Did you feel that the topics and /or tonalities of the comedians’ satire change from the late 1980s (perestroika era) to the 1990s?.
Discuss comedy monologues that I included in this module representing the eras of perestroika and the collapse of the Soviet Union. What are the themes and targets of satirists’ writings? Give specific examples of Soviet / post-Soviet social, political, or economic issues that the comedians target. How do these stories present Russia as a nation? Did you feel that the topics and /or tonalities of the comedians’ satire change from the late 1980s (perestroika era) to the 1990s? Using the information that you have about the era, explain the change (or lack thereof).
Equality And Diversity Policy And Practices Business Essay. ABSTRACT Recently, there has been an increase in workforce diversity and all organisations most especially the ones in the Western world strive to remain competitive in the labour market by extending their operations to the developing world as a result of globalisation. This study aims to examine the international transfer of global diversity policies and practices to local context like Nigeria. The findings demonstrate the importance of flexible management practices for Multinational corporations in transferring their policies across borders. This study reveals some approaches to management of a diverse and equal workforce as well as its barriers. Keywords: Global Diversity, equality, Workforce Diversity, Nigeria, Culture. TABLE OF CONTENTS TABLE OF CONTENTS 5 CHAPTER ONE: 7 1.1: INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY 7 1.2 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY 8 1.4: SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY 9 1.5: OUTLINE OF RESEARCH 10 CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW AND THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK 11 2.1: INTRODUCTION 11 2.2: WORKFORCE DIVERSITY 11 2.3: EQUALITY AND DIVERSITY IN THE NIGERIAN CONTEXT 14 2.4: GLOBAL DIVERSITY MANAGEMENT 16 2.5: BUSINESS CASE FOR MANAGING DIVERSITY 19 2.6: BARRIERS TO DIVERSITY MANAGEMENT 21 2.6.1: DISCRIMINATION 21 2.6.2: STEROTYPES AND PREJUDICE 21 2.6.3: HARRASSMENT 22 CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY 24 3.1: THE PHILOSOPHICAL POSITION OF THIS RESEARCH 24 3.2: RESEARCH DESIGN 25 3.3: STUDY LOCATION 25 3.4: RESEARCH INSTRUMENTS 26 3.5: SAMPLING DESIGN 26 3.6: SAMPLE POPULATION AND SAMPLE SIZE 26 3.8: ETHICAL CONSIDERATION 27 CHAPTER FOUR: DATA ANALYSIS, INTERPRETATION AND DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS 28 4.1: INTRODUCTION 28 4.2: DIVERSITY STRUCTURE OF THE COMPANY 28 4.3: INTERNATIONAL TRANSFER OF DIVERSITY POLICIES TO A LOCAL CONTEXT 29 4.4: DIVERSITY AT WORK 32 4.5: PROGRAMMES AND INITIATIVE THAT MAKES THE TRANSFER OF GLOBAL POLICIES WORKS. 34 CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSIONS 38 5.1: INTRODUCTION 38 5.2: SUMMARY OF FINDINGS 38 5.3: RECOMMENDATIONS 39 5.4: LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY 39 5.5: CONCLUSION 40 40 BIBLIOGRAPHY 41 APPENDICES…………………………………………………………………………………………………………..47 CHAPTER ONE: 1.1: INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY The management of diversity has become significant in recent years in the research area in order to certify the total involvement of women, ethnic minorities, disabled people and other less privileged people (Lepaka and Shaw 2008; Nishii and Ozbilgin 2007). Diversity management came into existence in the late 1980s in the USA as a likely criterion for tackling the issues of inequality and diversity at workplace and this has been adopted by so many countries around the world (Kelly and Dobbin 1998).Comprehensively, researches have been carried out on the management of diversity locally (Verbeek, 2011; Ocholla, 2002), but this is not enough to understand the interests of diversity management globally and the way their cross-national activities are managed and directed (Ozbilgin,2005). Cox (2001) defined diversity as the existence of differences in social and cultural identities with in employees working together in an organisation. An al-encompassing definition of diversity may consist of economic status, physique, educational background, norms, culture, sexual orientation, economic status, duration of time spent with a firm and personality (Carr, 1993; Triandis 1994); Thus, accepting and appreciating the differences in people at workplace with the above features is what diverse workforce is. Recently, Companies across the globe have put alot more into diversity management programs so as to achieve results that include making the most use of talents, and giving the best they can give to demographically diverse customers (Horwitz, 2005). Organizations have recognized that the level to which these specific workforce alterations are successfully and proficiently controlled will influence organizational role and competitiveness (Von Bergen et al 2005). There is no doubt in recent years, globalisation has brought and is still bringing about the amalgamation of the world market. The Multinational companies are beginning to spread their tentacles wide and large across the globe and this has over the years brought about the need for organisations to be able to manage people coming from different cultures, background and also being able to adapt to such new environments from the parent company. This research will be contributing to the very few researches that have been done on the management of diversity globally by examining some of the strategies used by the MNCs and how best they are able to adapt and transfer their diversity and equality practices across the different jurisdictions they operate especially in the African sub-region. The case study company is a MNC with subsidiaries around the world including Nigeria which has over 250 ethnic groups. 