacca lived in the swamps of Nypeiras tree, where they made Nypa wine by distillation for trade. This suburb was considered the most rural, being a transition to the Malacca hinterland, where timber and charcoal traffic passed through into the city. Several parishes also lie outside the city along the river. In later periods of Dutch, British and modern day Malacca, the name of Sabba was made obsolete. However, its area encompassed parts of what is now Banda Kaba, Bunga Raya and Kampung Jawa in Malacca city. The monetary system in Malacca In 1511, the ViceRoy of India, Afonso de Albuquerque, invaded Malacca. The Portuguese ruled Malacca for 130 years. In January 1641 the Dutch took hands of Malacca. Portuguese coinage in the East Indies was struck at Malacca from the year of its conquest 1511, until the Dutch occupation in 1641. Base metal coins were struck for the Portuguese sovereign Emmanuel (1495-1521) and his successors, silver from the reign of Philip II (1598-1621) and Philip III (1621-1640). The Portuguese only focus on doing main business after conquers the Malacca. In India and Malacca, the first thing Portuguese will did wherever they were was to strike coins with which to do that business. In 1511, Portuguese were struck a few gold and silver coins and a set of denominations in tin by the governor da Albuquerque opened a European style establishment. Although there was already have a mint in Malacca. The gold and silver were struck mostly to demonstrate sovereignty, and were sent back to Portugal to show the king that he had a new piece of real estate. There were basically 3 denominations of tin coins struck at the Malacca mint: big ones called bastardo, their tenth, called soldo, and later a tenth soldo, called dinheiro. The weight relation of the bastardo and soldo started out fairly correct, but the bastardo became light fairly quickly, and the soldo, and later the dinheiro, became tokens. Latterly, a half dinheiro, or bazaruco, was struck. Over the 130 years of Portuguese occupation about 20 tin types were struck, in several dozen major and minor varieties. During the closing decade of the Portuguese period, there were also some silver coins struck at the Malacca mint, for example, tangas, multiples, and fractions. In addition, a few silver and gold coins were struck at Goa and Lisbon for Malacca. All there are extremely rare. The Portuguese Currency In 1511, during the reign of King Dom Mnuell, the gold and silver coin were struck in Malacca by mind set up by Governor Alfonso D’Albuquerque from the first year of the occupation. Among the initial currency issues were the commemorative Catolico and the Meio Catolico, both minted in gold and, the third commemorative in silver, the Malaques, named after Malacca. During the reign of King Dom Joao III, the De Castro issue and the Malacca Mint issue are two separate coinages in Malacca. The De Castro issue was struck during the governorship of Dom Joao de Castro, the 4th Viceroy of Indis (1545-1548) was in gold as well as in tin. The gold coins were the Escudo de Sao Tome and the Quarter Escudo de Sao Tome, minted in Lisbon and Goa for circulation in India and the ten Portuguese territories. The tin coins were the Bastardo, Soldo and Dinheiro which were also minted in Lisbon for circulation in Malacca. The coinage of King Dom Sebastiao, the tin coins have the different distinctive between bastardo, Soldo and Dinheiro. On the Bastardo, the armillary sphere was replaced by crossed arrows and the letter “S B”. The Soldo had either double arrows a or triple arrows and the letters “B A”, for the Dinheiro, there were at least two issues, one with the armillary and triple arrows; on the other sailing ship replaced by the sphere During the reign of King Dom Felipe II (1598-1621) there had been no official record of any coins minted at or for Malacca market. Only the silver piece known by us and there is no distinctive tin coins appear to have issued by the Malacca Mint. They were only in four denominationa, the first is Half Tanga, the second is Tanga, the third is Double Tanga and the forth is Quadruple Tanga. This Quadruple Tang was struck between the years 1633-1636 at the Malacca Mint or may be at the Goa Mint specially designed and issued for Malacca. All denominations of silver Tanga of Malacca with the mintmark of “A M” or “M A” of the Malacca Mint. Dom Manuel I 1495 – 1521 second issue Dom Manuel.gifsecond issue Dom Manuel reverse.gif Second issue 1512 – 1515 (De Brito Patalim´s coinage). Bastardo, pewter, 49,06 gram, 37,5 mm. Obverse: Sphere with legend around: D(om) M(anuel) P(rimeiro) R(ei) DE PV(rugal) S(enh)OR D(a) I(ndia) E MALA(acca) Reverse: Cross of the Order of Christ with legend around: CRVX XPI NOSTRE SPES VNICA Shaw

ssignment 2: Internal Environmental Analysis/Strategy Analysis and Strategy Selection Purpose: This assignment is the second of three assignments

cheap assignment writing service ssignment 2: Internal Environmental Analysis/Strategy Analysis and Strategy Selection Purpose: This assignment is the second of three assignments.

