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Difference Between Cost Control and Cost Reduction

Difference Between Cost Control and Cost Reduction. Introduction A cost reduction program is a type of method which is to improve profitability of the organization or by expected to get a good result that flow to the bottom line of the financial statement and exempted from any serious damage to the organization itself. As this program is much more about reducing cost or reducing expenses of the organization, so a good cost reduction program is all about how to control the damage of an organization. Furthermore, a cost reduction program is said can be improved the profitability of an organization because by reducing expenses, profits are increased without making others changes. On the other hand, if the cost reduction program can matched with a sales improvement program and perhaps, finally it will get the double profit. A cost reduction program must be a complete plan that is results-oriented. A structured cost reduction program will put the company on track to achieve maximum profitability and achieve the highest performance. Moreover, this program also implies a series of program that retain all of the essential characteristics and quality of the product and thus it must be confined to permanent and genuine savings in the costs of manufacture, administration, distribution and selling, brought about by elimination of wasteful and inessential elements form the design of the product and from the techniques and practices carried out in connection therewith. What is the different between cost control and cost reduction? In fact, cost control also known as cost management or cost containment; it controls the costs of the organization at the given level. Besides, cost control emphasis on ensuring that the cost does not exceed the standard budget of the organization. Businesses use cost control methods to monitor, evaluate, and ultimately enhance the efficiency of specific areas, such as departments, divisions, or product lines, within their operations. However, cost reduction is a power exercise or is an exercise which will out all of the effort to saving cost from whatever level they are. Cost reduction does not have any standard, or anything is accepted as ideal. Every element of cost is scrutinized, every operation is screened and every procedure is analyzed to identify the ways and means of reducing costs. Cost reduction can result in saving the product cost, manufacturing cost s, and life cycle cost. There are two different concepts between cost control and cost reduction. Cost control is achieving the cost target as its objective while cost reduction is directed to explore the possibilities of improving the targets or company profitability. Therefore, cost control will end the exercise when achieved the organization target or objective. While cost reduction is a continuous process and it has no visible end. Furthermore, cost control try to attain the lowest possible cost under existing conditions whereas cost reduction does not recognize any condition as permanent since a change will result in lowering the cost. If the cost control emphasis is on past and present, while the cost reduction emphasis is on the present and future. Besides, cost control is a preventive function whereas cost reduction is a correlative function. It run even when an efficient cost control system exists. The difference between both of it can be summarized as cost control ensuring the costs is in accordance with established standards whereas cost reduction is concerned with try to improve the cost by continuous and without accordance with any of the standard. The main benefits of cost reduction programs are it can enhance profitability and enhance cash flow of the organization. It presents the key elements and factors to consider in program design and implementation. Cost reduction program is also can ensure the results will match with the goals or objective and the values of the organization. It is a widely-acknowledged fact that cost reduction program is one of the most challenging responsibilities or tasks that a company needs to undertake, especially when there are so many ways open to cost-conscious managers. Finally, an integrated tax reduction program can reduce the onerous financial burdens that can stable a company’s development and can free up precious capital that can be result to the firm’s long-term benefit. Literature Reviews/Case Study/Research Findings There are five cases and cost reduction methods in these literature reviews. The methods including Target Costing (TC), Activity-Based Costing (ABC), Just in Time (JIT), Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP), and Value Engineering (VE). Case study 1 (Target Costing) Definition: Target costing also called product costing method in which an attempt at the planning and development phase of a product life cycle to attain a specified cost that is decided by management. This approach is to seek the lower costs by designing a quality product that reduces costs in the production phase. It can be described as a systematic process of cost management and profit planning. Case study: In 1993, Toyota uses target costing approach to generally reduce costs at the design stage. By using this approach, Toyota sets goals for cost reduction and then tries to achieve these new targets through design changes that will accomplish the cost reduction goal. Toyota was comparing the costs of the new design with the old design in order to guarantee a cost reduction after implementation of the new technique. This is the main idea that Toyota uses to achieve their companywide goals. There are several steps in the sequence of price, production, and cost decisions. First, Toyota decides what the new retail price of the automobile by taking the old price and adding the value of any new functions. The sales division comes up with the suggestion for the production volume by taking past numbers and indexing them to market trends and the state of competitors. Second, Toyota is focus on cost planning. This cost planning is based on the product plan and targets for retail price and also production volume. The purpose of using cost planning by Toyota is for determine the amount by which costs can be reduced through better design of the new model. Toyota establishes a profit target that is subtracted to determine their target cost. These cost planning decisions are made for three years before they release the model. Toyota estimates the approximate costs of a new model by sums of the cost variations of the new model and the old model. This technique is very beneficial to Toyota, because it tends to be less work and provides more accurate results. In addition, it also helps the specific divisions understand the cost fluctuations. Besides that, Toyota removes variable costs both models incur such as wages and indirect costs by using this approach. Meanwhile, they use their decisions on costs that change between the two models in design and production volume. The main point in