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Differences in Diabetic Related Cases in African-Americans and Whites Proposal

Introduction The research study examines the diabetes epidemic among African-Americans based on the various range of risk as well as structural factors contributing to the prevalence of the disease amongst women. The study mainly emphasizes possible avenues which could be exploited to ensure equal application as well as implementation of the various health care interventions with a focus on disease populations and disease management considering chronic conditions which receive greatest disparities in health care (American Diabetes Association, 2009, pp 13-61). Previous statistics reveal that the prevalence of diabetes amongst African-American is averagely 1.8 times more than that in whites of similar age. The studies further revealed that for every six whites suffering from diabetes, ten African-American are diagnosed with the same. The mortality rate amongst African-American is also higher approximated to be around 27%. The number of African-American diagnosed with diabetes and at the same time suffering from severe complications which accompanies the disease is over three million, which is almost 13% of the population. This shows that diabetes is one of the most costly health complications, but it can still be controlled through necessary preventive measures (American Diabetes Association, 2009, pp 13-61). Problem Statement Diabetes is considered epidemic amongst African American women with the rates amongst women 20 years and above recorded to be approximately 12% and 25% amongst women of 55 years and above (Kirk et al., 2007, pp 135-142). Statistics from the National Women’s Health Information Center, Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) 2002, shows that diabetes is more prevalent amongst African-American women compared to white women. Because of the high rates of mortality and morbidity recorded in diabetes-related cases, there is need for preventive measures amongst African American women population. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Complications brought by diabetes could well be controlled through self-management. However, despite the population knowing the various self-management methods, there have been cases of poor adherence to the various documented means of diabetes care. These practices range from poor dietary beliefs to poor physical exercises, however, dietary beliefs have been found to be difficult to change owing to economic situation. Research from medical sources reveals that evidence-based practices enhance the quality of care given to patients and health improvement hence lowering medical costs (Burns and Grove, 2007). Majorly physical exercise and poor diet have been found to be the major causes of diabetes. Change in the level of caloric intake and the various changes in lifestyle influences the prevalence of the disease (American Diabetes Association, 2009, pp 13-61). Research Questions What difference exists in patient-provider services in diabetic-related cases amongst African-American and White patients? Is the concentration between serum glucose and glycated hemoglobin higher in African-American compared to whites? Do African-American women understand and utilize diabetes self-management activities? Literature Review Patient-provider perceptions and the correlation between random serum glucose concentration and glycated hemoglobin are some of the differences in diabetic-related cases in African Americans and Whites. This research will show the differences between the perceptions of patients and providers on diabetes-related perceptions as well as examine its association if any with self-care behaviors and with particular comparisons between African-American and White patients. The research will bring to the forefront the part played by ethnic variation in the correlation between random serum glucose concentration and glycated hemoglobin (American Diabetes Association, 2009, pp 13-61). According to Dana et al. 2009, the manner in which a person experiences, understands and identifies diabetes is referred to as diabetes perceptions (Dana et al., 2009, p347). Research on patient-provider differences has found congruence with regard to diabetes-related attitudes, beliefs, and opinions. We will write a custom Proposal on Differences in Diabetic Related Cases in African-Americans and Whites specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Research also shows that patients and providers generally agree on the core components of effective care of diabetes but have entirely different understandings of diabetes and the priorities for self-management (Burns and Grove, 2007). There is documented incongruence between patients’ and providers’ perspectives where self-management activities education priorities are concerned, continuity of care, barriers to self-care, treatment goals, quality of patient-physician communication, adherence to self-care regimen and diabetes-related attitudes (Tang et al., 2008, p341). Kirk et al. 2007 found that both ethnic groups had significantly different perceptions from providers for at least six concepts. For African-Americans, the significant areas of difference from providers were on the ideas of having blood sugar testing, emotions about diabetes, complications arising from diabetes, taking diabetes pills, the availability of help from friends and paying for diabetes. In contrast, the different perceptions held by White patients were in the concepts of controlling blood sugar, high blood sugar, diabetes diet, exercise, and diabetes, taking diabetes pills, and paying for diabetes. The first hypothesis is that African-American and White patients will differ in their diabetes-related perceptions compared with their care-givers. African-American patients will have a higher number of patient-provider incongruence than White patients is the second hypothesis (Tang et al., 2008, p342). Aside from differences in perceptions, we will also determine if the relationship between serum glucose concentration and glycated hemoglobin is different between the two ethnic groups in accordance with review by. In individuals with Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes mellitus, glycated hemoglobin is increasingly recognized as an essential measure of recent glycogenic control. The premise that the relationship between glycated hemoglobin and serum glucose concentration is the same for both African-Americans and Whites has been relied on in epidemiological studies showing significantly worse glycaemic control in African-Americans vs. Whites. Similarly, this relationship is assumed to be constant by clinical recommendations that target identical glycated hemoglobin values in African-American and white patients (Bleyer et al., 2009, p 128). According to Bleyer et al. 2009, the correlation between glycated hemoglobin and serum glucose concentration will differ between white and African-American individuals after adjustment for age, gender and level of kidney function will form the third hypothesis of this investigation. Not sure if you can write a paper on Differences in Diabetic Related Cases in African-Americans and Whites by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Glycaemic control has been shown in epidemiological studies to be significantly worse in African-Americans than in whites. The premise that the relationship between glycated and serum glucose concentration is the same for both races has been the basis for these studies. In the same way, the relationship is assumed to be constant in clinical recommendations that target identical glycated hemoglobin values in African-American and white patients. Data that was almost exclusively obtained from white individuals has been relied on to establish the relationship between glycated hemoglobin and serum glucose in the initial large clinical trials (Bleyer et al., 2009, p128). Sample Selection and Methodology The study will focus majorly on health beliefs and self-care behaviors on those suffering from diabetes. The comprehensive research will focus on information and explanation from participant’s experiences in the process of managing and treating diabetes. Data collection will be based on cultural construction of health and illness as well as the belief model. All these would be used as a guide towards data collection and Grounded Theory approach towards analysis of both coded and sorted data. Grounded theory will be used to provide the basis technique necessary for identifying concepts and groups from the interviews. The approach helps in linking concepts into derived and formal theories. The chosen methodology would assist in providing the avenues used in discovering women’s self-management practices and behaviors, various beliefs on health, support systems, knowledge and education of the chosen sample (Burns and Grove, 2007). The sample comprised of 68 African American women diagnosed with diabetes mellitus. Constructs related to diabetes self-management will be analyzed as provided by the seven self-management instructors as well as