1.2 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY This study will look into the equality and diversity policy and practices in organisations and its basic objectives includes: To identify and examine how global diversity policies and practices works in local context. To examine the barriers that has inhibited the employment, development, retention and promotion of diverse workforce in the organisation. To examine some of the initiatives and programmes used in ensuring the success of international transfer of diversity policies to a local context. 1.3: RESEARCH QUESTIONS The main question of this research is “how global equality and diversity policies are being translated and implemented in local contexts like Nigeria. Other research questions are: What are the difficulties encountered in introducing and implementing global diversity policies locally? What are the barriers that have inhibited the employment, development, retention and promotion of diverse workforce in organisations? What are the major factors influencing diversity initiatives at work? 1.4: SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY This study is of great importance because, in as much as diversity and equality issues have been well researched in the western and developed countries, very limited work has been carried out in the African sub-region (Nyambegera, 2002). Hence, this study will contribute to further understanding in the topical area of equality and diversity management within the African context and why it is important for MNCs to acknowledge the effects of local and contextual issues such as culture, beliefs, perceptions etc could have on the effectiveness of their global equality and diversity policies. As mentioned earlier, diversity management have been researched but most of the researches have not taken into consideration global diversity management. Therefore, this project would make an important contribution to the few existing literatures in understanding the concepts of global diversity management and the international transfer of diversity policies to local contexts. Nevertheless, given that Nigeria is a developing country, this research would also help in understanding how MNCs operating in developing countries like Nigeria deal with and manage a diverse workforce. 1.5: OUTLINE OF RESEARCH This research is presented in five parts. Firstly, is the introduction to the concept of the research topic. Secondly, the key literature of the research topic is discussed. The literature helped the research to think about significant issues to pay attention to when rounding up the pragmatic part of the research study. The third part shows and discussed the method of analysing and collecting data which includes the use of semi structured interviews. Having chosen to use qualitative research method is important because, it brings out some interesting and amazing findings which will be discussed in the fourth part of this research work. The findings of this research suggests that, the successful transfer of MNC’s policies and practices is dependent on how they are able to understand the beliefs, norms and culture of the any country they are planning to transfer their diversity policies to and make necessary amendments to suits the proposed subsidiary country’s way of life. CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW AND THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK 2.1: INTRODUCTION This chapter will review the past literatures on equality policy and practices and the international transfer of management of diversity policies in multinational corporations (MNCs). Thus, various themes like gender inequality in Nigeria, the management of workforce diversity, equality and diversity policy, culture, global diversity management would be examined. 2.2: WORKFORCE DIVERSITY Broadly, Diversity management is defined as the logical, methodical and strategic obligations and responsibilities by the companies to recruits retain and promote workers from different backgrounds, beliefs and norms (Ongori and Angolla, 2007). It is argued that companies that encourage workforce diversity certainly will be successful within the international labour market (Jain and Verma, 1996). The importance attached to the management of diversity has been as a result of the increase in openness to national borders as well as the free movement of capital and labour across national borders which could result in companies having some of the most productive employees (Carrel et al, 2000). For an organisation to diversify, the work environment must be able to condone and allow employees to exhibit and make use of their potentials without been subdued by either nationality, gender, race, personality, religion, economic class, culture and other elements that are extraneous to performance(Bryan, 1999 as cited in Ongori and Angolla, 2007). Triandis et al (1994) define diversity as any traits or elements which might or may possibly direct an individual’s perception that another individual is distinct from them or what gives an individual the notion that the other individual is different from him or her. This definition of diversity seems to portray a deeper insight to what diversity is and it can be described as what an individual thinks differentiates them from another individual. With present changes happening around the globe, the increase in globalisation and the management of workforce diversity as a means to expand organisational efficiency cannot be underestimated (Ongori and Angolla, 2007). Gender can be described as what differentiates individuals sexually. Over the years, it has been seen that women are more disadvantaged