this case study is to show how cost planning at Toyota is focused on the design phase. Toyota does this by setting goals for cost reductions through design changes. Toyota takes these goals and then assesses them to different divisions to make the necessary changes. Toyota believes that by changing product design to produce lower price to achieve a higher level of profitability. Case Study 2 (Activity-based Costing) Definition: Activity-Based Costing is a costing model that identifies the cost pools, or activity centers, in an organization and assigns costs to products and services (cost drivers) based on the number of events or transactions involved in the process of providing a product or service. The concept of Activity-Based Costing has been considered a sophisticated method of cost calculation since the early 1980s. In addition, Activity-Based Costing (ABC) assigns manufacturing overhead costs to products in a more logical manner than the traditional approach of simply allocating costs on the basis of machine hours. Activity-Based Costing first assigns costs to the activities that are the real cause of the overhead. It then assigns the cost of those activities only to the products that are actually demanding the activities. Case study: Boeing Commercial Airplane Group (BCAG) is the world’s largest manufacturer of commercial airplanes. It comprises approximately 60% of Boeing’s total revenues. BCAG Wichita is a cost center manufacturing plant producing fuselages, noses, struts, nacelles, and thrust reversers for 737, 747, 757, 767, and 777 airplane models. In May 1999, the plant employed approximately 16,835 employees directly, and was responsible for indirect employment of 53,100 workers within the state of Kansas. As part of its overall drive to gain and retain world-class aerospace manufacturing status, BCAG Wichita is focused on developing a lean, efficient design and production system supported by an effective cost management strategy. The cost management strategy supports initiatives designed to link the manufacturing process and support activities so as to simplify the whole production process, while maximizing benefits from the use of lean business practices. Cost management strategy initiatives include simplifying production, shortening flow and cycle times, increasing quality and inventory turnover, identifying core products and processes, and linking the design and manufacturing process to decrease product time-to-market. Activity-Based Costing links and supports the manufacturing process. It provides information to tailor business streams and material management, costs of activity and processes, value added versus non-value added analysis and profitability analysis used to improve the make versus buy decision-making process. ABC also provides analysis of set-up and run costs, costs of scheduled and unscheduled maintenance, costs of asset failure, and costs of manufacturing capacity, thereby allowing manufacturing managers to manage the assets under their control more effectively. Finally, ABC provides analysis on the costs of design changes in configuration as impacted on the manufacturing floor, costs of incorporating complexity into a configuration design, and the costs of quality. The highest hurdle in achieving this type of cost management architecture lies in moving the corporate financial department from its classic accounting role as scorekeeper or policeman to the role of business partner. In a business partner role, the corporate financial department can support strategic decisions relevant to the company’s continued competitive advantage by providing financial data that highlights the impact of these decisions. BCAG Wichita views a successful implementation of ABC as one that fulfills three major roles: Addresses the size, complexity, and diversity of the manufacturing process, Facilitates the integration of financial decision makers into a more supportive business partnership role, and Implements effective cost management strategy initiatives. Case Study 3 (Just in Time) Definition: Just-in-time (JIT) production also known as lean production, it is a ‘pull’ system of production, means the actual orders provide a signal for when a product should be manufactured. When there is Demand-pull, it enables a company to produce only what is required, with the correct quantity and correct time. These features of Just-in-time production system accomplish close organization among work- stations. Therefore, its objective can be defined as producing the right part in the right place at the right time (in other words, “just in time”). Case study: From July 1990, top managers of Daioku have begun completing the Kanban production system-moving from the traditional push-type production management to pull-type production management. This type of system produces only quantities necessary to fulfill the demands of the next operation. The quantity is pulled when it is needed, where it is needed, and in the exact quantity which is needed. For instead, since beginning the implementation of Just-In-Time, many difficulties have occurred. The difficulties include: Combining the data and material flows instead of classifying them. Post the products, its store and manufacturing process instead of a flow without any post. Changing from L-shape assembly line into V-shape assembly line. This requires a set of new equipments and techniques. Problems exist between Daioku and supplier (subcontractors), for instance, traditional ways of shipping material based on the pre-determined plan is now being eliminated and every supplier are now required to collect the “Kanban” back from the order-post and ship their material based on the information in the Kanban. Everyone in the firm required to participate in Just-In-Time. They need to determine how to make the shop floor operations become easier and efficient. Daioku carried out discussions and meetings to find solutions to the problems in the year of 1992. Therefore, Daioku sent their experts to help suppliers to solve their problems gradually. In Daioku, The inventory part was reduced the dramatically in this year. By using Just-In-Time method, the stock levels of raw materials, work in progress, components and finished goods can keep in a minimum. However, this requires a carefully planned scheduling and flow of resources through the production process. Just-in-time method promotes continuous enhances on the products. At the same time, this method can eliminate waste. Waste results from any activity that adds cost without adding value. For example, the unnecessary moving of materials, the accumulation of excess inventory, or the use of faulty production methods that create products requiring subsequent rework. Just-In-Time should enhance the profits and return on investment by reducing inventory levels (rising the inventory turnover rate), reducing variability, improving product quality, reducing production and delivery lead times, and reducing other costs (like those associated with machine setup and equipment breakdown). In conclusion, Just-In-Time