diabetes educational programs. The constructs to be used includes nutrition, physical exercises, changes in weight, stress management, blood glucose monitoring, and education on diabetes (Burns and Grove, 2007). Qualitative and quantitative methods would be used for the purposes of obtaining data representing health beliefs, knowledge on diabetes as well as self-management behaviors. Questionnaires were prepared for quantitative reasons preceded by qualitative interviews. Methodology for completing the study The study is designed to reflect descriptive data provided and assist in providing qualitative inquiry into the means through which African American women suffering from diabetes manage their lives. At the same time, the research digs into establishing the perceptions of health practitioners concerned with diabetes self-management. The research looks into the various variations established between women patients suffering from diabetes, diabetes self-management health practitioners as well as the identified programs. Self-management on diabetes will be based on factors such as; behaviors, various health beliefs and patient education. The various self-management behaviors monitored included; physical exercises, patient education, monitoring level of glucose, changes in diet, adherence to medication, and interaction with social systems. The rate of epidemic is one of the problems identified for this study, the complications and risks associated with diabetes, particularly amongst African American women (American Diabetes Association, 2009, pp 13-61). Since self-management is at the center of preventive measures on diabetes complication, it was identified as the important aspect of this study. Eight item tool included information such as; number of years providing diabetes self-management education, locality of classes, the number of time classes was conducted, educational level, nature of profession of the specialist, gender as well as ethnicity. The study being descriptive would utilize the use of questionnaire. The study will illustrate in details the ways in which African American suffering from diabetes manage there lives. The preventive measures discussed would target high-risk groups, which are the African American group. The research reveals the need for careful control of the blood glucose level and improved care brought by recommended self-management practices. The study will reveal the perceptions and views of health practitioners concerning knowledge and education on self-management. Describe your variables The study will utilize questionnaires and at the same time, apply efficient procedures in line with ethical methods for data collection. There will be an eleven item demographic showing participant profile, eight items dealing with health educator profile and questionnaire with thirty-nine articles. Variables in the study include; health beliefs, knowledge of diabetes, nutrition, physical activity, health education classes, monitoring of glucose, support from social dimensions such as families, and finances involves. Choosing participants for this study will be based on snowball sampling technique. The participants will be reached through word of mouth and also the study depended on the availability of participants in the various self-management education classes. The interview focuses on Africa American women diagnosed with diabetes. The size of the sample will depend on the homogeneity of the population with respect to research characteristics. All participants will be required to possess characteristics matching the interest of the research study (Kirk et al., 2007, pp 135-142). The participants were African-American women above the age of fifty-five to eighty years, with clear signs of diabetes and also self-management health educators. This is because according to literature review, diabetes is a common disease amongst middle-aged and those at later stages of life. Owing to issues on age bracket, the study would establish the points on accessibility and availability of the target population. Participants will be recruited through various means such as; self-management education classes, interviewee referrals, friends of those suffering from the disease, and letters to institutions such as churches. The other population understudy would be health educators well versed with diabetes self-management, seven in number. To ensure accuracy of the outcome results, two registered nurses, one specialist in nutrition, physiologist, and two physicians are to be included. Informed consent forms would be dispatched and collected form all those participating in the study. Institutional Review Board/ Proposal Approval The interview includes potentially new contacts who first of all, should be contacted to win their confidence in participation. Participants’ names and personal details would be optional to ensure privacy. All participants will be required to confirm their participation through phone calls. Referrals will be used for the purposes of snowballing the sample to the required number of subjects. Results Data analysis provides combination literature review, explanation on various health models, methodology, research questions, and Grounded theory approach on data analysis. Analysis focuses on diabetes health beliefs, self-management behaviors, as well as education knowledge. Explanatory model of illness ensures that all the information pertaining to individual’s beliefs are obtained. Health Belief Model applied in the analysis to verify the patient’s understanding of the issues of health and diseases. While Grounded theory ensured that all means of identifying categories are linked to the available theoretical perspectives. The first section of the analysis would reveal both quantitative and qualitative findings, including the various experiences by the researchers. Demographics of the population of women are provided based on the cultural perspective of diabetes amongst women, and the various treatment behaviors focused on health beliefs. The other section provides the results addressing positive and negative views dealing with diabetes and self-management behaviors amongst the professionals, women and the various programs. Discussion The study reveals various factors affecting the impact of diabetes in an African-American Woman. The results provided would explore the fact that multiple beliefs and practical behaviors contribute much towards health effects. The determinants are revealed as the secondary factors influencing management capabilities of women. These include such issues as treatment costs which determine individuals response based on income level. The results would focus on the nature of communication or interaction between patients and healthcare providers as one of the significant barriers since most of the women are un-informed. Compliance to medication and self-management behaviors are crucial in the control and prevention of diabetes and other related diseases. There’s support of the fact that an individual’s good management abilities, adhering to recommended behaviors and education contributes positively to patient’s self-management of blood glucose level. Most of the primary behaviors prescribed by health professionals on diabetic management produced positive results on the sample population under study. Various factors affecting self-management were found to be similar across ethnicity, but the types of medication used varied greatly since more women prefer oral medication than injection of insulin. The study would inform the public on the fact that managing diabetes amongst affected individuals requires more than biomedical approach. The whole issue on self-management requires individuals to be aware of the various societal and personal factors such as gender, education and family, which have direct effects on social life. The study would provide information necessary for developing and monitoring individual treatment plan. The comparison of the epidemiological relationship between serum glucose concentration and glycated hemoglobin in African-American and white individuals was used in this present investigation. The correlation between glycated hemoglobin and serum glucose concentration differs between white and African-American individuals after adjustment for age, gender and level of kidney function is the hypothesis for this study (American Diabetes Association, 2009, pp 13-61). Limitations of this study will include such issues as inaccessibility to private medical records of the participants, which would have revealed blood glucose levels indicating clinical diabetes control measures. Hence glucose control mechanisms cannot be established through this study. The sample for healthcare educators’ team was too small to represent the entire educators providing devices on diabetes self-management. References American Diabetes Association. (2009). Standards of medical care in diabetes—2009. Diabetes Care, 32 (1), 13–61. Bleyer, A. J.,Hire D., Russell, G. B., Xu, J., Divers, J., Shihabi, Z, Bowden, D.W.,
EUH 2001 SSC The Fallen Monument Park Socialist Realism Museum Reflection Discussion.

