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Different Approaches Of Nurse Rostering Nursing Essay

Share this: Facebook Twitter Reddit LinkedIn WhatsApp This chapter will focus on the information, which is relevant to this topic. All of the information was gathered from the sources and medium such as journals. Quality on facts is very important to show the understanding of this topic. The facts are then reviewed to act as guidelines for this study. 2.1 Definition of Roster According to Wren (1996), rostering is “the placing, subject to constraints, of resources into slots in a pattern. One may seek to minimize some objective or simply to obtain a feasible allocation. Often the resources will rotate through a roster”. In this project, the term nurse rostering is the allocation of nurses over period of time to perform required work. 2.2 Different Approaches of Nurse Rostering There are two generic approaches towards staff scheduling which were fixed rostering and flexible rostering. Fixed rostering is where staff is allocated a fixed shift pattern over a long or even indefinite time period. According to Hung (1992) the limitation of this approach is that it can operate only under conditions of relatively stable demand and low variability, and that it assumes that sufficient workers can be recruited to staff the unpopular shifts. Flexible rostering is where each rostering period is planned individually. Shifts are allocated on the basis of nurses requirements which reflect demand patterns. It is also based another rostering constraints, including staff’s preferences for off-duty. The changes made in demand and resource constraints have made flexible rostering is far more common than fixed rostering. There are three flexible methods in nurse rostering: 2.2.1 Centralised Scheduling Centralised scheduling is a term that is sometimes used to describe the situation where one administrative department in a hospital carries out all the personnel scheduling (Easton, Rossin, and Borders, 1992; Siferd and Benton, 1992; Smith-Daniels, Schweikhart, and Smith-Daniels, 1988; Warner, 1976). Head nurses feels relieves from the time consuming task to construct the schedule on a very regular basis. The major advantage in centralised scheduling is the opportunity for cost containment through better resources. However, centralised scheduling has a disadvantage where staff feels that local ward requirements are not fed into the procedure, the rosters are unfair, or there might be favoritism. (Silvestro and Silvestro, 2000). 2.2.2 Unit Scheduling Unit scheduling or departmental scheduling is when head nurses or unit managers are given the responsibility to generate the schedules locally.(Aickelin and Dowsland, 2000; Bradley and Martin, 1990;Dowsland, 1998; Sitompul and Randhawa, 1990). 2.2.3 Self Scheduling Self scheduling is a term sometimes used to describe the situation when the personnel roster is generated manually by the staff themselves. The term “interactive scheduling” is also sometimes used for the term self-scheduling (e.g. Miller, 1984; Ringland Dotson, 1989). In general, creating schedules manually has been adopted in hospital wards. Self-scheduling is more time consuming than automatic scheduling but it has the advantage that the nurses cooperate and are asked for advice. In Silvestro and Silvestro (2000), it is said that the process can easily lead to over or understaffing, that the schedule is made for the convenience of staff, and there are no formal procedures for conflict solving. Hung (1992) identified more effectives benefits in self-scheduling. He states that it leads to greater staff satisfaction and commitment, improves cooperation and team work and reduces the staff turnover. He founds that self-scheduling is more effective rosters because the staff know that their personal preferences are taken into account and consequently they are more willing to cooperate. To summarize, the different advantages and disadvantages are given in the next Table 2.1: Table 2.1: Advantages and disadvantages of centralised-scheduling Article Advantage Disadvantage (Silvestro and Silvestro, 2000). Opportunity for cost containment through better use of resources. Local ward requirements are not fed into the procedure Rosters are unfair Table 2.2: Advantages and disadvantages of self-rostering Article Advantage Disadvantage (Silvestro
MGMT 321 Aviation Systems Analysis Methods course Migration Plan Case Study. I’m stuck on a Management question and need an explanation.