production system aims to (1) meet customer demand in a timely manner (2) at the lowest possible total cost and (3) with high-quality products. Case Study 4 (Enterprise Resource Planning) Definition: Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) is a computerized inventory control and production system that was born from Material Requirements Planning systems (MRP). It is a system that organizes functions of an institution. It assists in account, finance, human resources and e-commerce applications through creation of databases and graphical user interfaces. It unifies the tasks of institutions like corporations, government agencies, non-profit organizations, powerful institutions and industries and businesses establishments. There are some businesses start to compete on a global scale, it is critical to streamline operations and processes in business to reach a higher level of productivity and efficiency in information exchange and supports e-commerce applications, for example supply chain management (SCM) and customer relationship management (CRM). On the other hand, software that comes up with functionality to various systems that will coincide with one another as a whole is required to combine all of the information or operations of a company into a single unit. Central database is one of the most outstanding parts of the ERP system. Case Study: By October 1997, a group of 50 top business executives and 10 senior IT professionals had been congregated to device the SAP project to come up with a set of best practices that would become common work procedures for every Nestlé division which are manufacturing, purchasing, accounting and sales by adopted new pan-Nestle’ way. Firstly, in order to implement the technical side, a common structure across the company, the vanilla would be code 1234 in every division. The SAP system customize around the uniform affair procedure. The group decided that they are not to use SAP in supply chain because the ERP supply chain module adopted was brand-new and therefore risky. Furthermore, Manugistics’ supply chain module followed all the SAP standards and could easily be integrated. Nestlé implement five SAP modules which are purchasing, financials, sales and distribution, accounts payable and accounts receivable and the Manugistics’ supply chain module which deployed across every Nestlé division, by March 1998. Besides that, the purchasing company for confections pursues the identical best practices and information as the purchasing company for beverages. To beat the Y2K deadline, the best project group had overlooked the integration points between the modules. All purchasing departments now used general names and systems, and followed a general process, but their system was not integrated with the financial, planning or sales groups. A salesperson may have given a valuable customer a discount rate and entered it into the new system, however the accounts receivable department wouldn’t know about it. Hence, it would appear to the accounts receivable operative as though the invoice were only partially paid as customer paid the discounted rate. The project team had essentially replaced divisional silos with process silos to unify the company’s separate brands. The time constraints necessitated by Y2K had put too much pressure on the people in charge of executing the changes. The project team had lost the big picture of how the various components would work together. Hence, the existing modules had to be integrated and the team still needed to roll out another two more SAP modules which are sales and distribution on the domestic side, and accounts receivable as well as a new module for the supply chain. Since Dunn had rejected the SAP supply chain module two years before, therefore, it leads to decision to replace all but a couple of parts of the Manugistics system with APO. The last state of design was completed on April 2001 and giving the project teams a highly detailed road map to follow. One month later, Tom James came on board as director of process change for the Best project with the responsibility as a connection between the divisions and the project team. He was so surprised by the poor relationship between divisions and project team. They conducted surveys that were involved of how the workers affected by the new systems were dealing with the changes and the feedback was the users were not prepared to make process alter. ERP projects are famous and need a long period and a lot of money to done it. Dunn maintains the slow and steady wins the race. Nestlé United State accomplishes the significant ROI with the greatest bulk of savings from better demand forecasting. The old process included a sales man giving a number to the those men and demand planner do not know what the hell they are talking about then the factory changes the number again. With SAP in place, general databases and business processes lead to more trustworthy demand forecasts for the various Nestlé products. Furthermore, because all of Nestlé United State also using the same data then Nestlé can forecast down to the distribution center level to diminish the inventory and the redistribution expenses that occur when too much of a product is sent to one place and not enough to another. The supply chain improvements accounted for a major chunk of the $325 million has saved from SAP. Case 5 Value Engineering (VE) Definition: Value engineering (VE) is a systematic method to improve the “value” of goods or products and services by using an examination of function. Value, as defined, is the ratio of function to cost. Value can therefore be increased by either improving the function or reducing the cost. It is a primary tenet of value engineering that basic functions be preserved and not be reduced as a consequence of pursuing value improvements. [1] Value engineering is sometimes taught within the project management or industrial engineering body of knowledge as a technique in which the value of a system’s outputs is optimized by crafting a mix of performance (function) and costs. In most cases this practice identifies and removes unnecessary expenditures, thereby increasing the value for the manufacturer and/or their customers. Case Study: This project was for an underground car park beneath a new shopping centre in Three Waters, Madrid. A fully ducted ventilation system was the approved design contained with the Spanish Building Regulations. However, this would be costly to install and would impact on the development programmed. Therefore, the purpose of the simulation was to demonstrate that a non-ducted, mechanical system would also meet the Spanish Building Regulations. The planning requirements often mean extensive car parks to proposed offices, residential and retail developments. The ventilation of these car parks can present a significant cost to the developer in terms of capital expenditure for plant, energy consumption and maintenance, as well as the implications for the programmed if extensive ductwork and plant has to be installed. The use of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is