in the labour market. Due to negative stereotyping (Loden and Rosener, 1991). Disability on the other hand is defined as a physical or mental deficiency which has a significant and a lasting unfavourable impact on an individual’s competency perform everyday undertakings unexceptionally(Disability Discrimination Act 1995).Most of the physically and mentally fit people have little or no intimate interaction and communication with the disabled people, then there is a possibility then for the non disabled individuals in their growing up to have little or no contact with disabled people which serves as an important barrier to equal employment opportunity for the disabled (French,1996; Reynolds et al, 2001).Further to this, age discrimination has also been a major factor preventing the majority of employees from accessing top managerial positions (Oswick and Rosenthal, 2001; Kirton and Greene, 2010).Many top managers have been removed one way or the other from top and high paid positions in organisations as a result of their age as they are normally perceived to have less capabilities and skills to function well in such organisations (Kirton and Greene, 2010). For instance, the criteria employers use in their recruitment and promotional processes are normally discriminatory against either old employees or even the younger ones (Perry and Parlamis, 2006; Kirton and Greene, 2010). Further to this, the sexual orientation of employees could also be problematic not only for management but also some employees as well. Many lesbian and Gay people nowadays tend to hide their identity in order to avoid discrimination because companies are frequently harsh and unreceptive towards the lesbian and gay men (Oerton, 1996; Mills, 1989). Cockburn (1991), proposed the equality for lesbians and gay men as the most challenged and argued equality scheme and assignment as a result of the insufficiency of harmony over the ethical value of the gay rights scheme. In addition, it is still popularly assumed that individuals can decide to choose to be heterosexual or lesbian or gay; while one cannot choose in respect to gender, disability, age and ethnicity. Race and Ethnicity heave also been an issue for managers of diversity. Taking the UK employment patterns as an examples, in 2006, the unemployment rate for black minority ethnic men was 11% and that of the white was 5% which makes the rate of the black and minority ethnic’s group unemployment 2times higher than their white counterpart while the rate of unemployment for black and minority ethnic women was 9% and there counterpart was 4% which makes it 2times higher as well (ECO, 2006). Hence, the rate of women`s unemployment generally in all the ethnic groups experience quite a low unemployment rates than the men. With the recent trend, it can be said that the rate of unemployment as a well as wage gap between men and women in labour market has reduced but absolutely not wiped out (Kirton and Greene, 2010). For employers both in public and private companies to be able to manage a diverse workforce, it is of necessity to be able to understand, envisage and deal with the fascinating features of a diverse workforce. Although, many companies have adopted diversity, some others still regard it as only a matter of conforming to legal prerequisite. “Effective diversity management has historically been used to provide a legally defensive position; that is, a firm with a diverse workforce could argue that they were not guilty of discrimination because of the prima facie case based on their workforce demographics representing the demographics of the local community” (Ongori and Angolla 2007; p, 73) Lederach (1995) defined culture as “the shared knowledge and schemes created by a set of people for perceiving, interpreting, expressing and responding to social realities around them”. This definition of culture describes it as a general way by which people in an environment think or perceives things. Hence, culture has impacts on the way persons interconnect and act as it indicates a set of norms including thought patterns, motives, self-image impulsive reactions or feelings (Muir, 2007). 2.3: EQUALITY AND DIVERSITY IN THE NIGERIAN CONTEXT Nigeria is the single largest geographical unit in West Africa with several ethnic groups of about 250 with considerable differences in the norms and values of each major tribe. Gender is a significant part of diversity because, women make up half of the world’s population of which Nigeria is no excerption with half of its population being women even though the majority of these women in question live below the poverty margin and owns little or no education, capital base. (Izugbara and Ukwayi, 2002). There has been little or no research on equality and diversity in companies in Nigeria (Omair 2008, Jamali et al 2005). Nigeria has listed inspiring steps with sense to reducing gender-based violence, sexism and beautifying women’s rights apart from many well-intentioned efforts to fill the space between female and male accomplishments in the area of education, economic activity and political participation. “Indeed, Nigeria is still undergoing a difficult political and economic transition after several years of military rule. The problems include pervasive poverty and widespread unemployment; deterioration of government institutions and inadequate capacity at all levels of government to deliver critical services effectively; sporadic violence between ethnic groups; a legacy of widespread corruption; little growth in the non-oil private economy and limited self-empowerment among local communities. Yet, Nigeria remains a society rich in cultural linguistic, religious, ethnic and political diversity” (Obayelu and Ogunlade 2006; p.2). Nigeria