Here are the instructions for this assignment:
In this individual practice exercise activity, you will perform scholarly research and create a formal APA style paper on the topic of transitioning from old business processes and computer programs to new business processes and computer programs through the process of utilizing a Migration Plan.
This APA Style Paper Template (DOCX) provides all of the components that are required in this paper and may be modified/utilized in completing this assignment.
Your Case Study must address the following requirements:

Submit a scholarly paper using current APA format utilizing Times New Roman font and double-spaced lines.
Provide a Title Page, Page Headers, and Conclusion sections, plus citations in the main body of the text and references in a Reference List. Note that no Abstract page is needed in a paper requiring only two pages in the body of the text.
Submit a minimum of TWO full pages in the main body of the text.
Provide data obtained by conducting research on the topic from a minimum of TWO primary sources.
Include data relating to any number of the following topics: Conversion strategies; Business contingency plans; Preparing the technology and people for the new system; Understanding the resistance to change; Revising management policies; Assessing costs and benefits; Motivating and enabling adoption.
Your instructor will use the Case Study Rubric for evaluating and grading your paper.

MGMT 321 Aviation Systems Analysis Methods course Migration Plan Case Study

This essay will discuss phobias. It will critically describe and analyse, behavioural and medical, causes and treatments of phobias. It will concentrate on animal type phobias. Explaining the reasons people might develop this specific phobia and give evidence for and against the models. A phobia is an anxiety disorder; it is a continual, irrational fear of a situation or object, which causes symptoms that range from; a slight fear, which causes an immense response. A phobia is characterised by, physical symptoms: breathlessness, hyperventilation and palpitations and can even lead to painful muscle contractions (Gross, 2005 p. 218). Between 3-5million people have some kind of phobia (Mikhail, 2000). An animal type phobia is a fear of animals and insects. That ranges from a slight fear causing a small reaction; to a phobia on a larger scale, causing a greater amount of distress. More extreme cases can cause life debilitating problems The learning theory is a broad theory that includes a multiple of theories: Operant Conditioning, Classical Conditioning Social Learning Theory. An animal type phobia can be acquired through social learning, which normally originates from childhood. The mind detaches the feeling of fear from a traumatic situation. The unconscious mind associates objects with the trauma that they experienced. Although it can be difficult to pin point any exact trauma that the phobia could stem from. They can also be learned from other people that have the same fear. For example a phobia may be triggered when children see the fear of their parent when confronted by a spider (Gross, 2008 p. 190). All Behaviour is learned, phobias can be learned through a process called classical and operant conditioning. Where the phobia is acquired by, learning through association. Phobia is associated with a traumatic situation. J.B Watson carried out a study into the possibility of conditioning an emotional response into a specific phobia. He carried out a study on a little boy named ‘little Albert’, Watson carried out test to find a stimuli that triggered a fear response in Albert, they found that Albert reacted to a loud noise made by a hammer stricken on a metal bar, after this a white rat was introduced, Albert did not react. Watson then made to loud sound with the hammer each time Albert touched the white rat. The joint stimulations triggered a reaction. A serious of experiments was tested on Albert who had now become fearful of the rat. A fear reaction to a number of objects associated with white fur triggered a reaction. Proving, phobias could be acquired through classical conditioning (Watson and raynor, 1920). The study of little Albert was unethical; it could of caused physical and psychological harm. In the original documents from the report of the study, Watson contradicts himself throughout. In the study there is evidence that Albert did have a slight reaction to a rat before he carried out his study (Watson, 1920), Therefore the reaction of little Albert could just be a manifestation the fear he already had. Also ten days after the experiment little showed only a slight reaction to the rat leaning to the left, out of the rats’ way but he was still happy. Little Albert fell over to the left side, got up on all fours and started to crawl away. On this occasion there was no crying but strange to say, as he started away he began to gurgle and coo, even while leaning far over to the left side to avoid the rat…(Britt, 2008). He only carried out this study with one child, and it was never repeated, meaning there is a lack of evidence. Albert was taken from the hospital before the experiment was finished; consequently there is no evidence that the fear reaction manifested into a long-term phobia, or whether any harm was caused to Albert, during the study of this theory. Examples of treatments of phobias caused by behaviour are: Systematic Desensitisation and flooding. Flooding therapy is the fastest therapy for animal phobias; it is a type of counter-conditioning. It involves exposing the client to the phobic object, alone. They will be left there until their anxiety levels are reduced. During implosion therapy the client is encouraged to imagine them self in such a situation. However it is claimed by Bandura (1997) that it also depends on the clients’ ability to deal with the exposure, not just on the exposure it’s self, causing mistrust in this type of treatment. Also whilst most cases the symptoms were improved, others can