For this week’ Points, visit one of these options below, and send me a 75- 100-word summary of what you learned/ liked/ disliked about it.Since last week’s museums were all about World War One, I want to slip in sites for the Russian Revolution this week. (We’re getting in to World War Two territory as we slide into fascism on Wednesday, so we’ll cover that material in detail with museums in the next two weeks.)A BBC video discussing remaining Soviet sites such as the Lenin Mausoleum (with his preserved dead body): (Links to an external site.)An article and pictures of the Moscow Metro set up by Stalin to be a “palace for the people” in the 1930s: (Links to an external site.)An article about Fallen Monument Park in Moscow where some of Russia’s zillion statues of Lenin and Stalin got stashed after the collapse of communism: (Links to an external site.)
EUH 2001 SSC The Fallen Monument Park Socialist Realism Museum Reflection Discussion

Education Students Disabilities 2.1 The role played by teacher’s attitudes towards education of students with disabilities in the development of inclusive education. It is a well known fact that attitude of teachers affect the atmosphere of learning and influence whether students with limited abilities receive equal educational chances. This can be shown by looking at situations in different parts of the world. In Ghana for instance, the idea of education that is inclusive is aligned with the policy of increasing access, participation and retention of all students of school going age in education. Challenges exist in areas of access, quality education and retention especially for students with disabilities. This is attributed to lack of professional activities of development for teachers, limited resources and ineffective monitoring system provided to schools. Negative attitude and prejudice is the most critical of all barriers to free universal education especially for disabled students. Interestingly, some teachers still name the curses from gods as the cause of disabilities. (Agbenyega 2005) Beliefs about ethnicity, disability, concerns, ethnicity and attitude of teachers influence practice of all inclusive education, educational materials’ quality and instructions received by students. Many regular education teachers feel unprepared and scared to work with disabled learners and display anger, frustration and negative attitude towards education. They also believe it lowers academic standards. (Education Act, 1996) Teachers’ beliefs about inclusion suggest that they do not like teaching disabled students especially those who have sensory impairments as in regular classes. They prefer them being educated in special schools. Their defense is that with usual students too much time is not wasted in support and guidance. They are yet come to terms with the belief that mute and deaf students can receive education in regular schools. Teachers also believe that including disabled results in incompletion of syllabuses as they limit the amount of work that can be done in a term. They further believe that including disabled in regular classes affects the performance of their fellow students without disabilities. On this they claim that there must be consideration on placement of students with disabilities into regular schools as their placement disturbs academic performance and emotions and of other students who are not disabled. (Smith and Luckasson 1995) Teachers overwhelmingly believe that inclusive education is impossible unless their needs for specialist resources are addressed. Overall belief is that without sufficient support and resources, inclusive education is not possible and is doomed. The beliefs, negative attitude and concerns expressed by teachers may be explained due to lack of professional preparedness, available resources, sufficient orientation and specialist assistance. Initial professional knowledge and further training, human and material resources enhance teachers’ attitudes positively and affect their willingness make inclusion work (UNESCO 1994) 2.2 Teachers’ attitudes towards education of students with disabilities. A historical review. Estimates of global populations indicate that more children with disabilities live in developing third world countries than in industrialized countries. It has been suggested that integration in developing countries can be facilitated much more easily and successfully than in North America and Western European countries because there disabled students are already in the mainstream unlike in countries with a dual system of regular and special education. Recognizing that schools in developing countries have untrained teachers, large class sizes, transportation problems, lack of resources and facilities, the policy makers should consider the regular classroom as the mainstream model in facilitating inclusive education in poor countries.(UNESCO 1997, 1999) Educational researchers have historically taken varied positions which are varied regarding integration or inclusion. Those who support the programmatic model point to the academic and social gains of the students with disability as well as acceptance of diversity among fellow students and community members as benefits of inclusion. Opponents note concerns about lack of training, personnel and administrative support and the uncertainty of academic and social gains through adopting such models (Gartner, 1995; Whitaker, 2004). Research that has been carried out in most regions of the world on teachers mirrors the political agenda of these countries in focusing attention on the exclusion of children from educational opportunities (UNESCO 1994). Some countries have enacted legislation pertaining to integration of disabled students while some are just beginning the process of implementing these programs and policies. In overall, research seems to support the notion of a general culture of teaching in that teachers’ attitudes towards students with disabilities are consistent and similar irrespective of the different national cultures in which teaching takes place. A cross cultural study conducted on teachers’ attitudes in Haiti and the USA revealed that teachers had similar attitudes towards inclusion. (Thematic Group 9, 1996). Special Education in the United States has a long history that reflects many changes in attitudes towards disabled people. Special education was a established in the United States in the 1800’s with students who had demonstrated disabilities such as deafness, blindness, crippling conditions as well as idiotic and feeble-mindedness being taught in institutions. Many diverse groups have attributed this change to including parents, psychologists, educators, physicians, clergy, researchers and the disabled. (Smith and Luckkason, 1995) 2.2.1. Shaping the development curve: mainstreaming-integration and inclusion The right of students with disabilities to receive a free and appropriate education in the least restrictive environment is solidly rooted in the provisions of the United States constitution. Particularly, the guarantee of equal protection under the law granted to all citizens P.L.94-142 clearly required states to ensure that children with disabilities be educated with children who were not disabled and that other educational placements be considered only when the nature of the disability was such that education in regular classes with the use of supplementary aids and services could not be achieved satisfactorily. (. Disabled students are being included at every level of the education system as a result of efforts by all of those concerned about them, parents, advocates, teachers and administrators. The effect of inclusive education is being increasingly being evaluated by including children with disabilities in assessments of school performance. (Barlett and McLeod 1998) Much has been learned about the strategies that make inclusion work from the experience of others. School staff that focus on changes in the school as a whole-curricular, instructional strategies, instructional strategies and use of resources have been successful when given time for