accounts for considerable gender inequalities in female labour market involvement, human capital, remuneration and health with pointers for women being profiled as significantly below those for men (Fajana, 2010) Women have the probability to be less buoyant than men and have lesser choices to riggle out of poverty (IMF,2004). Because women possess little formal education than the men they are likely to be inconsistently restrained to lower return and low output or efficiency employment in the informal economy. Subsequently, their capability to break away from poverty through employment is restricted as well. The table below gives an empirical evidence of the huge sexual differences in employment status in Nigeria (Fajana, 2010). Figure 1: Gender Labour Force Rate Source: Compilation based on data from World Bank Development Indicators This graph above shows the huge difference in gender employment in Nigeria between 1991 and 2008 which is obvious that, men in Nigeria are more employed than women. However, the main cause of the problem of inequality and a high rate of unemployment in the labour market is the inability of graduates and skilful individuals to secure decent jobs after studying. Thus, in a country like Nigeria where there exist huge inequalities in gender employment rate, it is a major factor which MNCs transferring their equality and diversity policies to Nigeria to be able to take a good look at and find ways which the situation of the country’s inequality rate would not affect their international standard in negative ways. 2.4: GLOBAL DIVERSITY MANAGEMENT Over the past few years, the word managing diversity or diversity management has been a popular term and matters concerning management of diversity have also gained attention as a result of the diverse workforce and also the rise and increase in globalisation which has increased the mobility of the global workforce (Konrad, 2003). Such a global diverse workforce has culminated in the emergence of regulations and organisational wide policies to try and manage diversity in a way that will be beneficial to the organisations and the society as a whole (European Commission 2003). Seymen (2006) refers to diversity as a situation where differences exists in the background of various employees in an organisation irrespective of their demographic characteristics which includes, gender, age, sexual orientation, sex, ethnicity, educational background, and physique .Workforce diversity has no singular or a general definition, rather still, it has been debated or contended to be a multifaceted and byzantine term that is conceding a notion , idea and belief which conjure diverse views and opinions in various companies and culture (Omanovic 2002, Cassell, 2001). Ozbilgin and Tatli(2008) defined global diversity management as the setting up, organising, managing and putting into practice of management strategies, procedures and development programs for the purpose of accepting varied sets of working in multinational corporations. The definition above may be described as putting together and management of HR policies and practices as well as initiatives that is acceptable across the Headquarter of MNCs and its subsidiaries. Global diversity management has to do with the management of the transfer of employment practices from a parent company to her subsidiaries overseas. Historically, the transfer of management practices from the developed to the developing countries is the mode of operation of the MNCs (Azolukwam and Perkins, 2009). However, the increase in globalisation and also the concerns of growing demographic diversity have enhanced the need for understanding heterogeneity in organisations. Diversity management is a rebranded name given to one time equality policy and practices in organisations in Britain (Kirton and Greene, 2010). They further argued that, matters relating to orthodox equal opportunities such as gender or sex discrimination cannot be separated from the explicit issues such as individual or cultural discrepancies within diversity management. In other to give an overview of what diversity management is, diversity itself should be known. Consequently, Tatli, (2011) suggested that, managing diversity and equal opportunities are complementary rather than conflicting; this means that, the management of diversity and equal opportunities combines in such a way that they both enhance each other’s qualities other than conflicting. Wrench (2005) also stated that, diversity management is utilised amenably to conceal so many issues. He further explained that, it should not be allowed to become a Trojan horse that ease or simplify the attenuating of profits which have already been achieved in the procedure of anti discrimination or those that are still crucial for the future. Lauring (2012) argues that global diversity management in multinational corporations has been confirmed a challenging issue as a result of recurrent failures in the making and growth of such programmes. However, he argues that, what differentiates the management of diversity globally from locally is basically because of the enigma of global integration and local responsiveness. Supporting Lauring’s argument, the successful transfer of policies across border to a local context is totally dependent on how it is been handled in the subsidiary Company and the failure of the MNCs to have a deep insight of how the subsidiary country operates including their ways and beliefs of doing things before formulating or transferring their policies affects the success rate of transferring policies. Noon (2007), argues, that Diversity management is basically an idea that disregarded the significance of equal opportunities and covers up the importance of ethnicity in organisations. On the other hand, (Syed and Ozbilgin, 2009) argues that, they do not as a matter of fact agree with Noon’s argument and thereby, pointed out that the idea must be ascertain and espy both in the local and international context before its ability and strength can be enhanced and developed. DassEquality And Diversity Policy And Practices Business Essay