be made much worse. (Leitenburg 1990.p.199). Systematic desensitisation teaches clients to deal with their phobias themselves, it teaches them to relax visualising their way through a hierarchy of their fears, whilst using their relaxation techniques, until they have mastered the feared object. Although it can be argued that the symptoms will only come back, or new symptoms will arise because the reason for the phobia has not been dealt with appropriately. However there is no evidence that this could occur and that the symptoms will not be diminished for good (Cardwell and Flanagan 2006 p.107-8). This type of therapy does not involve direct contact with the phobic object, therefore the client could still have a reaction even though they felt that they had been cured, the could lead to worsening of the symptoms Not all phobias are gained through socials learning theories. Genetics say that a phobia may be inherited. Prepared conditioning is a theory suggested by Darwin (1877). Darwin thought that the choice of phobia are not only learned they are also are not random. He suggested that we are prepared to develop conditioned fears to certain stimuli. An explanation as to why people develop phobias object such as spiders, snakes and other animals. It was predicted that this type of phobia has evolved over thousands of years, reflecting on the true dangers that our ancestors faced. A phobia of a dog is said to be a newer evolved phobia, because of the uprising of dog fighting (Kenneth,S,2006.p.69). This theory can be disputed because there is a lack of concrete evidence to support it (Edmund, J and Bourne PH.D. 2005. P.41.) Another cause of phobias is thought to be an abnormality of the amygdala; along with other structures of the brain it stimulates panic, it interprets whether something is dangerous or not; and this information is stored in the hippocampus. The amygdala stimulates a variety of brain stem systems, which in turn stimulate the symptoms of phobias. If the amygdala is activated too frequently and or intensely, the systems can become over sensitised. Too much serotonin and norepinehirine contribute to the insufficient inhibition of the amygdale. It is thought that over sensitization can also take place as a result of acute stress or a multiple of stresses Slater and Shield have studied the genetic link between phobias. They found that 41% of identical twins shared the same phobias; compared with only 4% of non-identical twins. However they did not include twins that had been reared apart in their study, failing to distinguish the cause of the phobia between genetics and Social factors, which they would have experienced together (Turner, 2007). Although in contrast to Slater and Shields; Cerkert, Heatson and Davey (1981) did use twins reared apart and still found that they did share the same phobias; suggesting that there is a biological factor to phobias (Turner, 2007). Neither one of these studies took into account that often when twins are separated, adoption agencies try to place twins in as similar surrounding as they can and with families of a similar structure The best way to treat phobias caused by the medical model is with chemotherapy such as SSRI or Triyclic antidepressant medicine; which increase the amount of serotonin in the brain, which will de-desensitize the amygdale (Edmund, J and Bourne PH.D. 2005.p.41). Anti anxiety is often to control the symptoms of a phobia: Benzodiazepines are used for relief of severe anxiety but only short term; they inhibit the excitatory action of the nervous system and produce an overall calming effect; Beta-blockers are used to treat hypertension, these work by reducing the sympathetic arousal caused by adrenaline and noradrenalin (Cardwell and Flanagan 2006.p.105). However both anti-depressants and anti anxiety drug do not extinguish the phobia, they only reduce the symptoms, shown by a relapse rate of 90% after treatment ceases. The dosages of the drugs have to be increased over time as tolerance increases; they can also become addictive, if they are used over a long period of time. Anti depressants are not suitable for children; they can potentially cause harm and are ineffective in treating them (Cardwell and Flanagan 2006.p.106) Electro-convulsive therapy (ETC) is also used to treat patients when phobia has caused to become seriously depressed and other treatments have proved ineffective; and there is a risk of suicide, because it has a much quicker result than chemotherapy. A small amount of electric currents are passed through the brain, which is thought to increase the amount of serotonin available to the brain (Cardwell and Flanagan 2006.p.105). ECT has been effective in treatment, 60-70% of patients improve after treatment. Although is has been successful in treating some patients, others have complained memory loss after treatment and the DOH report (1999) found 30 % of those that received ECT treatment claimed that it had resulted in permanent fear and anxiety, the symptoms that ECT is claimed to reduce. (Cardwell and Flanagan 2006.p.106). This type of treatment can be seen as unethical, it is usually used on patients that have been detained under the mental health act and the majority had not given consent and are unaware that they can refuse ECT (Cardwell and Flanagan 2006.p. Looking at the evidence of all the causes of animal type phobias, there is an unclear explanation for phobias, all the theories have not got enough concrete evidence to back it up, and all the theories are based only upon the ideas of psychologists. The behavioural causes seem more realistic because it explains more the reasons why not everyone has a phobia. The medical model would suggest that everyone should have the same phobias; if phobias were really a human evolution the right treatment for a phobia is also unclear as some that work for one person will not work for another. Looking at all the evidence it seems as though the treatment depends on the mentality of the person been treated.