Assignment 2: Internal Environmental Analysis/Strategy Analysis and Strategy Selection (Week 6)
Purpose: This assignment is the second of three assignments. Students will use the tools and concepts learned in the course and in
previous business courses to develop an understanding of how organizations develop and manage strategies to establish, safeguard
and sustain its position in a competitive market.
Students also have the opportunity to review an organization’s objectives and goals and the key functional areas within the
organization. Performing an internal environment analysis helps assess a firm’s internal resources and capabilities and plays a
critical role in formulating strategy by identifying a firm’s strengths to overcome weaknesses. Students will then 1) assess long-term
objectives, 2) identify and evaluate alternative strategies and 3) recommend strategies for a company to pursue.
Instructions:
In completing the report, students will use the chapters in the eBook as a guide and perform research on the company from
Assignment 1, answer the required elements below in narrative form following the steps.
The companies used in Assignment 1 are below. Students will use the same company to complete this assignment as they did in
Assignment 1. Students who fail to use the companies on the list or an unapproved company will receive a zero for the assignment.

 Regeneron Pharmaceuticals (NMS: REGN)
 BHP Billiton (NYS: BHP)
 Orocorbre Ltd (TSX: ORL)
 Fiat Chrysler Automobiles NV (NYS: FCAU)
 Qualcomm, Inc. (NMS: QCOM)
NOTE: All submitted work is to be your original work (and only yours). You may not use any work from another student,
the Internet or an online clearinghouse. You are expected to understand the Academic Dishonesty and Plagiarism Policy,
and know that it is your responsibility to learn about instructor and general academic expectations with regard to proper
citation of sources as specified in the APA Publication Manual, 6th Ed. (Students are held accountable for in-text citations
and an associated reference list only).
Students may use subheadings.
Step 1: Preparation for the Assignment
Before you begin writing the report, you will read the following requirements that will help you meet the writing and APA
requirements.
 Read the grading rubric for the assignment. Use the grading rubric while writing the report to ensure all requirements are
met that will lead to the highest possible grade.
In writing this assignment, you will read and following these tasks:
 Third person writing is required. Third person means that there are no words such as “I, me, my, we, or us” (first person
writing), nor is there use of “you or your” (second person writing). If uncertain how to write in the third person, view this
link: http://www.quickanddirtytips.com/education/grammar….
 Contractions are not used in business writing, so you are NOT to use contraction in writing this assignment.
 You are expected to paraphrase and are NOT to use direct quotes. You are expected to paraphrase, which can be learned
by reviewing this link: https://writing.wisc.edu/Handbook/QPA_paraphrase2…..
 You are responsible for APA only for in-text citations and a reference list. Cite the page or paragraph number.
 In writing the analysis, writing in the third person. What this means is that there are no words such as “I, me, my, we, or us”
(first person writing), nor is there use of “you or your” (second person writing). If uncertain how to write in the third person,
view this link: http://www.quickanddirtytips.com/education/grammar…
 In writing this assignment, students are asked to support the reasoning using in-text citations with page or paragraph number
and a reference list. If information is taken from a source document, it has to be cited and referenced with a page or
paragraph number. A reference within a reference list cannot exist without an associated in-text citation and vice versa.
 In completing this assignment, you are required to support reasoning or conclusions using in-text citations. Note that a
reference within a reference list cannot exist without an associated in-text citation and vice versa.
 When using a source document, the expectation is that the information is cited and referenced with a page or paragraph
number.
 No books other than course eBook.
 In writing this assignment, students are expected to paraphrase and not use direct quotes unless citing the mission statement
of a company. Learn to paraphrase by reviewing this link: https://writing.wisc.edu/Handbook/QPA_paraphrase2….
 Read all course material for weeks 1 through 6 and perform independent research to provide a comprehensive internal
environmental analysis, strategy analysis and selection.
 Jot down key facts about the company. Consider making an outline to c
ssignment 2: Internal Environmental Analysis/Strategy Analysis and Strategy Selection Purpose: This assignment is the second of three assignments

BA616: Discussion7

BA616: Discussion7. I’m trying to learn for my Management class and I’m stuck. Can you help?