The black report on Inequalities in health care was introduced by the Department of health in the UK by Health Minister, David Ennals in 1977. It wanted to point out why the NHS had failed to reduce social inequalities in health and to investigate the problems. He would do this by analysing people’s lifestyles and their health records from different social class backgrounds. It found that the overall health of the nation had improved but the improvement was not equal across all the social classes, and the gap in inequalities in health between the lower and higher social classes is widening. It seemed that some of the main causes of this were class and ethnicity. Social Class The black reports main focus was centred on social class. The report stated that both upper and middle class individuals had a better quality and standard of living than lower class people. Below are four types of explanations the black report gave for the differences in illnesses and life expectancy within social classes. Artefact explanation studies the relationship between health and social class, age, profession, and views the relationships between social classes. Natural or social selection: this explanation suggests that physical weakness and poor health conveys little social value as well as low economic. Cultural explanation suggests lower social classes have less healthy lifestyles due to lack of exercise, eating unhealthy fatty foods and smoking. They have less money to provide themselves with healthier diets. Material/structural explanation focuses on poverty, poor living conditions and environments. Studies in these areas confirm that social factors are the main causes which contribute towards ill health. Ethnicity According to the 2001 census 8% of the UK’s population is of an ethnic minority, which represented an increase by approximately 50% in the decade 1991-2001. The majority of the ethnic minority was Indians, Pakistanis and mixed ethnic backgrounds. In many population groups, whether they are grouped by ethnicity or religion have many differences in ways of illness behaviour and seeking help with beliefs and health queries about an illness. In some ethic groups, some diseases are more common than others, e.g. men from Indian backgrounds are more susceptible to cardiovascular illnesses. As a result of these statistics it has prompted further investigations into the detection of cardiovascular disease and the risk factors within ethic groups. The two social groups that are being compared are social class and ethnicity. These two groups affect health related issues and explain sociological perspectives, patterns and trends. Social class and patterns of health and illness Social class is an intricate issue that comprises of status, wealth, culture, background and employment. The association between class and ill health is far from being straight-forward, there are many influences on health and one of them is social class. This is demonstrated by multilevel analysis (a method of assessing health inequalities using several different factors) which shows health inequalities even between households living in the same street. Poverty and inequality in the social order have consequences on the social, physical and mental well-being of an individual. The following two factors are closely connected. The infant mortality rate (IMR) children born to underprivileged parents are at more risk than that of a child born to more privileged parents. People from a higher social class are much less likely to die of illnesses such as cancer, heart diseases and strokes and would be likely to live longer compared to others. The Black Report – which was introduced in 1980 – studied the health differences of people by dividing the population into five social classes and offers information on how social and environmental issues of health and illness and life expectancy are related to one another. “There is overwhelming evidence that standards of health, the incidence of ill health or morbidity and life expectancy vary according to social groups in our society especially to social class”. (Stretch, B, 2007, Pg361). One possible explanation is that higher social classes can afford to pay for private healthcare. Their level of income is much higher which then also results in a better lifestyle and accommodation. People who were in less paid jobs meant they had poor housing and a reduced amount of money to provide food and heating. According to the above table from the Office of National statistics, life expectancy in the United Kingdom increased by approximately 20 years for both males and females between the periods of 1930-2009. Life expectancy in 1930 for males was age 58 and 63 for females, a 33% increase has occurred since then putting life expectancy up to age 78 for males and now a 30% increase for females to age 82. Life expectancy was at its highest in England between the periods of 2007-2009 The increase in life expectancy was mainly due to the decrease in infant mortality rates (deaths under the age of 1 year old). From the period 1930-2010 there was a 93% fall which was recorded as the lowest. There is also a difference in health between different ethnic groups. According to the 2001 Census Pakistani and Bangladeshi men and women in England and Wales reported thehttp://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm200809/cmselect/cmhealth/286/28608.gif