training, collaborative planning and opportunities to celebrate their achievements. (. Disabled students require extra supports facilitated through personal assistance, class assistive technologies and related services in order to receive an appropriate education. Planning for studies should include the scheduling of supports at appropriate times in order for supports to be able to complement activities in classroom. Students who need assistance later in life benefit greatly from learning management support services early in life. (Marches 1998) The fact that students with disabilities are included in some schools is all the more remarkable given the vast numbers of barriers that exist from the federal government going down. In addition to the barriers faced by most students with disabilities minority students with disabilities face even greater barriers to inclusion. Of all the barriers to inclusion, the single greatest factor seems to be the system of financing special education. (. The basic concept of inclusion and integration states that principles of equity, discrimination, social justice and human rights make it compulsory that students with special needs and disabilities should enjoy the same privileges as all other students in a regular school environment and to a broad, balanced and relevant curriculum (Knight 1999). It is believed that integration in the mainstream enables students with disabilities to benefit from the stimulation of mixing with relatively more able students and having the opportunity to observe higher models of social and academic behavior (Elkins 1998). The move towards integration began tentatively in a few countries as long ago as the late 1960s and early 1970s, but the trend became much more vigorous on an international scale in the 1980s and throughout the 1990s. A major factor influencing the rapid worldwide movement towards inclusion was the promulgation of the Salamanca statement and Framework for Action on Special Needs Education. This statement recommends among others, that all students with special needs should have full access to regular schools and be taught in schools using predominantly adaptable and child centered pedagogy. (UNESCO, 1994) For integration and inclusion to be successful, one clear condition is that teaching methods and curricula will need to change in order to accommodate the diversity of students to be included in the average classroom. The reforms proposed by most education commissions certainly suggest that all students would benefit from more student centered approaches in teaching and much greater flexibility in curriculum planning. This will certainly make it more feasible for students with special needs to receive an education geared to their abilities. (Ainscow, 1997) 2.2.2. Attitudes of regular school teachers’ vis-à-vis of special school teachers. Inclusion of students with disabilities in the regular classroom has been met with a lot of resistance from regular education teachers who would be responsible for educating special needs students. This is because they lack in-service training to increase their skills. In-service presentations are most effective in improving attitudes. Regular classroom teachers are usually stereotypic and negative. (Befring, 1997) Regular school teachers believe that students with disabilities require special needs which cannot be provided in inclusive based regular classroom. They also believe that their professional knowledge and skills are inadequate to effectively teach students with disabilities in regular schools. (Sharma, 1999) Special school teachers usually have a positive attitude towards students with disabilities. This is because they are usually trained before service on how to handle students with disabilities. Their positive attitude about including and teaching students with disabilities in general education classroom is related to the levels of special education training and experience in working with students with disabilities. (Forlin and Hattie, 1996) 2.3 Teachers’ attitudes towards inclusive education of students with disabilities at different school levels. 2.3.1. Pre school teachers’ attitudes and primary teachers’ attitude. Pre School teachers’ have negative attitudes towards children with disabilities. A lot of children who are emotionally disturbed possess deficient long-standing patterns of disruptive and deficient behavior. These children are particularly upsetting to teachers because they challenge the teachers’ role and threaten the order and composure of the classroom. Some of these children exhibit the feelings needed to get what they want that is manipulate others. These children are often able to identify weaknesses in the teacher and exploit them. (Carey, 1997) Majority of primary school teachers both female and male have negative attitudes towards the inclusion of students with abilities in regular classes. Children taught by teachers who show highly positive attitudes have significantly higher levels of classroom satisfaction and marginally lower levels of classroom friction than children taught by teachers with less positive attitudes. Primary school teachers are usually worried about the well being of students with special needs in the general education. It is usually hard for them to ensure that special children do not lose out in both academics and related skills as compared to other children in the class. (Carey, 1997) 2.3.2 Education administrators Demographic factors, training and experience does not have a statistically significant effect on administration attitudes towards inclusion. Administration programs that are good prepare administrators with stronger, more positive attitudes toward including students with disabilities. School counselors can take the lead in assessing school climate in relation to students with disabilities initiating interventions or advocating for change when appropriate. (Wilczenski, 1992) Some school administrators might possess slightly negative attitudes toward students with disabilities. The attitudes of school counselors are similar to if not more positive than those of other school personnel. Principals who have completed more training both (pre-service and in service) related to inclusion and special education have positive attitudes towards students with disabilities. It is claimed that the understanding of administrators on the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) is very limited and they have not taken any measure to ensure compliance to it. Negative attitudes have been indicated to be of the more significant barriers to successful integration of students with disabilities. (Wilczenski, 1992) 2.3.3. Secondary schools teachers’ attitudes These teachers have more positive attitudes compared to primary school teachers. Teachers’ expectations and beliefs are easier to change than their behaviors and emotions. High school teachers also have positive attitudes towards the use of the software because the software has the potential to improve student learning, increase student engagement, provide important study skills and improve student motivation through the novelty of using computers is social studies instruction. High school teachers cooperate more with each other when it comes to provision of assistance regarding disabled students. (Schumacher et al, 1997) Some people argue that in primary school inclusion develops well only for serious problems to emerge at the secondary level. These problems could be from the increase in subject specialization which makes it hard for inclusion to sail smoothly. This problem is made worse by the fact that the gap between special students and the rest increase with age. Secondary schools usually use the streaming model where students are grouped depending on their level of grasping knowledge. It is also difficult to make curriculum adaptations for heterogeneous students because secondary education is characterized by an excessively academic curriculum for a homogenous group of students. (Smith, D.
ENGL 101 Houston Community College Advantages & Disadvantages of Electric Cars Paper.