most effectively used at early design stage, also can be used as a tool for solving existing problems. The specific objectives of a project can vary considerably. The key objectives of the simulations are normally to ensure that the distribution and concentration of carbon monoxide (CO), is in accordance with Building Regulations. The Building Regulations comprise a number of Approved Documents. These Approved Documents contain design options which if adopted, the scheme is ‘deemed’ to comply. Applying Value Engineering can identify potential savings in capital, maintenance and energy costs without any adverse effect on performance. Computer simulation is therefore, becoming an essential value engineering design tool. For example, a designer may question why 6 air changes per hour (ACH) should be provided when 4 ACH will accomplish the desired result. The benefits of simulation are that the proposed designs can be tested against the acceptance criteria contained within the Building Regulations before any financial commitment is made. In conclusion, Three Waters using [i] of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) as a tool for value engineering can significantly benefit new and existing developments by avoiding unnecessary capital expenditure, reducing construction time, and providing reductions in energy consumption, CO2 emissions and maintenance. Analyses/Discussion Cost reduction programs have classified in many types and each type of the program will provides different benefits to the companies. In this part, we are going to give the analysis of the advantages and benefits the types of cost reduction methods which shown below. Finally, analysis of cost reduction will show in the end of this part. Total Quality Management (TQM) TQM is the one of the famous method that uses the focus of quality of management process. This will increase the productivity and efficiency in the business and in the manufacturing process. If the process is used from the beginning during the manufacturing process, there is less likely of chance for incorrectly producing products or devices. Therefore, it would bring the correct product in the end of process in creating less waste in raw materials and less lost hours due to repeating of the process. TQM method is not only will increase the productivity, but it also increases the level of pride in the employees. This is because each employee becomes responsible for a higher level of quality in his or her work. Kaizen Costing (KC) Kaizen costing is the maintenance of present levels for products currently being manufactured via systematic efforts to achieve the desired cost level. In general, it is the process of cost reduction during the manufacturing phase of a product. The word “KAI” is means modify and change and “ZEN” means think, make good, and make better. So, in overall, kaizen costing is focuses on continuous and gradual by small betterment activities rather than large or radical improvement made through innovation or large investments in technology. Basically, kaizen costing imply four effects, there are paying attention to the quality and productivity, acquiring little by little kaizen and problem-solving ability, perceiving the work place as their own, and understanding the meaning of kaizen. Kaizen costing meets the goal with the continual and relentless reduction of non-value-added activities and costs, the elimination of waste, and improvements in manufacturing cycle time all contribute to the effort. In additional, kaizen costing has brings the benefit of reduction in production time, reduction in rejection, energy saving, and improved quality. Value Engineering (VE)/Value Analysis(VA) Value engineering (VE) or value analysis (VA) is a process of systematic review that is applied to existing product designs in order to compare the function of the product required by a customer to meet their requirements at the lowest cost consistent with the specified performance and reliability needed. The key focus of the value engineering is the management of “functionality” to yield value to the customer. For instance, not that long ago, consumers of electric kettles were offered a variety different types of metal-based boiling device. The value of a kettle is derived through heating water and therefore its functionality can be determined as temperature, capacity, reliability, safety, and else. With the same functionality of the boiling water, designers would probably look towards a kettle which made of plastic. Plastic has the same functionality as metal in terms of containing and boiling water. However the switch from metal to plastic does not impair this value and functionality with the customers. This is because the customers just want to boil water, but it gives result in a cost saving for the manufacturing company. The benefits of effective VE process can be summed up including speed of getting an effective design into the market without problems and through error-free manufacturing and assembly processes, reliability and durability of the product in the market which enhances the reputation of the product and the company, low overall cost which enhances product margin and also releases finances within the business as well as allowing the ability to engage in price competition, enhanced quality and compliance with minimal costs of warranty that allows a company to differentiate its products based this perceived quality of use and esteem, and finally the value engineering process satisfies the primary goal of any business which is to make a profit and survive. Activity Based Costing (ABC) Activity-Based Costing method is a tool which could bring about significant improvement in the quality of overhead cost allocation. The ABC process is able to incorporate both physical measures and causal principles in the costing system. The basic idea of ABC is to allocate costs to operations through the various activities in place that can be measured by cost drivers. In other words, cost units are assigned to individual activities, such as planning, packing, and quality control using a resource cost driver at an initial stage with the costs of these activities being allocated to specific products or cost objects in a second phase of allocation via an activity cost driver. The advantages are providing insight into the fastest- growing and least visible element of cost-overhead, improving profitability by monitoring total life-cycle cost and performance. It also improves the effectiveness of budgeting by identifying the cost or performance relationship of difference service level. It encourages continuous improvement and total quality control because planning and control are directed at process level. At last, is facilitating elimination of waste by providing visibility of non-value added activities and improving make or buy, estimating, and pricing decisions that are based on product cost that mirrors the manufacturing process. As a result, ABC can support managers to see how to maximize shareholder value and improve corporate performance. Enterprise