Complete Question
Stanford University medical researchers conducted a study on the correlation between the use of fertility drugs and ovarian cancer. Their study, published in the American Journal of Epidemiology, concludes that the use of the fertility drugs, Pergonal and Serophene, may increase the risk of ovarian cancer by three times. The lead author of the studies, Professor Alice Whittemore, stated, “Our finding in regard to fertility drugs is by no means certain. It is based on very small numbers and is really very tenuous.”
FDA Commissioner David Kessler would like the infertility drug manufacturers to disclose the study findings and offer a warning on the drug packages. He notes, “Even though the epidemiology study is still preliminary, women have a right to know what is known. We’re not looking to make more of this than there is.”
If you were a manufacturer of one of the drugs, would you voluntarily disclose the study information?

Requirements:
APA Format
Two reference

Total words:250
BA616: Discussion7

league tables for secondary schools in England

Abstract This essay analyses whether or not league tables encourage schools to achieve a better performance, and whether such tables should be continued. It argues that the introduced league tables have put schools under great pressure, as they are constantly required to perform better than in previous years. This pressure that affects both teachers and pupils limits the necessary and valuable room for making learning and teaching an enjoyable, free and creative endeavour. In this context, the present paper pays particular attention to the issue of school choice and argues that, primarily for reasons of statistical uncertainty, the introduced league tables for English secondary schools are highly misleading. Parents should use the league tables with caution and examine all aspects and not just snapshots of the tables’ contents, especially since ways exist for schools to manipulate the results themselves. Introduction If one looks into English newspapers, one will come across quite opposing views on the value of league tables for secondary schools in England. While The Sunday Times concludes that “league tables inform choice” (Woodhead, 2008), the Telegraph argues that school league tables are “almost worthless, ›and do not give parents a true indication of performance and should be scrapped” (Tibbetts, 2008). Two completely different opinions on a topic that has sparked considerable academic and public debate-a topic that is likely to remain a controversial issue and seems thus a worthy subject for further scholarly investigations. In England, school league tables have been published since 1992 and were first based on raw examination results. They provided information on the performance of schools in the public examination at two different stages: When the children were 16 years of age at the end of the compulsory school attendance period and at the end of post-compulsory secondary education when the pupils were 18 years old (West and Hazel, 2000). In other words, the tables reported the average grade of the pupils’ General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE) and illustrated Key Stage 4 and post-16 tables (Directgov, 2010) [1] . In 2002, the Government decided to publish a value-added measure system, as schools vary in the quality of their intakes and raw-scores cannot be seen as independent figures in terms of the previous performance and considering the family background of a child. The new value-added method provided for more accurate information of schools’ effects on pupils entering the school (Leckie and Goldstein, 2009). Four years later, a multilevel methodology, called the contextual value-added (CVA) score, had been established. This statistic works by taking into account a child’s performance with that of pupils with similar previous attainments and circumstances. The CVA scores, which are published each year by the Government on the Department for Schools, Children and Families’ (DCSF) website, make parents aware of these tables, where all English schools are listed in a rank order. Furthermore, the scores are also meant to be used by the schools offering guidance that enables them to improve their performance. The current rankings are produced by the official school inspection system (OFSTED) that controls and regulates English schools at least every three years and provides school-by-school reports. Building on this brief summary of the league tables’ history, this essay will proceed as follows. In a first step, the paper’s guiding question will be put into the general international context of school, university and country rankings (such as PISA [2] , PIRLS [3] or TIMSS [4] ). This will be followed by a compact overview of the general academic debate on the measurability and comparability of countries’, institutions’ and individuals’ educational performance. A review of relevant literature will present main academic findings on assets and drawbacks of league tables for English secondary schools, before I will discuss these findings in the subsequent section. Finally, the conclusion should allow for a summary of findings, a preliminary answer to the question and an outlook and discussion of the prospects for such rankings. Ranking educational performance: The international context Literature review This review summarizes main academic findings on the pros and cons of school league tables. Much in line with The Sunday Times, which asks why we shouldn’t celebrate excellence in the field of education and do not have any competition among schools (Woodhead, 2008), proponents of league tables argue that the results of such contests make it easier to identify good and bad schools (Taylor and Nguyen, 2006). Moreover, the parents would have the choice to find a school where the child can fulfil its potential. Thus, it cannot be a bad idea to compare schools as to their educational success. A second argument brought forward is that the performance