For this week’ Points, visit one of these options below, and send me a 75- 100-word summary of what you learned/ liked/ disliked about it.Since last week’s museums were all about World War One, I want to slip in sites for the Russian Revolution this week. (We’re getting in to World War Two territory as we slide into fascism on Wednesday, so we’ll cover that material in detail with museums in the next two weeks.)A BBC video discussing remaining Soviet sites such as the Lenin Mausoleum (with his preserved dead body):https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MPmlX4kWgjs (Links to an external site.)An article and pictures of the Moscow Metro set up by Stalin to be a “palace for the people” in the 1930s: https://www.travelandleisure.com/culture-design/architecture-design/moscow-metro-virtual-tours-beautiful-subway-stations (Links to an external site.)An article about Fallen Monument Park in Moscow where some of Russia’s zillion statues of Lenin and Stalin got stashed after the collapse of communism: https://www.atlasobscura.com/places/fallen-monument-park (Links to an external site.)
EUH 2001 SSC The Fallen Monument Park Socialist Realism Museum Reflection Discussion
look to the upload below and I will post the last comments i receive from professorprofessor comment: Now, your job is to revise the essay. She gave you some feedback, including how to check your MLA and grammar. I noticed several errors in MLA format; please use the resources I have provided in the course content folder to work on that skill I would also like you to work on narrowing down your topic, which is still very broad (as I have noted in my feedback to you before), and to work on quoting, which had been a skill I have been emphasizing since the Informed Review. All of your paragraphs should include quotes from your sources, and after each quote, you should explain the quote in one sentence, and then reply to the quote in the next sentence. You also need to focus on introducing source material using signal phrasing, an especially helpful tool in helping to avoid unintentional plagiarism. Currently, I am not always able to discern where source ideas begin and end in your draft.
ENGL 101 Houston Community College Advantages & Disadvantages of Electric Cars Paper
Justice and Social Equity Critical Essay
Table of Contents Introduction The Concept of justice and Social Equity Threats to Justice and Social Equity Conclusion References Introduction By virtue of the Stanford Encyclopedia of philosophy entries, both justice and social equity can be explained in relation to distributive justice and justice as a virtue. Justice can be defined as the concept of the rightness of morals. These morals are based on inter alia law, equity, ethics or natural law backed by sanctions in case of breach. On the other hand, social equity refers to the just and fair distribution of resources in a given society. The Concept of justice and Social Equity The concept of distributive justice is governed by normative principles that have been designed for purposes of guiding the allocation, as well as benefits and detriments of economic activity. The concept of distributive justice tends to observe strict egalitarianism that calls for the allocation of material goods in equal amounts to all. For example, where a resource of public utility like electricity is in question, then all parts of the society should benefit from this resource as opposed to it being enjoyed by only a portion of members of the society. Furthermore, distributive justice also maintains the ‘different principle’ that permits allocation in cases where it is contrary to strict equality, but its effect is not detrimental. This means that its effect must be in such a way that the least advantage in the society is in better condition materially than under the strict equality (Lamont 2007). Justice as a virtue is further reflected in the Stanford Encyclopedia (Lamont 2007). It refers to individual’s traits that could be good or bad. The phrase is evidently ambiguous and may thus vary depending on individuals or social applications. Historically, both Aristotle and Plato’s perceptions of justice as a virtue proved that they were rationalists. The two scholars employed the role of reason in their perception of what was just and fair. A good example is the fact that, it is considered unjust when one refuses to pay a debt or steals. Ethical thinkers have thus supported the fact that, justice is not based on mere sentiments. Instead, they advocate for a more intellectual and constructive rational in determining what is just. More scholars have also presented their distinct opinions about justice as a virtue using both virtual and non-virtual approaches. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Threats to Justice and Social Equity In his article, Frederickson reveals the existing connection between social equity and justice (2008). Additionally, he also outlays the challenges that befall social equity in both society and public administration. The author talks about Philip J. Rutledge in his leadership implemented in public administration and social equity (Frederickson 2008). Evidently, social equity can be influenced by the changing attitudes existing towards fairness and governmental programs that are aimed at bringing equality. The challenges that affect social justice are said to be based on racial and gender prejudices, as opposed to existing economic differences. Ethnicity and race therefore puts the ‘poverty face’ on and also gives it an identity. A good example in where it affects the Hispanic, African American, Indians and also native Americans who, according to the article, were only 3 percent of enrolled students in the University of California (Fredericks 2008). In the book “The State of social equity in America Public Administration”, more is revealed about threats that are faced by social justice and equity. Over the years, public administration is said to have led the way when it comes to social equity. Historically, this concept of social equality in public administration was emphasized on matters concerning service delivery, gender and race in employment as well as democratic participation. The situation has since then improved but still ought to be addressed because equity is today defined in a much broader way (Frederickson 2010). Conclusion In a nutshell, the concept of justice and social equity is inevitable when it comes to public administration and thus of high importance. Despite the fact that justice and social equity has improved over the years, there still exist certain threats that act as a stumbling block as discussed above. References Fredrickson, H. (2008).Social Equity in the Twenty-First Century: An Essay in Memory of Philip J. Rutledge. Journal of Public Affairs Education, 14(1): 1-8. We will write a custom Essay on Justice and Social Equity specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Fredrickson, H. (2010).Social Equity and Public Administration: Origins, Developments and Applications. New York: M.E Sharpe. Lamont, J. (2007). Distributive Justice. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Web.