Resource Planning ERP can be describes to integrate all departments and functions across a company onto a single computer system that can serve all those different departments’ particular needs. Hence, it is extremely important to know how to use effectively Enterprise Resource Planning for a success implementation. In order for Enterprise Resource Planning system to succeed, it must be capable of successfully integrating manufacturing with the other processes of a company. Besides that, Enterprise Resource Planning is not the cure to all the problems a business will face. A number of advantages and disadvantages exists to this technology, and those who know this will be the most likely to succeed. By the implementation of Enterprise Resource Planning, it comes up with a number of advantages that helps to solve a number of problems that have plagued large organizations in the past and used to integrate the many processes of a company or organization. Scalability is also an advantage, like Enterprise Resource Planning also helps to improve the production levels and to control costs more efficiently, and this enabled us to control the whole enterprise more efficiently. As a result, Enterprise Resource Planning is no longer just a competitive advantage in this globalized world. It is very important requirement for every enterprise. To truly be effective, it may be necessary to combine the benefits of Enterprise Resource Planning with those of Customer Relationship Management (CRM). Just in Time (JIT) Just in Time is a set of techniques to improve the return of investment of a business by reducing in-process inventory and its associated costs. In addition, the process is driven by a series of signals, or Kanban that tell production processes to make the next part. Just In time causes dramatic improvements in a manufacturing organization`s return on investment, quality, and efficiency. For an example, Toyota Motor Thailand had implement Just In time methods during the crisis on July 1, 1997. Toyota Motor showed a strong commitment to uniting with whole workforce as well as suppliers and dealers to ride out the crisis. This commitment was shared with the labor union, and the entire company together with the Toyota Group implemented through measures to make operations more leaner, utilizing the resulting excess labor to implement improvement initiatives as well as additional education of employees and suppliers. Based on the concept of “just in time”, energy was supplied to each process when it was needed and in just the right amount; personal wastebaskets were reduced to one quarter of their original size to encourage less paper usage; and localization was promoted by expanding local procurement to Tier 2 and Tier suppliers. Meanwhile, Toyota Motor Thailand also directed energy into the education and training employees. As a result of these efforts, without having dismissed a single full-time employee, inventories were cleared in January 1998 and production began to rise again. In 2004, Toyota Motor Thailand produced 273980 vehicles. Toyota Motor Thailand paved the way for the strides forward it is making today. There are several examples of advantages of JIT. Both inventory and the cost of holding it go down as the inventory-reorder quantity and the maximum inventory level drop. However, because inventory requires incurring an ordering or setup orders that mu Difference Between Cost Control and Cost Reduction
With the current state of WRSX, there is a need for the Board of Directors to relook into the strategic management of the company; ensuring strategy applied is relevant, creating value to the company and its stakeholders. WRSX need to function as a complete integrated entity, different business units operate and contribute to the success of WRSX. WRSX strategy needs to be accepted by all stakeholders, preventing conflict, allowing alignment across all levels in the business. Vision Wants to turn a mid-size player into a top 20 agency group with global presence and in turn increase ROI for shareholders. Mission Making the clients successful through differentiating and strengthening their brands by creating advertising and using a range of market related activities. Through the mergers and acquisitions, the structure ensures independence of the various business units with a great deal of autonomy that subsequently contributes to the effectiveness of the service offered. Goals Looking at the growth strategies to increase market share: either through expanding market share in existing market Expand range of products and services Beating competitors through expanding geographically Targeting new industry sectors Phase 1 Strategic Capabilities (Strength and Weakness) Taking into consideration WRSX’s scope of activities and resource commitment, WRSX should stand among the medium-to-large scale advertising and marketing services companies. The market segments that WRSX serve are the medium-to-large clients companies from the following sectors: auto automotive and transport, health and pharmaceuticals, telecoms, personal care, beauty and fragrances, public sector and charities industries. WRSX has managed under them a range of highly specialised business units i.e. media buying, public relations, research and insight, direct marketing, branding, film production, sports marketing, brand identity, digital media. This is an extensive breath and range of service provided from a medium-large advertising group. Among them, their research and insight unit continually addresses any changes in the industry, making sure WRSX doesn’t lag behind its competitors. And information is passed on to the production teams so to create effective advertisement to targeted market. These production teams are highly creatively thus value-adding to the advertisement and increase the effectiveness. All the talk on creativity and innovation wouldn’t have been possible without leveraging on the leadership behind it. Located in each geographic office are creative professionals with good track record before the merger on the area of creativity. Furthermore, each business units enjoyed a great deal of autonomy brought together by the merger. Therefore, the leaders behind WRSX are the unique resources here. These are considered dynamic resources and capabilities as they are constantly evolving with the dynamics of the industry. This enables WRSX to renew and recreate its strategies to tackle the changes and new development in the market. Critical Success Factors Like any company striving in this highly competitive market, WRSX possess a few critical success factors which are further attested by the results from the ADCOM Benchmark Survey. WRSX has a good track record of producing creativity and innovative works for its clients and it has a very capable market research business unit, understanding the market segments thoroughly, accurately targeting the end customers of the advertisements. These are two factors that many client companies valued as it can simply underline the effectiveness of any advertising company. WRSX’s client