Age-standardised limiting long-term illness: by ethnic group and sex, April 2001, England and Wales highest rates of ‘not good’ health. Women were more likely to rate their heath as ‘poor’ compared to men across all the groups identified in the chart above, apart from white Irish and those from other ethnic groups. Reporting poor health has been linked with the use of health services and mortality. Pakistani and white Irish females in England had higher doctor contact rates than females in the general population. Males from Bangladesh were three times likelier to visit their doctor than males from the general population after standardising for age. According to the January 2007 report by the Parliamentary Office of Science and Technology, Black and Minority Ethnic (BME) groups generally have poorer health than the rest of the general population, it was proposed that the poor the position of socio-economic BME groups is the main reason which is motivating ethnic health inequalities. A number of strategies have aimed to challenge health inequalities in recent years, although to date, ethnicity has not been a continuous focus. Race, culture, religion and nationality can have a major impact on an individual’s identity. There are many different levels of identification within ethnic groups; many see themselves as British, Asian, Indian, Punjabi and more. Health inequalities are differences in health status that are influenced by variations in society. Influential factors on health may include lifestyle, wealth, housing conditions, discrimination and health services. These factors over periods of time could be passed down through generation through maternal influences and could affect infant and child developments. The Health Survey for England showed that BME groups are more likely to report ill health and that ill health starts at an earlier age than White British individuals. Patterns of ethnic differences in health are varied, and connected with a lot of factors for example: Some BME groups experience worse health than others. For example, surveys commonly show that Pakistani, Bangladeshi, and Black-Caribbean people report the poorest health, with Indian, East African Asian and Black African people reporting the same health as White British, and Chinese people reporting better health. Patterns of ethnic inequalities in health vary from one health condition to the next. For instance, BME groups tend to have higher rates of cardio-vascular disease than White British people do, but lower rates of many cancers. Ethnic differences in health vary across age groups, so that the greatest variation by ethnicity is seen among the elderly. Ethnic differences in health vary between men and women, as well as between geographic areas. Ethnic differences in health may vary between generations. For example, in some BME groups, rates of ill health are worse among those born in the UK than in first generation migrants. Sociologists try to describe how society ranks itself but there are many different philosophies for this, which often clash with one another. Some of these philosophies include Marxism, Functionalism, and Interactionism. Each sociological perspective has different views. The Marxists theory is an explanation of how society works, how and why history unfolded and an account of the nature of capitalism. The theory believes that society is in conflict between two classes. Functionalists argue that society is organised much like the Human Body. Everything must function correctly in order for society to work as a whole, just like every organ in the body must function correctly in order for the body to work as a whole. Another classic view is Interactionism. We can liken Interactionism to a play; everyone must play their respective roles in order to create a successful performance – in society everyone must do their jobs in order to create a successful society. This approach is much like the functionalism viewpoint. The Biomedical Model is mainly used by physicians in diagnosing diseases. This approach concentrates on physical processes such as physiology, biochemistry and pathology of a disease. This model signifies freedom from any disease, infection, pain or defect is considered as being healthy although this model doesn’t take into account social factors of an individual, and the diagnosis is a result of the doctor and patient negotiation. The biomedical model considers the body as a machine and if a particular part of the body isn’t functioning, it must be corrected in order for the body to continue to work properly. The Social Model of health is based on how society and the environment affect everyday health and well-being. Influential factors may include social class, household income, education, occupation, poverty and poor housing could lead to ill health such as respiratory problems. The social model aims to encourage society to provide better housing and to fight poverty to help prevent future ill health in individuals. The focus of these models is to explain why health inequalities exist and continue to be a problem. The key cultural explanation places emphasis upon extreme consequences of behaviour such as poor nutrition, excessive alcohol consumption, smoking, drugs or lack of exercise. Inequalities in health will be reduced when society make healthier personal and behavioural choices. Socio- model of health is: The state of health is socially constructed resulting historical, social and cultural influences that have shaped perceptions of health and ill health. The root causes for diseases and ill health are to be found in social factors, such as the way society is organised and structured. Root causes are identified through beliefs and interpretation for example, from a feminist perspective, root