Florida Southwestern State College The Dancer by Ruth Bloch Analysis
custom essay Florida Southwestern State College The Dancer by Ruth Bloch Analysis.
I’m working on a humanities writing question and need a sample draft to help me understand better.
InstructionsOne of the traditional functions of sculpture has to do with giving culture a voice that can continue to speak through the passing ages. Public monuments and artworks become an emblem of a people and a time by expressing communal sentiments, distilling the shared aesthetic, and commemorating important individuals and events. Oftentimes, public sculpture is there to convey very specific content, content deemed somehow important to the community.Go out into your community and find a work of public sculpture. You might find a piece at the local park, or a nearby government building. Do the work of researching the piece to discover its basic details, such as its title, the name of the sculptor, the year it was created/commissioned, and any other relevant information you can unearth.What is the subject of the sculpture? How does the sculpture capture and express its purpose, if it has an explicit purpose (for example, a sculpture that aims to commemorate a historical event)? What does the sculpture seem to say about the community and what the community deems important? What does it say about the values of the community socially, aesthetically? Is the sculpture full round? Relief? Be sure and comment on the size of the sculpture and how it interacts with its surroundings.Take photos of the sculpture and its surroundings, and post these along with your response.Posting should be 250 words, minimum. This assignment will be assessed on its formal clarity, the quality of the writing and editing, its degree of engagement with its topic, its creativity/inventiveness/originality of ideas, and the sophistication of thought it expresses.If you need assistance with assignments, please click on the “How” icon.Rubric2020 Blog Post/Writing Rubric2020 Blog Post/Writing RubricCriteriaRatingsPtsThis criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeContentAbility to incorporate and synthesize learned material into written responses that are accurate and meaningful, and which reflect student’s grasp on, and ability to think independently about, course content.35 ptsExceptionalStudent shows mastery of the relevant information and ideas, and demonstrates deep thinking on the topic. Response demonstrates creativity, synthesis, and/or incisive critical thinking on the issues at hand.30 ptsGoodStudent demonstrates a solid grasp of material and can convey responses to the material in a clear, accurate and thoughtful manner. Depth of student knowledge and thinking on the topic seems adequate but not exceptional. Response is solid but may not make new critical leaps, or synthesize information in unexpected ways.25 ptsAdequateStudent demonstrates basic familiarity with material and adequately addresses the prompt. Conveys ideas in a coherent, though unremarkable, manner.20 ptsUnacceptableStudent response lacks clarity, accuracy, or demonstrates a lack of thought and engagement about ideas/material, or an inaccurate grasp of ideas/material.35 ptsThis criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeGrammar/MechanicsAbility to craft coherent thoughts in standard English, free from errors in diction, spelling, grammar and punctuation, and edited for flow and clarity.35 ptsExceptionalWriting is well edited and completely free from errors in spelling, grammar, diction and punctuation. Reads smoothly, clearly, and with careful attention to sentence rhythm, word choice, and thoughtfulness about overall flow.30 ptsGoodWriting is clear, well edited and completely free from errors in spelling, grammar, diction and punctuation. Shows some awareness of word choice and overall flow.25 ptsAdequateWriting is largely free from errors in spelling, grammar, diction and punctuation, is largely clear, and demonstrates some attention to editing and reader experience.20 ptsUnacceptableWriting contains several errors in spelling, grammar, diction, and/or punctuation. Is unclear and shows little to no editing.35 ptsThis criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeStructureAbility to form a body of ideas on a topic into a coherent whole. Knowledge of how ideas flow together and how transitions connect passages logically to one another.30 ptsExceptionalArgument/exposition demonstrates mastery of form and flow, and overall awareness of the assignment as a written whole. Demonstrates creative, inventive or incisive solutions for presenting student’s thoughts and course materials in novel, meaningful and effective ways.27 ptsGoodArgument/exposition demonstrates grasp of form and flow and awareness of the assignment as a written whole.23 ptsAdequateArgument/exposition is coherent and complete, but shows little to no thought to design. Ideas are presented clearly, but with no compelling logic or order.20 ptsUnacceptableArgument/exposition is haphazard and not logically presented.30 ptsTotal Points: 100PreviousNext
Florida Southwestern State College The Dancer by Ruth Bloch Analysis
Acadia University Statistical Programming Languages Discussion
Acadia University Statistical Programming Languages Discussion.