companies want innovation and creativity in the various marketing tools as only through such differentiation can the client companies outshines its competition as well as for WRSX. Use VRINE framework Diagnosing WRSX’s strategic capability > Activity mapping, Value chain analysis. bases for WRSX achieving competitive advantage: Operations, Human resource management, Service From the diagram above, we can see that WRSX’s value chain consist of a firm infrastructure in the form of Office Central Services where it will take charge off all, HR, Finance and administrative issues. Following which are the rest of the supportive activities. The Market Research and Insight units will help conduct market research which gives insight into consumer and market development. They are then strategically interpreted and adapted into the advertisement which adds value to client’s business through the improved advertisements. The Public Relations units will help flow information to the general consumers through events like conferences, acting as another channel to advertising. They are also involved in building rapport within the company with the employees and lobbying for and against legislative decision that affects the clients and WRSX. The Business Development is involved in the organic growth of the company, making sure that WRSX is always moving forward and reacted to changes in the industry and take opportunities when one comes about along the way. They are involved with decisions concerning acquisition, strategic alliances and even divestment. WRSX has a wide breath and range of services it provides. They are mainly the following: Branding and Identity unit are the ones involved in developing strategies in order to reach the objectives of each client. It will take into account the inputs from the Accounts Management units which are tasked to understand what the clients’ aims to achieve. Closely related is the relationship marketing where marketing campaigns are launched with an emphasis on customer retention. Consumer Advertising units are in charge of creating the actual ads either in-house or out-source to a specialist. Media Services are the ones that do the media buying, sourcing out the right media for the right kind of consumers. There are a whole range of specialist services that covers the different the different niche consumers out there. Some examples are the film production units, new media and digital unit and sports marketing. Weaknesses in WRSX’s Processes Business Level WRSX definitely have shone out from its competitors, having many highly specialised business units as mentioned earlier, however each of these units are spread out across the four geographic offices. Some notable ones are its range of business units providing a complete start-to-end service for its clients. Not all office has the capabilities required to function as effectively as compared to one office that have all of these business units. Corporate Level It would have help if WRSX have shared the knowledge across the offices, creating synergies between the business units and thereby gaining a competitive advantage in terms of efficiency and economies of scale. There would have been much more help if there was a policy for corporate governance where knowledge and information could flow naturally through to other offices. Greater efficiency could be achieved as each office now has greater knowledge empowerment to make more informed decisions. No group-wide corporate governance policy has also led to reporting irregularities and scandal affecting the reputation of WRSX, which snowballed to affecting the share prices. In the aftermath, some shareholders have lost confidence in the WRSX’s non-executive directors and urge a change in directors. This will have tarnished some of the well-built relationships it has with its clients and pushing WRSX further away from attaining its goals. Another group of stakeholders crucial in attaining its goals are its employees, who WRSX have issues retaining them when it lost its clients amid the many turn of events i.e. scandal of bribery. External Environment Analysis (Opportunities

Cultural Authenticity Research Paper

Cultural Authenticity Research Paper “Knowledge of the diverse world around the students leads to communication, understanding and acceptance of differences, and assists in finding one’s identity” (Arellano, 2011). Cultural authenticity is depicted as the examination of books to see if it accurately demonstrates the history and language of a particular culture. However, there is not one-way of life for everyone in a group which means the author must do further research to examine this group. Readers that are part of the group need to relate to the book or know what they are reading is true. It must hold true to their culture, and others need to see mirrors of themselves or learn about cultural likeness and dissimilarity. “Evaluating authenticity involves considering complex issues, not making a simple yes or no decision about the cultural authenticity of a book” (Short, 2003). There have been so many issues with using cultural authenticity in children’s literature. It is one of those issues that seem to find its way back to the surface again and again. It always seems to get people amped up and a lot of people have different points of view about authenticity. People like teachers, editors, authors, publishers, and illustrators have different outlooks on the topic about authenticity and feel strongly about their views of the subject. In debates on cultural authenticity people have brought forth the argument that whites should write books about people of color. The outsider/insider debate is the most common issue when dealing with cultural authenticity. The question is asked frequently, and both sides have very different perspectives on the subject which leads them to varying opinions. Some authors believe that it is restricting their freedom because they are not able to write about other cultures. If people see it from this perspective, they see it as a form of criticism on the author and their ability to write about different races. But others believe, that the question is important to ask because what if the author cannot depict the character correctly or make culturally authentic if they aren’t of that culture. some people see it as simplistic, because the writers aren’t of that race, so they don’t know what it’s like to be of that culture. That is why there has been a problem when it has come to writing culturally authentic books. Additionally, there has also been a problem for some educators and authors when describing cultural authenticity. They are hesitant when establishing a definition for cultural authenticity and will probably talk about it using instinctive details. Most people acknowledged Bishop when he said that “cultural authenticity cannot be defined but you know it when you see it” (Fox

WCC Katherine Harris Duties in Her Elected Political Position Questions

help me with my homework WCC Katherine Harris Duties in Her Elected Political Position Questions.