tables provide schools and parents with important and useful information. The tables intend to inform parents about the quality of local schools and give orientation, especially since the choice of available schools increased after the Education Reform Act of 1988 (Gorard, 2006). Parents, it is argued, can now find the best school for their child. A final point made from the proponent’s side is that school league tables set targets for test and exam results which would make it easier to indentify schools that do not meet those criteria (Taylor and Nguyen, 2006). On the other hand, however, the publication of school league tables is seen by a considerable number of academics as a significant disadvantage. As Harvey Goldmann and George Leckie (2009) argue, the tables do not provide clear statements and, therefore, have little to offer as guides for choosing a school. Moreover, they do not tell parents what they need to know (Leckie and Goldstein, 2009 as well as Wilson and Piebalga, 2008). Given that the tables in its entirety are very difficult to understand, parents should, nevertheless, try to examine all aspects and not only snapshots of the tables’ contents to gain the whole picture. On this account, a use with caution of the performance tables can be seen as crucial (Hallgarten, 2001). Furthermore, as the most serious weakness of the schools league tables academics recognise the fact that they don’t take into account prior attainment of pupils (Taylor and Nguyen, 2006). Last, but not least, there is also a substantial uncertainty in using current results to predict the future value-added performance of schools (Goldstein and Spiegelhauer, 1996). The league tables are largely perceived as problematic, when it comes to the school examination outcomes (Gorard, 2006). Another point is that schools trend to choose the performance indicators that present themselves in the best possible way (Goldstein and Spiegelhauer, 1996). Moreover, the league tables do not use the pupils’ individual scores to show how schools have improved. Thus, misused tables could later cause misunderstandings (Hallgarten, 2001). Given the fact that these tables have somehow a negative image, not all parents use them. It is not only about selecting the best performing school but above all to eliminate those that perform notably poor. Since, the whole idea of indicators is to change institutions’ priorities, a concern appears when schools try to change those preferences or leave less measurable goals out (ibid.). In addition, some side affects of the performance tables show another negative impact on teachers and schools. As they are both under enormous pressure by local authorities, for some staff cheating has become a feasible option. While trying to meet the claims of the central government, this is, without a question, an unacceptable and unnecessary behaviour in a school (Lippset, 2007). Furthermore, secondary school teachers who have lots of stressful moments are sometimes less productive and feel unfulfilled (Teacher Support Network, 2008). Finally, the pressure makes it for teachers even more difficult to focus on borderline C-grade pupils and at the same time ignores the needs of more able students (BBC, 2009). Discussion Nowadays, league tables are everywhere. As they have become an important and controversial tool in many different parts of our society, the next section will show the influence these ranking systems have in the field of education. The first argument analyses whether or not school league tables have operated in a beneficial way for schools and parents and whether the idea of excellence can be of good use in the educational field. Although there exists already a competitive situation among schools, these competitions, to some extent, make it far easier to detect strong and poor performing schools. Therefore, one could argue that league tables do not merely inform parents and provide them with important information in order to choose the adequate school for their child, but rather set targets for test and exam results (Taylor and Nguyen, 2006). As Stephen Gorard points out, it is now easier for parents to find the best and suitable school for their child, as league tables inform and give them orientation (2009). Performance tables make it possible to compare one school with another. Owing to the process of competition among schools, it is possible to identify high-rated schools. Parents deserve this kind of information in order to make the right choice. The time when a child goes for the first time to school is for both parents and children, an important moment in their lives. Therefore, the provided information on school performance is seen as a very vital one. Setting test and exam result targets is also a good way for schools to see where they stand and this can, on the other hand, stimulate them to try hard to achieving a better place in the rankings. However, in contrast, as the tables are very complicated and difficult to understand, they can mislead the user or reader by not providing any clear statement (Wilson and Piebalga, 2008; West and Pennell, 2000). This has largely to do with naming and harming schools which brings up the question whether or not it has a long or good impact. Opponents say it is not only about reforming a school but also damaging its prestige. Additionally, when schools compete against each other, they usually try to get more enrolments, attempt to win as well as convince parents. Unfortunately, this has little to do with the well-being of the children or the whole education development of a child. The systematic inspection of schools and publishing of reports enabled the public to get to know examination results of every single school in England. This process brought a needed transparency into the field of education. The tables might be difficult and complex but most of the parents do not compare apples with oranges while analysing the ranking systems. They are able to make a decent choice (Woodhead, 2008). In