causes relate to patriarchy and oppression. Knowledge is not exclusive but has a historical, social and cultural context as it is shaped by these involved. The biomedical of health is: The state of health is a biological fact and the norm. The body is a machine and ill health results from dysfunction of that machine. Ill health is a deviation from the norm. Ill health is caused by biological factors such as viruses, bacteria, genetic characteristics or trauma. The cause of ill health is identified through the process of diagnosis, considering the signs and symptoms. Individuals play little or no part in the interventions to restore the body to health. There is no consideration of the individual’s interpretation of health and ill health or social factor that may contribute to ill health. Finding a cure is a greater concern than preventing ill health. Culture plays an incredibly important role in the cause and reasoning of mental health. Cultural beliefs can shape the way people identify stress and the way in which they seek help. Indeed, in some cultures, people suffering from depression and anxiety disorders can also present with physical/psychosomatic symptoms. As Britain becomes more culturally-enriched, striving for a melting pot of nations and ethnicities as opposed to a salad bowl of clearly defined ethnic groups, our society is slowly adapting. There are many cultural factors which can influence mental health, for example, Asians; in particular immigrants, language, age and gender can be a contributing factor. The knowledge of English is an important factor which influences access to care. Asian languages are not usually spoken outside of the ethnic group. Age is another factor, the younger a person is when they migrate the better chance they have of adapting to living in that particular country. Also gender contributes; men seem to have acculturated quicker than women though this may change as more women enter the working environment. According to the traditional belief system mental illness is caused by a lack of harmony, emotions and sometimes caused by evil spirits. Social stigma, embarrassment, and ‘saving face’ often prevent Asians groups from seeking behavioural and professional health care help. The table below shows the health beliefs and behaviours of Chinese, Korean, Japanese and Vietnamese cultures. Table 2 The term ‘mental illness’ was made more popular at the beginning of the 1900’s by physicians, social reformers and former asylum patients. They wanted to reduce the stigma that was linked with the word mental illness; they felt that it caused prejudice against asylum patients because it implied isolation between the mentally sick and well, healthy patients. The labelling of mental illness is stigmatising too many, it makes people think that mentally ill people are a completely separate group from ‘people like us’. Society seems to overlook the fact that they are simply just ordinary people who have severe emotional difficulties which they are failing to cope with. Misconceptions of this label can be fuelled by things such as the media and describe the mentally ill as being dangerous and violent people. Stereotypes like these seem to be contradicted by people’s experiences of mental health, which than can affect not only themselves but their family, friends and even work colleagues. The use of the word ‘mental illness’ could be very misleading, it could be seen that the majority of mental health problems are caused by biological or medical factors. Whereas, in fact, mental health problems result from complicated interactions of biological, social and personal factors. For example someone who is vulnerable to depression but has a strong social support could make them less susceptible to becoming severely depressed. Reducing stigma that is attached to mental health issues has been a main focus for several groups, but in order to change this stigma, attitudes of the general public need to be changed first. The media could help this by reporting more positive aspect of mental illness, for example; peoples recovery and modern treatments which are available. Delivering better care for patients could be helped by further training for mental health staff; this could lead to less negative attitudes from the public which would help patients to be a part of society giving them a better everyday life.
Did you feel that the topics and /or tonalities of the comedians’ satire change from the late 1980s (perestroika era) to the 1990s?
Colorado College Dataset of Colleges and Universities in The US Project Proposal
Colorado College Dataset of Colleges and Universities in The US Project Proposal.
For this project, you will design and build a dashboard using Tableau with three deliverables: Proposal: You will choose a data set (from the six candidate datasets provided), determine what will be needed to prep that data for use in Tableau, and develop a proposal for the questions you want to answer with your dashboard. Project: Then you will design and build a dashboard using Tableau to analyze your data. There will be some design requirements to meet with your dashboard design. You will also record a presentation to explain and sell your dashboard to your audience. Additionally, you will create a 1-2 page “cheat sheet” to help your audience use your dashboard. Peer Review: When you turn in your project you will also create a discussion thread where you post your presentation recording and your cheat sheet. Everyone who turns in the project on time will be assigned four projects to review. You will provide feedback (positive and constructive) and ask questions about each other’s projects in the discussion threads.For more details, see attached for Instructions, datasets, and more.