R is a language and environment for statistical computing and graphics. It is a GNU project which is similar to the S language and environment which was developed at Bell Laboratories (formerly AT&T, now Lucent Technologies) by John Chambers and colleagues. R can be considered as a different implementation of S. There are some important differences, but much code written for S runs unaltered under R.1. Why are statistical programming languages important to data scientists? Please provide a specific use case for a data scientist to apply a statistical language to a data set. What are some advantages and disadvantages the R programming language has over the other main statistical programming languages (i.e. Python, SAS, SQL)?2. comparing the R programming language to the other statistical programming languages 2.1 why you agreed with their evaluation of the different statistical programming languages.? 2.2 why you disagreed with their evaluation of the different statistical programming languages.?
Acadia University Statistical Programming Languages Discussion
A Study Of Tropical Revolving Storms Environmental Sciences Essay
This report is about tropical revolving storms. Topics covered will include the formation of tropical revolving storms, the areas mainly affected by these storms, aviation hazards with relevance to tropical revolving storms, and a personal assessment of current and future techniques used for the prediction of tropical revolving storms. A tropical revolving storm originates in the tropics and is a cyclonic disturbance which involves strong convection that extends from the surface to the tropopause. They are generally of a smaller size than temperate depressions. The isobars around the area are generally circular, and there are no fronts involved. There is a very steep pressure gradient which gives rise to the storms great intensity. Generally, tropical storms can have the power and energy to sink any ship that sails through them, and should definitely be avoided at all times. There exists the ‘eye’, which is situated within high walls of thick cloud. The eye is where there exists the greatest danger, due to the very high and unpredictable sea waves. Temperatures in the eye are generally higher than in the surrounding atmosphere. For the most part, tropical storms are accompanied by heavy, and possibly torrential precipitation, and powerful winds. Rainfall can reach 95mm/hour in the most extreme cases, and wind speed can get up to 185kts. Sometimes, internal tornadic winds can exist. Tropical storms can last as long as thirty days, or even just for a few hours. The tropical storms can also approximately reach a maximum of 600nm in size. The most popular locations for tropical storms to form are the North Atlantic and Eastern Pacific oceans (which are coincidentally both sides of the North American continent), Western Pacific oceans, South Pacific oceans and Indian oceans between 5°N and 30°N to 35°N latitudes. Tropical storms do not occur in the European continent. In the North Atlantic, tropical storms are born from an easterly wave condition. A trough in the upper atmosphere of low pressure travels west, and this disturbs the tropical air situated over the water. The pressure can get to approximately 870hPa, as an extremity. Due to this extremely low pressure, the storm can cause a surge of up to 13 metres, which is the amount the sea level can raise due to the low pressure, shallow water and wind. Wave heights can reach 34 metres high. For a tropical storm to form, the water temperature must be at least 27° Celsius. The result of this is instability in the atmosphere due to the high environmental lapse rate (ELR), which is then heightened by an increasing saturated adiabatic lapse rate (SALR), and this therefore causes cloud formation, rising convective currents, and thunderstorm activity. The rising columns of air cause an atmospheric pressure drop over an expanding area. For a tropical revolving storm to form, the latitude must be greater than 5°, so that the Coriolis force can have an effect on the cyclonic circulation and vorticity. The Coriolis force (which is caused by the rotation of the Earth) diverts the airflow into a circular, anti-clockwise motion. Another condition for a tropical storm to form is low wind shear in the troposphere. Wind shear is a change of wind speed and/or direction with altitude, and the vertical development of the storm is aided by wind shear. Conditions which permit the divergence of the airflow at altitude are also a condition for the formation of tropical storms, as this reduces atmospheric pressure by removing air from the area. There also needs to be a tropical disturbance, and this disturbance initiates the process of the formation of tropical revolving storms. The disturbance is very likely to be convection connected to an easterly wave from the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). Spiral cloud bands surround the centre of the storm, and within these cloud bands water vapour condenses due to the convective updraughts, resulting in precipitation, and