Coffee Business Strategy Planning

Coffee Business Strategy Planning. Project Charter Project Title: Funky Shea Coffee Company Background Information: According to the market forecast for the coffee industry, coffee is the most consumed beverage worldwide (M, 2018). The demand for coffee has increased in the recent years due to the millennial population fueling its growth and craving more options and variety (M, 2018). The average consumer drinks about two cups of coffee per day (Goldschein, 2011). In 2018 an estimated 158 million bags of coffee were sold and produced(M,2018). Scope: The scope of this project is to organize, plot, and constitute a modern- retro coffee shop with a drive thru that offers a variety of customizable coffee, tea and breakfast options. The location is set for downtown Tampa, Florida. Downtown Tampa is filled with many businesses and people always on the go but has only a few common coffee businesses in place. With an increasing consumer demand for more options and variety in the coffee industry, this business will fill the niche in the market to compete with companies like Starbucks and Dunkin Donuts. This project will cover all processes from the physical construction of the store to the interior design, set up, management, best practice method and resources needed to start this business. Objectives: Construct new building within 6 months Create Customer awareness through marketing 80% or higher customer satisfaction within the first year of operation Create a website for business Invest in google maps listing Maintain 75% gross margin Generate at least $50,000 in sales revenue per month Maintain a high standard of quality and service provided Create friendly / comfortable atmosphere Become recognized as “new best coffee spot” in Downtown Tampa Success criteria: The success criteria for Funky Shea Coffee company will reflect the requirements that ensure successful implementation and completion of this project. Success in this project is defined as the following: Complete all tasks within scheduled times Stay within budgeted amount for project Minimize delays by Daily, weekly and monthly evaluations Minimize Risks by enforcing strict protocols Evaluate employee performance to ensure maximum efficiency Create a positive culture within the workplace Strong strategy and practice Keep up with metrics and track repeat business Staying competitive within the area/ industry High repeat business Funky Shea Coffee Company is planning on proceeding with a customer-oriented approach to ensure that the business will be given the best opportunity to succeed and grow. Funky Shea Coffee Company will focus on provide the highest quality products and services to customers, which will help the company expand its customer awareness. Proposed Budget/ Timeline: Funky Shea Coffee Company will set aside a budget to include constructive costs, materials, resources, employment, internal design, equipment, grand opening, marketing and promotions. The set budget for this project is $500,000. The estimate time for store opening is 1 year from the construction date. High-Level Requirements: Successful implementation of strategic plan for business operations Hire reputable construction company Funding for materials, equipment, and resources Full staff for grand opening Exceed monthly sales goals Keep errors/ delays to a minimum Stay on top of construction schedule Be attentive and proactive to any setbacks/ deadlines Manage Material/ product Inventory Acquire all necessary resources Align vision, mission and values Target appropriate age consumers High Level Project Description/ Boundaries: The main goal of this company is to develop other options and varieties of coffee, tea and breakfast options for consumers to satisfy the increased demand for the popular beverage/ breakfast on the go concept. Considering the demographics of the downtown Tampa, this business will be fulfilling a niche market of increasing coffee businesses and competition in the area. By opening Funky Shea Coffee Company, the business should be able to achieve their goals of meeting their monthly sales goals with competitive pricing, quality and service. The new presence in the community will help attract customers, revenue and repeat business once they experience the