Colorado College Dataset of Colleges and Universities in The US Project Proposal
NUR 3289 Miami Dade College Antibiotics and Clostridium Difficile Discussion
research paper help NUR 3289 Miami Dade College Antibiotics and Clostridium Difficile Discussion.
Instructions:Read the Case Study 11-2: Go to the Hospital and Come Back with Four More Medications in Chapter 11 of the textbook. Once you have read the Case Study thoroughly, answer the following questions:What does the administration of antibiotics have to do with a Clostridium difficile (C. diff infection) infection?List all the inappropriate medications prescribed for K.L. and describe the reason why they are inappropriate.What kind of treatment regimen is utilized for a patient with a C. diff infection?Do any of these treatments regimens raise suspicion as being inappropriate for K.L.?List the therapy and if contraindicated, give a reason why it is inappropriate. Your paper should be:One (1) page or more.Use factual information from the textbook and/or appropriate articles and websites.Cite your sources – type references according to the APA Style Guide.
NUR 3289 Miami Dade College Antibiotics and Clostridium Difficile Discussion
MGH (Massachusetts General Hospital) Institute of Health Professions is committed to an inclusive campus climate that welcomes students who
MGH (Massachusetts General Hospital) Institute of Health Professions is committed to an inclusive campus climate that welcomes students who will enrich the diversity of thought and perspectives, and therefore, enhance the learning experiences of all. In what ways might you personally contribute to improving the experience of the campus as a welcoming and inclusive place to learn?
Florida Gulf Coast University HIPAA Compliance Analysis Video Transcript Paper
Florida Gulf Coast University HIPAA Compliance Analysis Video Transcript Paper.
Transcript Capstone Video: HIPAA Compliance Analysis [ Music ] >> Gap analysis right? >> Right. >> Do me a favor and summarize it, I don’t have time to read this right now. >> Sure. I did a random sweep of floors and public areas looking for violations for both HIPPA and our own internal policies regarding protected health information. >> And. >> I was not impressed. In a lot of places I found monitors turned to face the public. I found patient records left unattended. I could have picked them up and read them and there was nobody even around to stop me. In a lot of areas I found fax machines placed inappropriately and almost everywhere I went staff were discussing PHI in public areas. >> It’s been pretty much my experience as well. >> And what I find most disturbing is that a lot of the employees don’t really seem to care because once I’ve determined that they were discussing PHI in a manner which could clearly be heard by others, I would bring it to their attention and I’d get not resistance but sometimes they’d roll their eyes, or sigh just a little too loud. >> Kind of like it was some burden you were placing on for reminding them to keep patient information confidential. >> Exactly. >> So in your option are we seriously out of compliance? >> That’s right. >> That’s what I was afraid of. >> When you read that you’ll see that I’ve made some suggestions of ways to address these problems. The thing is that nine times out of ten this is just carelessness so it’s like if someone’s careless how do you make them care? >> Good question. How do you make them care? >> I think it has to start off with more training. You know we instituted these policies and then HIPPA came along and we probably didn’t provide enough training. >> So you’re recommending mandatory training? We first need to make sure that everyone knows exactly what constitutes protected health information. >> Right. I’m guessing that not everyone realizes what a broad definition that is. Then we have to stress not leaving PHI in public areas. We have to work with each station to make sure that their fax machine is set up in an appropriate area and then we have to turn those work station monitors around to where the public can’t see them I don’t care if we have to nail them in place. >> I’d like to see penalties in place for employees that don’t comply with PHI policy. That might provide some incentive for them to do what’s right. >> Well, we can certainly do that but I was hoping it wouldn’t come to that and that we could stick to positive reinforcement. Even so, I’ve put some suggestions for that in the report. >> Set up a proposed training schedule by department and run it by me. This can’t wait. >> You got it. 1.Why is it important for health information managers to possess a fundamental understanding of the HIPAA law? 2.What HIPAA violations can you identify from the HIM director’s description? 3.What steps need to be taken to address each violation?
Florida Gulf Coast University HIPAA Compliance Analysis Video Transcript Paper