therefore more latent heat is released into the storm system. Due to the air movement towards the low-pressure centre, the rotating winds accelerate in a process called ‘the conservation of angular momentum’. If the area of rotating winds is diminished, the wind speed must increase. The ‘eye wall’ is formed by the innermost cloud bands, which form a ring of clouds which extend from the surface of the sea to high altitudes, and this surrounds the calmer central eye. Areas Affected By Tropical Revolving Storms The areas affected by tropical revolving storms generally tend to be between 5° and 35° latitude. However, tropical storms usually form at around 10° latitude where the oceans are the warmest. The North Pacific West area has the highest occurrence and average annual frequency of tropical storms of anywhere else in the world, averaging at approximately 26 per annum. The North Pacific East has approximately half of that number, on average 13 per year. In the North Atlantic and North Indian oceans, tropical storms average 9 and 6 per year, respectively. Generally, in the Northern Hemisphere, tropical revolving storms occur between August and October; however it is not unfamiliar that they can form as early as May, or as late as November. In the Southern Hemisphere, however, tropical storms usually form between January and March. The ocean in the southern hemisphere with the most frequent annual tropical storms is the South Indian Ocean in the East, where it gets on average ten tropical storms form. In the West of the South Indian Ocean, there exists on average 8 tropical storms per year. In the south of the Pacific Ocean, particularly on the western side, approximately 6 tropical storms are recorded between January and March. In the Southern Atlantic, however, only one tropical revolving storm has been recorded, which occurred in March 2004. Therefore, there are a global average total of 79 tropical revolving storms. The Naming Process of Tropical Revolving Storms The classification of tropical storms is based on wind speed and is set out by the World Meteorological Organisation. A ‘tropical depression’ has a wind speed of less than, or equal to 33kts, a ‘moderate tropical storms’ has a wind speed of 34 to 47kts, a ‘severe tropical storm’ has a wind speed of 48 to 63kts, and finally a ‘hurricane’ (or equivalent synonym) has a wind speed of greater than 64kts. Tropical revolving storms are almost always named with a human name. The reason for this is that it is much easier to identify storms with a name for weather warnings; it also means that the storms are much more memorable. It is also widely believed that naming storms makes it easier for the media to report, and it also means that there is a heightened interest in the storm and its movement and intensity, and for this reason it keeps the public more prepared for its occurrence. It also means that it is much easier to transfer news and weather forecasts to various stations such as ships at sea, scattered weather stations and coastal bases, rather than using longer and more cumbersome latitude-longitude identifications. Female names started being used for naming tropical storms in the mid-1900’s. However, meteorologists soon decided to discuss how to make naming a tropical storm more efficiently, and decided to identify tropical storms from a pre-prepared alphabetical list of names. A list would be drawn-up for each year, and each tropical storm would be names in alphabetical order. An international committee of the World Meteorological Organisation maintains and updates the list of names, and originally only used female names; however since 1979 male names began being used, and now alternate with female names. There are currently six different lists, and rotate with each other, so for example a list used in 2010 would then be used again in 2016. Different regions of the world use different lists, usually with names more appropriate with that region of the world. If a tropical storm occurs which causes a significant amount of damage, or a high death toll, a name can be ‘retired’, meaning that the name will be taken from that list and replaced with another one of the same letter after a meeting of the World Meteorological Organisation Tropical Cyclone Committees. An example of a retired name is Katrina, after Hurricane Katrina caused billions of American dollars’ worth of damage in Southern USA in 2005. Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico and the North Atlantic Names 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Alex Bonnie Colin Danielle Earl Fiona Gaston Hermine Igor Julia Karl Lisa Matthew Nicole Otto Paula Richard Shary Tomas Virginie Walter Arlene Bret Cindy Don Emily Franklin Gert Harvey Irene Jose Katia Lee Maria Nate Ophelia Philippe Rina Sean Tammy Vince Whitney Alberto Beryl Chris Debby Ernesto Florence Gordon Helene Isaac Joyce Kirk Leslie Michael Nadine Oscar Patty Rafael Sandy Tony Valerie William Andrea Barry Chantal Dorian Erin Fernand Gabrielle Humberto Ingrid Jerry Karen Lorenzo Melissa Nestor Olga Pablo Rebekah Sebastien Tanya Van Wendy Arthur Bertha Cristobal Dolly Edouard Fay Gonzalo Hanna Isaias Josephine Kyle Laura Marco Nana Omar Paulette Rene Sally Teddy Vicky Wilfred Ana Bill Claudette Danny Erika Fred Grace Henri Ida Joaquin Kate Larry Mindy Nicholas Odette Peter Rose Sam Teresa Victor Wanda The Size and Structure of a Fully Developed Tropical Revolving Storm A fully developed tropical revolving storm can reach a vertical height of up to 9 miles, and can reach a radius of up to 600 nautical miles, which is the radius of the gale force winds. A tropical storm has a thermally direct, strong circulation, where warm air rises near the centre of the storm, and cooler air around the outside sinks. The warmer centre of the storm is a reservoir of potential energy, and this energy is constantly being converted into kinetic energy by the thermally direct circulation. Cloud bands in the tropical storm are formed due to the weak uplift of the air and low precipitation regions. A tropical revolving storm has a wind speed ranging from 33kts to greater than 64kts, and the wind speed determines the nomenclature of the storm: Description Wind Speed Tropical Depression <33kts Moderate Tropical Storm 34 – 47kts Severe Tropical Storm – 63kts Hurricane (or synonym) >64kts The tropical revolving storm consists of many identifiable elements that make up the structure. Moving from the outside, there is firstly an outer band of convective cumulus cloud, which is due to warm air rising. Then there is an annular zone of sinking air, which is usually clear of cloud but there can exist some shallow cumulus clouds. Moving further into the tropical storm, there is an inner band of deep, convective cumulus clouds and cumulonimbus, which extend towards the tropopause in spiral bands which move towards the centre. The eye wall is an area of high velocity wind which move parallel to the isobars and rise rapidly. The eye wall surrounds at least half of the eye of the storm, and winds here can gust up to approximately 173kts (200mph). The eye wall consists of a band of very tall thunderstorms which create torrential precipitation and strong winds. On the side of the eye wall where the wind direction is the same as the direction of forward movement of the tropical storm is where the most destructive part of the storm exists. DIAGRAM 1: Tropical Revolving Storm Structure The centre of the storm, also known as the ‘eye’ of the storm, is an area of descending air which is warming adiabatically, and there tends to be an absence of clouds in the eye. Additionally, the wind speed in the eye tends to be very light, not exceeding 13kts (15mph). The eye, on average, has a diameter of approximately 17 to 26 nautical miles (20 to 30 miles). An eye usually forms when the maximum sustained wind speeds go above 68kts (78mph). The eye is the calmest part of the storm, and tends to become smaller as the storm strengthens. Usually, a canopy of cirrus clouds exist which form at the tropopause in the divergent outflow, and some of it descends further down into the annular zone. These high cirrus clouds exist due to the low temperatures at altitude. The cloud walls of a tropical storm can extend up to more than 6 nautical miles, which consequently spread out to become anvil-shaped at the base of the stratosphere. These clouds then extend downwind for many miles. The direction of the tropical revolving storm tends to be in the same direction as the winds aloft. The Speed and Direction of Movement of Tropical Revolving Storms A tropical revolving storm, on average, travels at approximately 10kts nearer to the equator, and about 25kts in the higher latitudes. Tropical storms also tend to move with the flow of air in the troposphere. Most tropical storms move about the oceanic anticyclone towards higher latitudes, whilst others move in a westerly direction, indefinitely towards the poles. However, within the general path of the storm, its movement can be fairly unpredictable. In the Atlantic, larger tropical storms are formed from atmospheric disturbances, also known as ‘easterly waves’. These easterly waves move off the western African coast, and are consequently carried westwards across the Atlantic by the prevailing atmospheric flow. If the ICTZ (Intertropical Convergence Zone) moves more towards the north, the Coriolis force will affect the south-eastern trade wind, and the airflow will become cyclonic. If there is a further vertical airflow pattern, this will allow cumulonimbus clouds to grow to high altitudes, and a tropical revolving storm can develop. There exists a latent heat release, convergence, and a tendency to cyclonic curvature. This developing storm will habitually move along the Southern edge of the ‘Azores-Bermuda High’, which is a high pressure zone in the mid-Atlantic, and is usually found between 30° and 35° north in the summer season. If this high pressure zone is strong enough and in its normal position, the easterly wave will continue more westwards past the West Indies and into the Caribbean Sea, or the Gulf of Mexico. On the other hand, if a trough of low pressure