the next paragraph, a crucial limitation of league tables and its impact on schools and parents will be discussed. The following argument will explain the significant disadvantage of these performance tables and how they mislead when it comes to better evaluation of a school’s quality and performance. By using current results to predict the future performance of the schools, a crucial statistical uncertainty can arise. The performing tables neither use pupil’s individual score to show how schools have improved nor bear in mind their prior attainment (Taylor and Nguyen, 2006). When parents today want to choose a school and consider the current data shown by the league tables, they will only receive the information that is based on a group of pupils who is seven years ahead of the group of interest. Thus, one can only anticipate the future school’s performance. The fact that the tables leave the pupils’ individual score out and do not see the individual pupils’ background can be subject to criticism, too. Harvey Goldsmith, as one of the strongest opponents of the league tables, asks even for their abolishment (Leckie and Goldsmith, 2008). According to Joe Hallgarten, another point that can be seen as a very crucial one is that schools use and manipulate the tables to demonstrate their performance in a very good way. They do so by changing priorities and picking the data which suit them best (2001). Parents are exposed to the league tables and cannot do anything against their manipulation as they obtain the already highlighted schools’ promotional material which is part of schools’ improvement work (West and Pennell, 2000). Although the tables show a weakness when it comes to uncertain statistics, on the other hand, they have enormously changed since their first publication in 1992. The latest measure system called contextual value-added, which was mentioned and explained at a previous point in the paper, provides more detailed information not only about the pupils’ intake achievement but also about school and pupils’ characteristics. George Leckie and Harvey Goldstein, however, warn that even though, the tables have altered for the better, they still come with a huge uncertainty when it comes to statistics used by the public (2009). Because of the league tables it is now all about figures and no longer about education. But education should be about more than numbers only. It is devastating if a child is making improvements and working hard but its school is at the bottom or near the bottom of the tables. Once parents found a school for their child, they can in addition to the information provided by the league tables pay the school a visit and try to receive as much information as possible from local authorities and school prospectuses in order to get a wider picture (Directgov, 2010). There is also a debate about league tables how they affect communities, schools, teachers and children. The last argument will now focus on the enormous pressure, as another negative impact, caused by these performance tables. According to Peter Wilby, cheating among teachers has become a common situation in England’s schools (2002). As the vast majority of secondary school teachers are overloaded with work, they cannot focus in the same way on all different kind of pupils in their class. Given that fact, many teachers feel exhausted and dissatisfied (BBC, 2009). Since the league tables have been established, cheating has arrived in schools. It is seen by many academics as a phenomenon which will grow even further in future (Wilby, 2002). Regarding the pressure teachers are confronted with, they would need resources or other programmes in place to support them and the children in the class instead of tables with numbers saying whether they are a good or bad performing school. League tables could be also interesting for employers afterwards. This may be considered as another challenge for children who attend a poor performing school. An employer might be interested in to what school the applicant went or from what community he or she is from. The effect could be a divide of the community which many parents and teachers fear. Considering the last argument of this paper, one can recognise that league tables affect not only pupils attending a school in a bad way but also teachers, schools and communities are interfered. Conclusion In this essay, attempts have been made to analyse the situation of league tables for English secondary schools since their introduction in 1992. As is always the case, research has a number of limitations when it comes to consideration of evaluation of relevant findings. Hence, the present paper discussed and analysed, therefore only, whether league tables boost schools to obtain a better performance, and whether they should be continued. The essay has concentrated on the phenomenon of competition among schools as a positive impact and statistical uncertainty with an inaccurate character as well as enormous pressure that affects both teachers and children as well as schools and communities as a drawback. In case school league tables are continue to produce, it should only happen with an imperative hint for how to use them. Nevertheless, comparative information about schools can be very reasonable. At the same time, performance indicators are used best when they applied in association with other sources of school information. Finally, the paper does not want to give the impression that league tables totally unnecessary. The comparison of schools and the understanding of how they differ is a very noteworthy activity, since it is the only possible way to see how a school has improved (Goldstein and Spiegelhalter, 1996). However, as England is the only country in the UK that still publishes league tables, quite a few people who are involved in research or practical matters concerning performance tables now ask whether it is time to follow Northern Ireland and Wales and abandon them.

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