look to the upload below and I will post the last comments i receive from professorprofessor comment: Now, your job is to revise the essay. She gave you some feedback, including how to check your MLA and grammar. I noticed several errors in MLA format; please use the resources I have provided in the course content folder to work on that skill I would also like you to work on narrowing down your topic, which is still very broad (as I have noted in my feedback to you before), and to work on quoting, which had been a skill I have been emphasizing since the Informed Review. All of your paragraphs should include quotes from your sources, and after each quote, you should explain the quote in one sentence, and then reply to the quote in the next sentence. You also need to focus on introducing source material using signal phrasing, an especially helpful tool in helping to avoid unintentional plagiarism. Currently, I am not always able to discern where source ideas begin and end in your draft.
ENGL 101 Houston Community College Advantages & Disadvantages of Electric Cars Paper

Justice and Social Equity Critical Essay

Table of Contents Introduction The Concept of justice and Social Equity Threats to Justice and Social Equity Conclusion References Introduction By virtue of the Stanford Encyclopedia of philosophy entries, both justice and social equity can be explained in relation to distributive justice and justice as a virtue. Justice can be defined as the concept of the rightness of morals. These morals are based on inter alia law, equity, ethics or natural law backed by sanctions in case of breach. On the other hand, social equity refers to the just and fair distribution of resources in a given society. The Concept of justice and Social Equity The concept of distributive justice is governed by normative principles that have been designed for purposes of guiding the allocation, as well as benefits and detriments of economic activity. The concept of distributive justice tends to observe strict egalitarianism that calls for the allocation of material goods in equal amounts to all. For example, where a resource of public utility like electricity is in question, then all parts of the society should benefit from this resource as opposed to it being enjoyed by only a portion of members of the society. Furthermore, distributive justice also maintains the ‘different principle’ that permits allocation in cases where it is contrary to strict equality, but its effect is not detrimental. This means that its effect must be in such a way that the least advantage in the society is in better condition materially than under the strict equality (Lamont 2007). Justice as a virtue is further reflected in the Stanford Encyclopedia (Lamont 2007). It refers to individual’s traits that could be good or bad. The phrase is evidently ambiguous and may thus vary depending on individuals or social applications. Historically, both Aristotle and Plato’s perceptions of justice as a virtue proved that they were rationalists. The two scholars employed the role of reason in their perception of what was just and fair. A good example is the fact that, it is considered unjust when one refuses to pay a debt or steals. Ethical thinkers have thus supported the fact that, justice is not based on mere sentiments. Instead, they advocate for a more intellectual and constructive rational in determining what is just. More scholars have also presented their distinct opinions about justice as a virtue using both virtual and non-virtual approaches. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Threats to Justice and Social Equity In his article, Frederickson reveals the existing connection between social equity and justice (2008). Additionally, he also outlays the challenges that befall social equity in both society and public administration. The author talks about Philip J. Rutledge in his leadership implemented in public administration and social equity (Frederickson 2008). Evidently, social equity can be influenced by the changing attitudes existing towards fairness and governmental programs that are aimed at bringing equality. The challenges that affect social justice are said to be based on racial and gender prejudices, as opposed to existing economic differences. Ethnicity and race therefore puts the ‘poverty face’ on and also gives it an identity. A good example in where it affects the Hispanic, African American, Indians and also native Americans who, according to the article, were only 3 percent of enrolled students in the University of California (Fredericks 2008). In the book “The State of social equity in America Public Administration”, more is revealed about threats that are faced by social justice and equity. Over the years, public administration is said to have led the way when it comes to social equity. Historically, this concept of social equality in public administration was emphasized on matters concerning service delivery, gender and race in employment as well as democratic participation. The situation has since then improved but still ought to be addressed because equity is today defined in a much broader way (Frederickson 2010). Conclusion In a nutshell, the concept of justice and social equity is inevitable when it comes to public administration and thus of high importance. Despite the fact that justice and social equity has improved over the years, there still exist certain threats that act as a stumbling block as discussed above. References Fredrickson, H. (2008).Social Equity in the Twenty-First Century: An Essay in Memory of Philip J. Rutledge. Journal of Public Affairs Education, 14(1): 1-8. We will write a custom Essay on Justice and Social Equity specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Fredrickson, H. (2010).Social Equity and Public Administration: Origins, Developments and Applications. New York: M.E Sharpe. Lamont, J. (2007). Distributive Justice. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Web.

Florida Southwestern State College The Dancer by Ruth Bloch Analysis

custom essay Florida Southwestern State College The Dancer by Ruth Bloch Analysis.

I’m working on a humanities writing question and need a sample draft to help me understand better.

InstructionsOne of the traditional functions of sculpture has to do with giving culture a voice that can continue to speak through the passing ages. Public monuments and artworks become an emblem of a people and a time by expressing communal sentiments, distilling the shared aesthetic, and commemorating important individuals and events. Oftentimes, public sculpture is there to convey very specific content, content deemed somehow important to the community.Go out into your community and find a work of public sculpture. You might find a piece at the local park, or a nearby government building. Do the work of researching the piece to discover its basic details, such as its title, the name of the sculptor, the year it was created/commissioned, and any other relevant information you can unearth.What is the subject of the sculpture? How does the sculpture capture and express its purpose, if it has an explicit purpose (for example, a sculpture that aims to commemorate a historical event)? What does the sculpture seem to say about the community and what the community deems important? What does it say about the values of the community socially, aesthetically? Is the sculpture full round? Relief? Be sure and comment on the size of the sculpture and how it interacts with its surroundings.Take photos of the sculpture and its surroundings, and post these along with your response.Posting should be 250 words, minimum. This assignment will be assessed on its formal clarity, the quality of the writing and editing, its degree of engagement with its topic, its creativity/inventiveness/originality of ideas, and the sophistication of thought it expresses.If you need assistance with assignments, please click on the “How” icon.Rubric2020 Blog Post/Writing Rubric2020 Blog Post/Writing RubricCriteriaRatingsPtsThis criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeContentAbility to incorporate and synthesize learned material into written responses that are accurate and meaningful, and which reflect student’s grasp on, and ability to think independently about, course content.35 ptsExceptionalStudent shows mastery of the relevant information and ideas, and demonstrates deep thinking on the topic. Response demonstrates creativity, synthesis, and/or incisive critical thinking on the issues at hand.30 ptsGoodStudent demonstrates a solid grasp of material and can convey responses to the material in a clear, accurate and thoughtful manner. Depth of student knowledge and thinking on the topic seems adequate but not exceptional. Response is solid but may not make new critical leaps, or synthesize information in unexpected ways.25 ptsAdequateStudent demonstrates basic familiarity with material and adequately addresses the prompt. Conveys ideas in a coherent, though unremarkable, manner.20 ptsUnacceptableStudent response lacks clarity, accuracy, or demonstrates a lack of thought and engagement about ideas/material, or an inaccurate grasp of ideas/material.35 ptsThis criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeGrammar/MechanicsAbility to craft coherent thoughts in standard English, free from errors in diction, spelling, grammar and punctuation, and edited for flow and clarity.35 ptsExceptionalWriting is well edited and completely free from errors in spelling, grammar, diction and punctuation. Reads smoothly, clearly, and with careful attention to sentence rhythm, word choice, and thoughtfulness about overall flow.30 ptsGoodWriting is clear, well edited and completely free from errors in spelling, grammar, diction and punctuation. Shows some awareness of word choice and overall flow.25 ptsAdequateWriting is largely free from errors in spelling, grammar, diction and punctuation, is largely clear, and demonstrates some attention to editing and reader experience.20 ptsUnacceptableWriting contains several errors in spelling, grammar, diction, and/or punctuation. Is unclear and shows little to no editing.35 ptsThis criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeStructureAbility to form a body of ideas on a topic into a coherent whole. Knowledge of how ideas flow together and how transitions connect passages logically to one another.30 ptsExceptionalArgument/exposition demonstrates mastery of form and flow, and overall awareness of the assignment as a written whole. Demonstrates creative, inventive or incisive solutions for presenting student’s thoughts and course materials in novel, meaningful and effective ways.27 ptsGoodArgument/exposition demonstrates grasp of form and flow and awareness of the assignment as a written whole.23 ptsAdequateArgument/exposition is coherent and complete, but shows little to no thought to design. Ideas are presented clearly, but with no compelling logic or order.20 ptsUnacceptableArgument/exposition is haphazard and not logically presented.30 ptsTotal Points: 100PreviousNext
Florida Southwestern State College The Dancer by Ruth Bloch Analysis

Acadia University Statistical Programming Languages Discussion

Acadia University Statistical Programming Languages Discussion.