travels in a southerly direction from milder latitudes, the high pressure zone will weaken, and therefore permit the tropical storm to travel in a north, north-westerly direction through the trough. The centre of the storm will tend to then head towards the North American mainland or the offshore waters of the North Atlantic seaboard. If, then, the storm enters an area of westerly winds north of 35°N, it will then quickly move north-easterly over the cooler North Atlantic waters, and consequently lose its tropical structure. Wind Speeds, Weather, Cloud, and Aviation Hazards In and Around a Tropical Revolving Storm From a pilot’s perspective, the characteristics of tropical revolving storms to look out for are strong gusts, spiral cloud patterns, circular isobars, and a central eye. The weather conditions in and around a tropical revolving storm vary considerably depending where one is situated within the storm. Moving from the annular zone of sinking air towards the eye wall, pressure decreases gradually whilst the wind speed increases. As the wind speeds start to increase, this will mean that the sea wave heights increase too. The swell waves, which are waves of long wavelengths created by the tropical storms, also increase in height, and their direction is from the wind field near the eye. The cloud cover from the annular zone to the eye wall is always eight oktas; this means that the clouds cover the whole of the sky. Precipitation in this area of the storm also increases in intensity towards the eye wall. In the eye of a tropical revolving storm, the pressure tends to steady, and the wind speed drops significantly to around 15kts. Due to this much lower wind speed, the sea waves created by wind decrease in size, however the swell waves are extremely high, and tend to move in all directions. In the eye, there is usually no cloud cover at all, though usually one or two oktas of cloud cover. Due to the general absence of clouds, there is no precipitation in the eye. Now moving from the eye wall to the annular zone of sinking air, the pressure increases gradually, and the wind speeds immediately increase to their maximum speed, and then gradually decrease with distance from the eye wall. On this side of the eye wall, the wind direction is in the opposite direction to the other side. The sea waves are at maximum height, and then decrease in size from the eye wall. The swell wave heights also decrease from the eye wall. There is total cloud coverage in this area of the tropical storm, and the precipitation levels increase to maximum then decrease gradually. DIAGRAM 2: Wind and Pressure Variations within a Tropical Revolving Storm In aviation, tropical revolving storms are treated as an area of weather to avoid under any circumstances. In and around the tropical storm, there can be severe turbulence around the spiral bands of cumulonimbus, especially within the boundary around the eye. It is possible for airports to be closed due to low-level strong winds and turbulence around the airport. Travelling away from a tropical revolving storm, the winds become calmer in the outflow above approximately 30,000ft. It is important to know whereabouts the aircraft is situated within or around a tropical revolving storm due to the different wind velocities experienced around a tropical storm due to the cyclonic circulation. If the eye is situated on the left side of the aircraft, there will be an increased tailwind component (in the Northern Hemisphere). The advance front quadrant of a tropical storm is the most dangerous area to be in, due to the interaction between the storm system’s movement and wind speeds. The weakest part of the storm is generally believed to be in the rear left quadrant, as it is most unlikely that the storm will move in that direction. DIAGRAM 3: Various Quadrants of a Tropical Revolving Storm The path is the route the storm is forecasted to follow, the vortex is the eye of the storm, and the vertex is the most westerly point of the forecasted path curve. As the diagram shows, the dangerous quadrant is in the advance right section (in the Northern Hemisphere). This is because not only is the storm most likely to move in that direction, but also the winds in that part of the storm generally drive any aircraft into the path of the storm. The navigable semi-circle is the semi-circle on the left of the storm (in the Northern Hemisphere). The reasons for this being the navigable area of the storm is that it is more unlikely that the storm will travel in this direction and the winds generally move any aircraft away from the path of the storm in the advance quadrant. If there is no information about the storm, or whereabouts in the storm one is currently situated, simple assumptions can be made about the distance the centre of the storm is. If the pressure has dropped approximately 5hPa and the wind speed is approximately 28kts, then assume the centre is about 200nm away. If the wind speed is approximately 34kts, then assume the centre is about 100nm away. The Type and Extent of Damage That Can Occur on the Ground Due to