high-quality service and options that Funky Shea has to offer. Boundaries related to this project consist of: Thoroughly training all employees Having sufficient amounts of product to meet consumer needs Installing all necessary utilities Organized work schedule Written policies and procedures for each process needed to run the business Schematic/ store set up Smart Location choice/ marketing strategy for area Limiting changes to construction schedule Assumptions: Funky Shea Coffee Company is assuming that by investing in the niche market in the downtown Tampa area and expanding customers options for coffee, tea and breakfast spots will give them an opportunity to make a significant presence and offer their service and quality to the community. Exposure will aid Funky Shea Coffee Company in attaining revenue and customers. Funky Shea Coffee Company is assuming to be able stay on budget and complete all tasks including construction within the intended time frame. Funky Shea Coffee Company is assuming that their commitment to their service, quality and customers will provide the repeat business they are looking for in the long run. Funky Shea Coffee Company is assuming they will be able to stay competitive with the surrounding coffee businesses by meeting customers price, quality, and service needs better than their competitors. Constraints: Possible constraints that Funky Shea Coffee Company may face can include poor market size, decrease sales, delays in obtaining necessary resources, delayed deadlines, increased expense causing business to go over the budget. Problems staying competitive within the downtown area, and decreased customer satisfaction are all restrictions that could keep this business from completing the project successfully. High Level Risks: Decreased economic conditions Decreased profit and sales revenue Competitive pricing Theft and damage Meeting supply and demand requirements State/ city limitations/ restrictions Constructions delays Delaying grand opening Milestone Schedule: Milestone Expected Date Actual Date Project Start Date February 1, 2019 Select Location February 16, 2019 Location Approval February 21, 2019 Hire Construction Crew February 27, 2019 Plan Layout for Store March 5, 2019 Begin Construction March 10, 2019 Hire Employees August 15, 2019 Create Budget/ Cost Plan February 10, 2019 Obtain Funding January 11, 2019 Established policies, procedures and operations April 16, 2019 Marketing/ Advertisement deadlines for opening April 25, 2019 Obtain resources, materials, product and equipment for store April 10, 2019 SWOT analysis March 13, 2019 Supply and demand requirements set April 9, 2019 Complete Construction August 10, 2019 Final Project Report September 25, 2019 Project Completion/ Grand Opening February 1, 2020 Financial Resources/ Budget: Category Monthly Cost Associated Payroll/ Salaries $ 50,000 Construction Costs $ 20,00 Marketing/ Promotions $ 10,000 Utilities $ 2,000 Insurance $ 2,000 Equipment/ Material costs $ 40,000 Expenses/ Supplies $ 4,000 Product Purchase $ 5,000 Total Cost per month $ 133,000 Total Cost per year $ 1,596,000 Stakeholders List: Property/Business Owner Construction Team Suppliers Shareholders Employees of business Project Manager Community/ Customers City/ State Project Approval Requirements/ Exist Criteria: Some requirements for Funky Shea Coffee Company consist of obtaining a construction permit, passing building inspection, obtaining sales tax license, Business license/ permit, Fire department permit, Budget approval, and lastly funds approval. All these major components are crucial to the success of the project. The Project manager will decide if project is on track to meet expectations set by the Owner. The project manager will have the sign off on all final decisions for the project. Project Manager will be prepared will all necessary tools, polices, procedures, deadlines prior to the process bringing. The project manager will be responsible for producing a final report to assure the project has meet requirements and deadlines. Assigned Project Manager, ResponsibilityCoffee Business Strategy Planning

MGMT 310 APUS Week 2 Development and Implementation of Strategy Discussion

essay help online MGMT 310 APUS Week 2 Development and Implementation of Strategy Discussion.