In question #1, be sure you identify the primary reason which triggered the recount and then go on to explain why the voters were confused and why that became one of the issues presented in court litigation. Question #2 is cleverly illustrated by rapid-fire editing of meetings of the Christopher and Baker teams. Pay particular attention to those scenes in the video.For Question #3, be specific about Katherine Harris’ duties in her elected political position and what major decision was in her hands. Question #4 needs to have the reason why both teams of lawyers were convinced the US Supreme Court would not hear the case. It had to do with a long-standing tradition in the Court regarding state constitutional matters. It is an important point because its implicates the conflicts of interest members of the Supreme Court had and their bias towards Bush. Question #5 is complicated and you need to listen closely to the video or dig deeply into some outside research to come up with an accurate answer. It is a decision by the Court which the members never discussed and has gone down as one of the worst decisions ever taken by the U.S. Supreme Court. Number 6 is up to you and please reflect on it carefully. Since Bush v. Gore we have had another election with a discrepancy between the popular vote and the Electoral College and an election which called into account outside interference in the voting process in the United States which could challenge the democratic system and lead to considerable loss of faith in the fairness of the process. 1. What happened in the Florida election to trigger a recount of ballots?2. What were the different strategies of James Baker (for Bush) and Warrent Christorpher (for Gore)?3. Who was Katherine Harris and what role did she play in the drama over the voting in Florida?4. Why did both sides feel the United States Supreme Corut would not hear the case of Bush v. Gore?5. In the end what did the US Supreme Court decide?6. What are the lessons of this election?
WCC Katherine Harris Duties in Her Elected Political Position Questions

Cuyamaca Community College Human Growth and Development Discussion

Cuyamaca Community College Human Growth and Development Discussion.

Essay: Write a 1200-1800 word essay addressing each of the following points/questions. Be sure to completely answer all the questions for each questions. Separate each section in your paper with a clear heading that allows your professor to know which question you are addressing in that section of your paper. Support your ideas with at least three (3) citations in your essay. Make sure to reference the citations using the APA writing style for the essay. The cover page and reference page do not count towards the minimum word amount.1. What strengths and limitations do the clinical (or case study) method and ethnography have in common?2. Distinguish among age-graded, history-graded, and non-normative influences on lifespan development. Cite an example of each in Sofie’s story at the beginning of this chapter.3. What is epigenesis, and how does it differ from range of reaction and genetic–environmental correlation? Provide an example of epigenesis.4. Links between family and community foster development throughout the lifespan. Cite several examples from our discussion that support this idea.5. Why is genetic counseling called a communication process? Who should seek it?6. Using your knowledge of X-linked inheritance, explain why males are more vulnerable than females to miscarriage, infant death, genetic disorders, and other problems.7. Why is the period of the embryo regarded as the most dramatic prenatal period? Why is the fetal period called the “growth and finishing” phase?8. What functions does REM sleep serve in young infants? Can sleep tell us anything about the health of the newborn’s central nervous system? Explain.