Tropical Revolving Storms The impact a tropical storm can have on people depends on an array of factors, such as the intensity of the cyclone, the distance the storm is from the sea, the speed of movement of the storm, and the topography of the coastal area. Also, the amount of preparation that communities have made before a tropical storm reduces the vulnerability of those communities. On the oceans, tropical revolving storms can cause large swells due to the strong winds. There are many problems associated with these large swells and waves, such as the disruption of international shipping, and they can sometimes cause shipwrecks. The storm can cause ‘storm surges’ to develop, which means that the sea level rises. Storm surges account for approximately 90% of deaths due to cyclonic activity. A ‘landfalling’ storm (a storm that is beginning to move over the land) can give rise to tornadoes due to the general rotation of the storm and its wind shear. A tropical storm can also produce ‘eye wall mesovortices’, rotational features found in the eye wall of a tropical storm on a smaller scale, and these mesovortices can cause subsequent tornadoes until landfall occurs. On the land, tropical storms can cause heavy damage to any buildings, depending on the strength of the winds, and the strength of the buildings. Tropical storms can also damage, or even destroy vehicles, bridges, and the storm can cause smaller objects to become deadly debris projectiles through the air. Rainfall often exceeds 100mm per day in a tropical storm, and this can cause severe flooding, and even landslides. Landslides are very common in Hong Kong due to cyclones. Also, as a tropical storm moves over an area of higher relief, such as a mountain range, the storm rapidly weakens, and torrential precipitation can occur, sometimes up to 700mm per day. On a demographic side, due to the heavy precipitation and possible flooding caused by a tropical storm, there may be prolonged periods of time where the water becomes stagnant on the surface, and this can cause infections, and give rise to mosquito-borne illnesses such as malaria. Because evacuees of a tropical storm are usually placed into shelters for long periods of time, this can cause infection propagation. There has been over 1.9million deaths over the past 200 years due to tropical storms worldwide. Although tropical storms cause much damage to infrastructure, as well as loss of communication, there can be good impacts of tropical storms. For example, in dryer regions of the world, the heavy precipitation brought on by tropical storms may be well-needed for agriculture. Another example is the fact that tropical storms assist in keeping the heat in the atmosphere, as tropical storms transport warmer air from the tropics towards the cooler mid-latitudes and Polar Regions. The Tropical Revolving Storm Dissipation Process, and the Reasons for It As long as the necessary conditions to keep a tropical revolving storm ‘alive’ are met, the tropical storm will sustain itself for as long as possible. The tropical storm will start to dissipate if the storm cannot sustain itself any longer due to the lack of energy which is required. The reason that the storm loses its energy is because it moves over an area of reduced temperature and humidity. This area could be either when the storm moves over the land (landfall) because of the cooler temperature as land takes a longer time to heat up and cool down, or the area could be a sea surface in the tropics or over higher latitude areas where the water temperatures are cooler. When a tropical storm landfalls, it reduces in intensity relatively quickly and becomes an ‘extratropical cyclone’. If a tropical storm moves over a mountainous area, the storm will weaken much more rapidly, and there may be torrential precipitation, which has the potential to cause many fatalities due to floods and mudslides. Also, if the storm stays in the same area of ocean for a prolonged period of time, it can cause the water beneath it to cool down due to mixing, and the storm will dissipate. Even if a tropical storm has lost its tropical characteristics and become extratropical or dissipated, it can still retain its wind speeds and produce several inches of precipitation. This phenomenon can be experienced on the west coast of North America, or even on the European continent. A tropical revolving storm can regenerate after crossing a landmass. As the tropical storm moves over the landmass, it decreases in intensity, and then if the storm meets another area of warm seas, it can regenerate. This regeneration is commonplace in areas such as the Central American Isthmus, Taiwan, the Malaysian Peninsula, and Australia. Usually, if the tropical storm moves into the mid-latitudes of around 35° to 45°, it will decrease in strength, lose its tropical physiognomies (such as thunderstorms near the centre), and become a ‘mid-latitude depression’. A Personal Assessment of Current and Future Techniques Used For the Prediction of Tropical Revolving Storms
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