In need of a 250 words Initial Discussion Forum post. MGMT310 Principles and Theory of Management Topic: Week 2 STRATEGY W2: Strategy Just as organizations develop strategy, individuals do too. When considering strategy and creating intended strategy, think about why you are doing what you do. The YouTube video ( (How great leaders inspire action | Simon Sinek) is interesting in understanding how to answer the question of “why?” Discuss Intended Strategy and Realized Strategy as it relates to your life or your career. My Career is military (USMC). I have attached the textbook for this course for this weeks lesson it goes over Chapters 4 and 5. Rubrics Content Valid connections to course content are made. Posts are complete with analysis and insight. Critical thinking is evident. Original ideas are presented. All aspects of the discussion question are completely answered. Participation in Learning Community Responses are substantive and encourage discussion by proposing a different point of view supported by an attribution to a source, personal example, or personal application. All responses include related follow up questions to promote continued discussion.
MGMT 310 APUS Week 2 Development and Implementation of Strategy Discussion

Earth Sciences homework help

Earth Sciences homework help. Q1,Human rights are the rights that usually inherent to all human beings regardless of nationality, place of residence, national, origin, color, language and region. Under the human rights, it states that all individuals are all equally entitled to various forms of human rights without any form of racial segregation. Human rights are usually interrelated, invisible and interdependent. There are different types of human rights that are existing. One of the human rights is the right to life. The right to life is a form ethical principle that is based on the belief that a human being has that right to live. In addition to that, the right to life guarantees any given person that he or she should not be unjustly be kicked by any given human being. The concept of light to life is central to debates on the issues of capital punishment, war, justifiable homicide, euthanasia, and war. The right to freedom of speech is the political right to communicate one’s opinions and ideas. The term freedom of expression is usually used synonymously, but it entails any act of seeking and receiving and also imparting various forms of information or ideas regardless of the medium that is used. This particular right incorporates various forms of communication rights that every individual should have in expressing his or her thoughts.,Q2,The precautionary principle is a way of approach that states that if an action or a form of policy is suspected the risk of causing harm to the public or environment. In the absence of scientific consensus that the action or policy is not wrong. The burden of reasoning that it is not bad falls on those taking the action itself. The principle is used by various policy implementers to explain discretionary practices in scenarios where there is the possibility of danger from making a given form of decision. When an extensive scientific knowledge on the issue is not present, the principle argues that there is a social responsibility to guide the public from the exposure to harm when investigations have found a plausible risk. These forms of protections can be relaxed only if there is a further scientific conclusion that emerges that seems to provide concrete evidence that has not harmed in the long run. In some legal systems, as the law of the European Union, the application of the precautionary principle has been made by the statutory requirement in some various areas and sections of law.,Q3,One of the corporate complicity is direct corporate complicity that deals much with business and human rights literature that tries to avoid drawings up clear boundaries for the categories of corporate complexity in human right abuses. This form of complexity requires intention and participation but without having any intention of doing anything harmful or can be perceived to be harmful. On the other hand, another form of complicity policy is direct corporate complicity that expresses the notion of corporate complicity in human abuses and is not confined to direct involvement in the execution of illegal acts by others. Violations committed by various security forces as the suppression of peaceful protests against business activities or use of representative techniques while guarding company facilities that are often cited in this context. However, in this approach the important for present reason is the sense that where human violations occur in the context of business operation. The business, therefore, needs not to cause harm for it to become tainted by various forms of abuses (Jackson, 2011, p. 15)., , ,Reference List,Jackson, T. (2011). ,International Management Ethics: A Critical, Cross-cultural Perspective., Cambridge: Cambridge University Press., ,Earth Sciences homework help