R is a language and environment for statistical computing and graphics. It is a GNU project which is similar to the S language and environment which was developed at Bell Laboratories (formerly AT&T, now Lucent Technologies) by John Chambers and colleagues. R can be considered as a different implementation of S. There are some important differences, but much code written for S runs unaltered under R.1. Why are statistical programming languages important to data scientists? Please provide a specific use case for a data scientist to apply a statistical language to a data set. What are some advantages and disadvantages the R programming language has over the other main statistical programming languages (i.e. Python, SAS, SQL)?2. comparing the R programming language to the other statistical programming languages 2.1 why you agreed with their evaluation of the different statistical programming languages.? 2.2 why you disagreed with their evaluation of the different statistical programming languages.?
Acadia University Statistical Programming Languages Discussion

A Study Of Tropical Revolving Storms Environmental Sciences Essay

This report is about tropical revolving storms. Topics covered will include the formation of tropical revolving storms, the areas mainly affected by these storms, aviation hazards with relevance to tropical revolving storms, and a personal assessment of current and future techniques used for the prediction of tropical revolving storms. A tropical revolving storm originates in the tropics and is a cyclonic disturbance which involves strong convection that extends from the surface to the tropopause. They are generally of a smaller size than temperate depressions. The isobars around the area are generally circular, and there are no fronts involved. There is a very steep pressure gradient which gives rise to the storms great intensity. Generally, tropical storms can have the power and energy to sink any ship that sails through them, and should definitely be avoided at all times. There exists the ‘eye’, which is situated within high walls of thick cloud. The eye is where there exists the greatest danger, due to the very high and unpredictable sea waves. Temperatures in the eye are generally higher than in the surrounding atmosphere. For the most part, tropical storms are accompanied by heavy, and possibly torrential precipitation, and powerful winds. Rainfall can reach 95mm/hour in the most extreme cases, and wind speed can get up to 185kts. Sometimes, internal tornadic winds can exist. Tropical storms can last as long as thirty days, or even just for a few hours. The tropical storms can also approximately reach a maximum of 600nm in size. The most popular locations for tropical storms to form are the North Atlantic and Eastern Pacific oceans (which are coincidentally both sides of the North American continent), Western Pacific oceans, South Pacific oceans and Indian oceans between 5°N and 30°N to 35°N latitudes. Tropical storms do not occur in the European continent. In the North Atlantic, tropical storms are born from an easterly wave condition. A trough in the upper atmosphere of low pressure travels west, and this disturbs the tropical air situated over the water. The pressure can get to approximately 870hPa, as an extremity. Due to this extremely low pressure, the storm can cause a surge of up to 13 metres, which is the amount the sea level can raise due to the low pressure, shallow water and wind. Wave heights can reach 34 metres high. For a tropical storm to form, the water temperature must be at least 27° Celsius. The result of this is instability in the atmosphere due to the high environmental lapse rate (ELR), which is then heightened by an increasing saturated adiabatic lapse rate (SALR), and this therefore causes cloud formation, rising convective currents, and thunderstorm activity. The rising columns of air cause an atmospheric pressure drop over an expanding area. For a tropical revolving storm to form, the latitude must be greater than 5°, so that the Coriolis force can have an effect on the cyclonic circulation and vorticity. The Coriolis force (which is caused by the rotation of the Earth) diverts the airflow into a circular, anti-clockwise motion. Another condition for a tropical storm to form is low wind shear in the troposphere. Wind shear is a change of wind speed and/or direction with altitude, and the vertical development of the storm is aided by wind shear. Conditions which permit the divergence of the airflow at altitude are also a condition for the formation of tropical storms, as this reduces atmospheric pressure by removing air from the area. There also needs to be a tropical disturbance, and this disturbance initiates the process of the formation of tropical revolving storms. The disturbance is very likely to be convection connected to an easterly wave from the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). Spiral cloud bands surround the centre of the storm, and within these cloud bands water vapour condenses due to the convective updraughts, resulting in precipitation, and therefore more latent heat is released into the storm system. Due to the air movement towards the low-pressure centre, the rotating winds accelerate in a process called ‘the conservation of angular momentum’. If the area of rotating winds is diminished, the wind speed must increase. The ‘eye wall’ is formed by the innermost cloud bands, which form a ring of clouds which extend from the surface of the sea to high altitudes, and this surrounds the calmer central eye. Areas Affected By Tropical Revolving Storms The areas affected by tropical revolving storms generally tend to be between 5° and 35° latitude. However, tropical storms usually form at around 10° latitude where the oceans are the warmest. The North Pacific West area has the highest occurrence and average annual frequency of tropical storms of anywhere else in the world, averaging at approximately 26 per annum. The North Pacific East has approximately half of that number, on average 13 per year. In the North Atlantic and North Indian oceans, tropical storms average 9 and 6 per year, respectively. Generally, in the Northern Hemisphere, tropical revolving storms occur between August and October; however it is not unfamiliar that they can form as early as May, or as late as November. In the Southern Hemisphere, however, tropical storms usually form between January and March. The ocean in the southern hemisphere with the most frequent annual tropical storms is the South Indian Ocean in the East, where it gets on average ten tropical storms form. In the West of the South Indian Ocean, there exists on average 8 tropical storms per year. In the south of the Pacific Ocean, particularly on the western side, approximately 6 tropical storms are recorded between January and March. In the Southern Atlantic, however, only one tropical revolving storm has been recorded, which occurred in March 2004. Therefore, there are a global average total of 79 tropical revolving storms. The Naming Process of Tropical Revolving Storms The classification of tropical storms is based on wind speed and is set out by the World Meteorological Organisation. A ‘tropical depression’ has a wind speed of less than, or equal to 33kts, a ‘moderate tropical storms’ has a wind speed of 34 to 47kts, a ‘severe tropical storm’ has a wind speed of 48 to 63kts, and finally a ‘hurricane’ (or equivalent synonym) has a wind speed of greater than 64kts. Tropical revolving storms are almost always named with a human name. The reason for this is that it is much easier to identify storms with a name for weather warnings; it also means that the storms are much more memorable. It is also widely believed that naming storms makes it easier for the media to report, and it also means that there is a heightened interest in the storm and its movement and intensity, and for this reason it keeps the public more prepared for its occurrence. It also means that it is much easier to transfer news and weather forecasts to various stations such as ships at sea, scattered weather stations and coastal bases, rather than using longer and more cumbersome latitude-longitude identifications. Female names started being used for naming tropical storms in the mid-1900’s. However, meteorologists soon decided to discuss how to make naming a tropical storm more efficiently, and decided to identify tropical storms from a pre-prepared alphabetical list of names. A list would be drawn-up for each year, and each tropical storm would be names in alphabetical order. An international committee of the World Meteorological Organisation maintains and updates the list of names, and originally only used female names; however since 1979 male names began being used, and now alternate with female names. There are currently six different lists, and rotate with each other, so for example a list used in 2010 would then be used again in 2016. Different regions of the world use different lists, usually with names more appropriate with that region of the world. If a tropical storm occurs which causes a significant amount of damage, or a high death toll, a name can be ‘retired’, meaning that the name will be taken from that list and replaced with another one of the same letter after a meeting of the World Meteorological Organisation Tropical Cyclone Committees. An example of a retired name is Katrina, after Hurricane Katrina caused billions of American dollars’ worth of damage in Southern USA in 2005. Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico and the North Atlantic Names 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Alex Bonnie Colin Danielle Earl Fiona Gaston Hermine Igor Julia Karl Lisa Matthew Nicole Otto Paula Richard Shary Tomas Virginie Walter Arlene Bret Cindy Don Emily Franklin Gert Harvey Irene Jose Katia Lee Maria Nate Ophelia Philippe Rina Sean Tammy Vince Whitney Alberto Beryl Chris Debby Ernesto Florence Gordon Helene Isaac Joyce Kirk Leslie Michael Nadine Oscar Patty Rafael Sandy Tony Valerie William Andrea Barry Chantal Dorian Erin Fernand Gabrielle Humberto Ingrid Jerry Karen Lorenzo Melissa Nestor Olga Pablo Rebekah Sebastien Tanya Van Wendy Arthur Bertha Cristobal Dolly Edouard Fay Gonzalo Hanna Isaias Josephine Kyle Laura Marco Nana Omar Paulette Rene Sally Teddy Vicky Wilfred Ana Bill Claudette Danny Erika Fred Grace Henri Ida Joaquin Kate Larry Mindy Nicholas Odette Peter Rose Sam Teresa Victor Wanda The Size and Structure of a Fully Developed Tropical Revolving Storm A fully developed tropical revolving storm can reach a vertical height of up to 9 miles, and can reach a radius of up to 600 nautical miles, which is the radius of the gale force winds. A tropical storm has a thermally direct, strong circulation, where warm air rises near the centre of the storm, and cooler air around the outside sinks. The warmer centre of the storm is a reservoir of potential energy, and this energy is constantly being converted into kinetic energy by the thermally direct circulation. Cloud bands in the tropical storm are formed due to the weak uplift of the air and low precipitation regions. A tropical revolving storm has a wind speed ranging from 33kts to greater than 64kts, and the wind speed determines the nomenclature of the storm: Description Wind Speed Tropical Depression <33kts Moderate Tropical Storm 34 – 47kts Severe Tropical Storm – 63kts Hurricane (or synonym) >64kts The tropical revolving storm consists of many identifiable elements that make up the structure. Moving from the outside, there is firstly an outer band of convective cumulus cloud, which is due to warm air rising. Then there is an annular zone of sinking air, which is usually clear of cloud but there can exist some shallow cumulus clouds. Moving further into the tropical storm, there is an inner band of deep, convective cumulus clouds and cumulonimbus, which extend towards the tropopause in spiral bands which move towards the centre. The eye wall is an area of high velocity wind which move parallel to the isobars and rise rapidly. The eye wall surrounds at least half of the eye of the storm, and winds here can gust up to approximately 173kts (200mph). The eye wall consists of a band of very tall thunderstorms which create torrential precipitation and strong winds. On the side of the eye wall where the wind direction is the same as the direction of forward movement of the tropical storm is where the most destructive part of the storm exists. DIAGRAM 1: Tropical Revolving Storm Structure The centre of the storm, also known as the ‘eye’ of the storm, is an area of descending air which is warming adiabatically, and there tends to be an absence of clouds in the eye. Additionally, the wind speed in the eye tends to be very light, not exceeding 13kts (15mph). The eye, on average, has a diameter of approximately 17 to 26 nautical miles (20 to 30 miles). An eye usually forms when the maximum sustained wind speeds go above 68kts (78mph). The eye is the calmest part of the storm, and tends to become smaller as the storm strengthens. Usually, a canopy of cirrus clouds exist which form at the tropopause in the divergent outflow, and some of it descends further down into the annular zone. These high cirrus clouds exist due to the low temperatures at altitude. The cloud walls of a tropical storm can extend up to more than 6 nautical miles, which consequently spread out to become anvil-shaped at the base of the stratosphere. These clouds then extend downwind for many miles. The direction of the tropical revolving storm tends to be in the same direction as the winds aloft. The Speed and Direction of Movement of Tropical Revolving Storms A tropical revolving storm, on average, travels at approximately 10kts nearer to the equator, and about 25kts in the higher latitudes. Tropical storms also tend to move with the flow of air in the troposphere. Most tropical storms move about the oceanic anticyclone towards higher latitudes, whilst others move in a westerly direction, indefinitely towards the poles. However, within the general path of the storm, its movement can be fairly unpredictable. In the Atlantic, larger tropical storms are formed from atmospheric disturbances, also known as ‘easterly waves’. These easterly waves move off the western African coast, and are consequently carried westwards across the Atlantic by the prevailing atmospheric flow. If the ICTZ (Intertropical Convergence Zone) moves more towards the north, the Coriolis force will affect the south-eastern trade wind, and the airflow will become cyclonic. If there is a further vertical airflow pattern, this will allow cumulonimbus clouds to grow to high altitudes, and a tropical revolving storm can develop. There exists a latent heat release, convergence, and a tendency to cyclonic curvature. This developing storm will habitually move along the Southern edge of the ‘Azores-Bermuda High’, which is a high pressure zone in the mid-Atlantic, and is usually found between 30° and 35° north in the summer season. If this high pressure zone is strong enough and in its normal position, the easterly wave will continue more westwards past the West Indies and into the Caribbean Sea, or the Gulf of Mexico. On the other hand, if a trough of low pressure travels in a southerly direction from milder latitudes, the high pressure zone will weaken, and therefore permit the tropical storm to travel in a north, north-westerly direction through the trough. The centre of the storm will tend to then head towards the North American mainland or the offshore waters of the North Atlantic seaboard. If, then, the storm enters an area of westerly winds north of 35°N, it will then quickly move north-easterly over the cooler North Atlantic waters, and consequently lose its tropical structure. Wind Speeds, Weather, Cloud, and Aviation Hazards In and Around a Tropical Revolving Storm From a pilot’s perspective, the characteristics of tropical revolving storms to look out for are strong gusts, spiral cloud patterns, circular isobars, and a central eye. The weather conditions in and around a tropical revolving storm vary considerably depending where one is situated within the storm. Moving from the annular zone of sinking air towards the eye wall, pressure decreases gradually whilst the wind speed increases. As the wind speeds start to increase, this will mean that the sea wave heights increase too. The swell waves, which are waves of long wavelengths created by the tropical storms, also increase in height, and their direction is from the wind field near the eye. The cloud cover from the annular zone to the eye wall is always eight oktas; this means that the clouds cover the whole of the sky. Precipitation in this area of the storm also increases in intensity towards the eye wall. In the eye of a tropical revolving storm, the pressure tends to steady, and the wind speed drops significantly to around 15kts. Due to this much lower wind speed, the sea