Cuyamaca Community College Human Growth and Development Discussion

What Is Mental Illness Psychology Essay

Mental illnesses are organised around a set of diagnostic labels that can be ascribed to people with common mental experiences who behave in similar ways. This is rooted in the ‘medical model’ which assumes mental health problems are the result of physiological abnormalities, generally involving brain systems. A disorder is considered as an illness and is therefore treated with physical treatments, usually medication, that modify the underlying biological disorder. The type of treatment given is determined by the presence or absence of various signs or symptoms. This assumes that people with mental health problems are experiencing a state divorced from that of ‘normal’ individuals: a mental illness. Who diagnoses and how? Kraepelin first began describing syndromes which had a common set of symptoms differing from those of other syndromes, in a classification system which later formed the basis of the World Health Organisation’s (WHO) International Classification of Diseases (ICD:WHO, 1992). Being in its tenth edition highlights the difficulty to accurately identify and classify mental health conditions. The American Psychiatric Association (APA) devised its own classification system, known as the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM) , which although having much in common with the ICD system, differs in a number of details. This has also changed over the years since its first publication in 1952 and is now in it’s fifth revision (DSM-IV-TR:APA 2000). The classification system is multi-axial which allows the individuals mental state to be evaluated on five different axes. This provides a dichotomous diagnosis of either mentally ill or not. Diagnostic consistency – p 10 ab and clin psych. Differences/Classifications Psychiatrists have developed systems to classify mental disorders that describe the kinds of symptoms and behaviour commonly seen among those considered to be mentally disordered. These fall into three main groups; personality disorders, psychoses and neuroses. While some forms of psychosis, such as schizophrenia, may make a small, independent contribution to the risk of offending, it is much more likely that other forms will be concomitant with, but not necessarily contributory to, offending behaviour. In debating the classifications of mental disorder under three main groups, a word of caution is in order. Mental disorders can vary greatly in their symptoms, severity, course, outcome and amenability to treatment. Each of these disorders has subcategories, and the presenting features can vary in their severity. They can adversely and to differing degrees affect any and every aspect of a person’s life. There also remains tension in the medical disciplines not only with regard to the exact diagnosis in the individual cases but also as to whether some disorders actually exist as independent categories. What is the public perception? Labels Many people gather what they know about mental illness either from personal contact with people with such conditions or from the media. 4,5. Very little is formally taught on mental disorders within the education system. 6. In 2003 it was found that 77% of people knew someone with a mental illness. A person’s knowledge attitudes and behaviour towards people with a mental illness will affect things. The media can influence knowledge, attitudes and behaviour by being the main source of information. 8. Several classic studies in social psychiatry have illuminated the important role that cultural beliefs play in shaping societal responses to people with mental illnesses. Hollingshead and Redlich 1 introduced the concept of “lay appraisal” to indicate that, long before mental health professionals may become involved, people such as family, friends, coworkers, police, and, of course, the person himself or herself appraise the early signs of mental disorders and make decisions about what (if anything) should be done. Others have provided vivid evidence regarding cultural stereotypes. In Nunnally’s 2(P51) semantic differential study, for example, respondents typified a mentally ill man as “dangerous, dirty, unpredictable, and worthless.” Recent research suggests that stereotypes of dangerousness are actually on the increase8 and that the stigma ofmental illness remains a powerfully detrimental feature of the lives of people with such conditions.9-13 Where does this come from? – Media In a study from New Zealand it was found that more than 50% of all news items depicted the mentally ill as dangerous. 10. With key themes being danger to others (61%) criminality (47%), unpredictability (24%) and a danger to themselves (20%). This study concluded that ‘print media portrayals are negative, exaggerated and do not reflect the reality of most people with mental illness. 10,12. Fewer than 5% of the stories were from the person’s own viewpoint and only 1% quoted the person in their own words. Own voices largely absent from media depictions of mental illness. 13. A Canadian study found similar results. A selection of articles from 8 major Canadian newspapers were compared with 2 specialist mental health publications. 14. The news papers portrayed mental illness as ‘essentially pejorative’. A UK study compared mental health and physical health items published in 9 national papers. 64% of mental were negative compared to 46% of physical, general medical. Negative medical articles suggested bad doctors whereas mental tended to describe bad patients.15. Another study found that nearly ½ of all tabloid stories used pejorative terms such as ‘looney’ or ‘nutter’. 16. In the US 3000 newspaper stories about mental illnesses were categorised and it was found that most stories focussed on dangerousness and violence. Many were front page stories (39%) but less often treatment was mentioned (14%) and recovery (4%). This tendency to highlight violence above all other aspects of mental health was described as ‘structural discrimination’ 17. They concluded there was a lack of accurate information about mental illnesses within the public domain. Newspaper coverage of mental illness tends to be short of accurate and detailed content, emphasises violence over all other aspects of mental illness and reinforces prejudices against people with mental illness. There is ‘ample evidence for a distorted presentation of mentally ill people in newspapers’ 26. Nairn As the media are the public’s primary source of information about mental illnesses [1-3], depictions of those suffering from these disorders contribute significantly to the stigma associated with mental illness. This contribution makes the negativity of media depictions [1,4-8] a matter of great concern, and it has been argued [9-12] that these depictions would be more favourable if psychiatrists and other mental health professionals were more closely involved. Two of the psychiatrists presented mental illnesses in less negative ways than in the other items. These more positive depictions were undermined by the devices that the journalists used to give authority to the portrayals of mental illness and by the need to create ‘newsworthy’ items. Published studies of newspaper stories dealing with mental illness [5,21,22] do not report accounts or explanations provided by those with a mental disorder. This means that readers are informed about mental illnesses through stories from lay persons or professionals who have interacted with a sufferer. The media have a powerful influence on attitudes towards mental illness and it is therefore not surprising that they should feature so prominently in anti-stigma programmes. Although the intense media interest in psychiatric topics offers a tantalising opportunity to convey an ‘anti-stigma’ message, the outcomes of media intervention are often disappointing. While short-term interventions using films and literature may change self-reported attitudes, the evidence for longer-term behavioural change is very weak. This may be because adverse stories are the result not simply of media sensationalism, but of a more subtle collaboration between the assumptions of both journalist and reader (Allen