Society Story Bjarni

There are many pieces of literature in history that reflect on the character of the author and can also tell what the author thinks about society. One such piece of literature is Thorstein the staff struck. There are many examples throughout this story that show what kind of character the author has. Thorarin is introduced in the beginning of the story and is said to be nearly blind. He has a son named Thorstein, who is referred to as being even-tempered but powerful. Bjarni is introduced next as having a servant called Thord. Thorstein and Thord arranged for a fight with their horses. During the fight, Thorstein was badly injured by Thord; some time later, Thorstein killed Thord in retaliation for what happened. A while later, Thorsteins and Bjarni were talking and agreed to fight. Thorstein went to say goodbye to his father, but later wound up being the winner of the fight. Thorstein could have very easily had the upper hand and killed Bjarni. However he chooses not to and told Bjarni he didn’t want to fight him because he was scared. He then gave Bjarni the options to settle the matter; this is the first example of how the author portrays society. From the way Thorstein ended it shows a humble and almost servant nature. He gave in but was honest about his feeling about fighting Bjarni. Bjarni in turn respected this by making the comment of what a remarkable man Thorstein was; this is yet another example of a portrayal of the author’s view of society. Bjarni could have used this against Thorstein, but he commended him instead. This shows a nature of one with a spirit of gentleness, which is the spirit of Jesus, as is the humble nature. Bjarni was so impressed with Thorstein he went into compliment him to his father. Although his father did not feel the same respect for his son as Bjarni did. Bjarni still extended an offer to his father for him to take the seat of honor for the rest of his life. Bjarni did this based on his feelings for Thorstein. The father accepts but then in turn tries to kill Bjarni with a sword. Bjarni denounces the attempt and tells the father he takes back the offer. But even with this betrayal by his father he still keeps his respect towards Thorstein. This shows that type of person Bjarni was, he had the opinion of the whole community on his shoulders, and he still made an offer to his father, which if known by the town would make Bjarni look cowardly instead of the humble man he really was. This is a good example of how Christians as taught to not worry about the opinion of others when making decisions that will affect others. Turn the other cheek and love those that hate you are two basic principles that are taught to Christians and Bjarni and Thorstein both display these values. Thorstein had to live with his father’s negative opinion of him and not supporting him when he was trying to do the right thing. That is hard not to have your family’s support instead having them judge you. Thorstein goes with Bjarni over to live with him. Bjarni was pressured by his wife into this fight as revenge for the death of his servants. He listened to his wife only because of his position in the community and what people were saying about him. He had a reputation to uphold because of his position in the community. Bjarni is a man of beautiful character, even with all this on the line and the fact that Thorstein kills his servants, Bjarni still extends his home and services to Thorstein. This is another example of how the author truly values a man of character and noble virtue. In a society during that time that seemed to have been plagued with murders, and dishonesty, out of this comes this story. It is obvious that the author tries to prove to the reader that a man who is honest and humble will reap more rewards then that man who is dishonest and of bad character. This is very important to the author, who truly values humbleness. This story ends with Thorstein being thought of as a man with great courage and became better liked and had more self control with age. Self control is a concept that is talked about a lot in the Bible. We as told to be slow to anger and kind when we speak and to control our tongues. The fact that Thorstein has appeared to evolve into a patient and self controlled individual is evidence that the author must have some knowledge of the Bible or at least Christian principles. The story also goes on to say Thorstein was very trustworthy. Thorstein went on to become a devout Christian and even made a pilgrimage to Rome. The author makes several mentions of principles that Thorstein and Bjarni both had and even acquired through time. These are attributes of nobleness, honor, integrity, being peaceful and kind concession and even humbleness and recognition of ones own faults and wrongdoings. The concepts these principles are put into with the context of the story tell much about the author and his view on society. He is a person of integrity himself and embraces the principles of Christianity. The way Thorstein was presented at the beginning of the story shows he may not be honorable because of his refusal to be exiled and he hid from that but he redeemed himself at the end of the story; when he has his encounter with Bjarni. The author has a view of society that shows he wants a peaceful land with people being able to work out differences through other methods of other than fighting. And even when fighting did take place at the end, it ended without violence, another biblical concept. This is a beautiful story and shows many biblical and Christian aspects.