waves created by wind decrease in size, however the swell waves are extremely high, and tend to move in all directions. In the eye, there is usually no cloud cover at all, though usually one or two oktas of cloud cover. Due to the general absence of clouds, there is no precipitation in the eye. Now moving from the eye wall to the annular zone of sinking air, the pressure increases gradually, and the wind speeds immediately increase to their maximum speed, and then gradually decrease with distance from the eye wall. On this side of the eye wall, the wind direction is in the opposite direction to the other side. The sea waves are at maximum height, and then decrease in size from the eye wall. The swell wave heights also decrease from the eye wall. There is total cloud coverage in this area of the tropical storm, and the precipitation levels increase to maximum then decrease gradually. DIAGRAM 2: Wind and Pressure Variations within a Tropical Revolving Storm In aviation, tropical revolving storms are treated as an area of weather to avoid under any circumstances. In and around the tropical storm, there can be severe turbulence around the spiral bands of cumulonimbus, especially within the boundary around the eye. It is possible for airports to be closed due to low-level strong winds and turbulence around the airport. Travelling away from a tropical revolving storm, the winds become calmer in the outflow above approximately 30,000ft. It is important to know whereabouts the aircraft is situated within or around a tropical revolving storm due to the different wind velocities experienced around a tropical storm due to the cyclonic circulation. If the eye is situated on the left side of the aircraft, there will be an increased tailwind component (in the Northern Hemisphere). The advance front quadrant of a tropical storm is the most dangerous area to be in, due to the interaction between the storm system’s movement and wind speeds. The weakest part of the storm is generally believed to be in the rear left quadrant, as it is most unlikely that the storm will move in that direction. DIAGRAM 3: Various Quadrants of a Tropical Revolving Storm The path is the route the storm is forecasted to follow, the vortex is the eye of the storm, and the vertex is the most westerly point of the forecasted path curve. As the diagram shows, the dangerous quadrant is in the advance right section (in the Northern Hemisphere). This is because not only is the storm most likely to move in that direction, but also the winds in that part of the storm generally drive any aircraft into the path of the storm. The navigable semi-circle is the semi-circle on the left of the storm (in the Northern Hemisphere). The reasons for this being the navigable area of the storm is that it is more unlikely that the storm will travel in this direction and the winds generally move any aircraft away from the path of the storm in the advance quadrant. If there is no information about the storm, or whereabouts in the storm one is currently situated, simple assumptions can be made about the distance the centre of the storm is. If the pressure has dropped approximately 5hPa and the wind speed is approximately 28kts, then assume the centre is about 200nm away. If the wind speed is approximately 34kts, then assume the centre is about 100nm away. The Type and Extent of Damage That Can Occur on the Ground Due to Tropical Revolving Storms The impact a tropical storm can have on people depends on an array of factors, such as the intensity of the cyclone, the distance the storm is from the sea, the speed of movement of the storm, and the topography of the coastal area. Also, the amount of preparation that communities have made before a tropical storm reduces the vulnerability of those communities. On the oceans, tropical revolving storms can cause large swells due to the strong winds. There are many problems associated with these large swells and waves, such as the disruption of international shipping, and they can sometimes cause shipwrecks. The storm can cause ‘storm surges’ to develop, which means that the sea level rises. Storm surges account for approximately 90% of deaths due to cyclonic activity. A ‘landfalling’ storm (a storm that is beginning to move over the land) can give rise to tornadoes due to the general rotation of the storm and its wind shear. A tropical storm can also produce ‘eye wall mesovortices’, rotational features found in the eye wall of a tropical storm on a smaller scale, and these mesovortices can cause subsequent tornadoes until landfall occurs. On the land, tropical storms can cause heavy damage to any buildings, depending on the strength of the winds, and the strength of the buildings. Tropical storms can also damage, or even destroy vehicles, bridges, and the storm can cause smaller objects to become deadly debris projectiles through the air. Rainfall often exceeds 100mm per day in a tropical storm, and this can cause severe flooding, and even landslides. Landslides are very common in Hong Kong due to cyclones. Also, as a tropical storm moves over an area of higher relief, such as a mountain range, the storm rapidly weakens, and torrential precipitation can occur, sometimes up to 700mm per day. On a demographic side, due to the heavy precipitation and possible flooding caused by a tropical storm, there may be prolonged periods of time where the water becomes stagnant on the surface, and this can cause infections, and give rise to mosquito-borne illnesses such as malaria. Because evacuees of a tropical storm are usually placed into shelters for long periods of time, this can cause infection propagation. There has been over 1.9million deaths over the past 200 years due to tropical storms worldwide. Although tropical storms cause much damage to infrastructure, as well as loss of communication, there can be good impacts of tropical storms. For example, in dryer regions of the world, the heavy precipitation brought on by tropical storms may be well-needed for agriculture. Another example is the fact that tropical storms assist in keeping the heat in the atmosphere, as tropical storms transport warmer air from the tropics towards the cooler mid-latitudes and Polar Regions. The Tropical Revolving Storm Dissipation Process, and the Reasons for It As long as the necessary conditions to keep a tropical revolving storm ‘alive’ are met, the tropical storm will sustain itself for as long as possible. The tropical storm will start to dissipate if the storm cannot sustain itself any longer due to the lack of energy which is required. The reason that the storm loses its energy is because it moves over an area of reduced temperature and humidity. This area could be either when the storm moves over the land (landfall) because of the cooler temperature as land takes a longer time to heat up and cool down, or the area could be a sea surface in the tropics or over higher latitude areas where the water temperatures are cooler. When a tropical storm landfalls, it reduces in intensity relatively quickly and becomes an ‘extratropical cyclone’. If a tropical storm moves over a mountainous area, the storm will weaken much more rapidly, and there may be torrential precipitation, which has the potential to cause many fatalities due to floods and mudslides. Also, if the storm stays in the same area of ocean for a prolonged period of time, it can cause the water beneath it to cool down due to mixing, and the storm will dissipate. Even if a tropical storm has lost its tropical characteristics and become extratropical or dissipated, it can still retain its wind speeds and produce several inches of precipitation. This phenomenon can be experienced on the west coast of North America, or even on the European continent. A tropical revolving storm can regenerate after crossing a landmass. As the tropical storm moves over the landmass, it decreases in intensity, and then if the storm meets another area of warm seas, it can regenerate. This regeneration is commonplace in areas such as the Central American Isthmus, Taiwan, the Malaysian Peninsula, and Australia. Usually, if the tropical storm moves into the mid-latitudes of around 35° to 45°, it will decrease in strength, lose its tropical physiognomies (such as thunderstorms near the centre), and become a ‘mid-latitude depression’. A Personal Assessment of Current and Future Techniques Used For the Prediction of Tropical Revolving Storms

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