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Devolution In The UK | Analysis

This essay has explained the process of devolution in the UK. It has also compared the UK with other countries, such as, Iran, Iraq, Spain, Belgium and Bahrain in respect of devolution. It has been discussed the differences between the above countries in respect of continental, geopolitical, cultural and religious factors. The process of devolution in the UK has been mentioned as a democratic process, and how nations have been allowed to express their political and cultural solicitations. Comparisons and the differences between Catalans, Flanders and Bahrainians have been analysed. The essay also compared the differences between Wales and Kurdistan in respect of devolution. It has been found that the people of Catalonia in Spain and Flanders in Belgium have got similar problems which are based on linguistic and historical conflicts. It has been considered that the main problem between people in Bahrain, based on religious differences, because of the Sunni Muslim being in minority rule the Shi`i Muslims are in the majority. According to the content of this essay, one of the main factors that encourage the minority nations towards separation and devolution is based on discriminatory policies by central government. It has been mentioned that in democratic countries the process of devolution is more peaceful and more successful in comparison to non-democratic countries. Devolution in the UK Introduction This assignment explains and covers the process of devolution in the UK and the advantages and disadvantages of devolution. It also compares the UK to other countries with similar situations, in respect of political, geopolitical, national, cultural and historical factors. It will also discuss what shifts the nations towards devolution, why nations want more power from central government what are the barriers in the fore front of the process of devolution, who is slowing down the speed of decentralisation. In order to compare and contrast the process of devolution in the UK ,with other countries in Europe and even other countries outside of Europe, for example, countries such as Iran, Iraq, Spain, Belgium, Turkey and Bahrain. To explore these information within this essay some sources need to be searched, such as, internet, books and journals. This essay will cover the history and foundation of devolution in the UK; it will explain the process of devolution in countries within the UK, such as, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland. In terms of barriers in the fore front of devolution by political parties in the UK, this assignment discuss and discover the reasons, why those parties preventing the process of devolution, such as , Conservatives and Liberal Democrats. Main body History and foundation of devolution in the UK It looks at the history of devolution in the UK, how a form of administrative devolution started in Scotland in 1885, when the Scottish Office was established as a department of the UK government. The Scottish Office for some issues had more responsibility which in England and Wales was dealt with by Whitehall departments. (Jennifer, 2008) There were some other attempts by the Scottish government such as the referendum in 1979 to establish a Scottish Assembly which wasn’t supported by the majority of the electorate. In 1989 the Scottish Constitutional Convention was established which was supported by the people of Scotland and political parties to draw up a detailed blueprint for devolution including a proposal for a directly elected Parliament for Scottish with wide legislative power. (Jennifer, 2008) There are some other countries with similar geopolitical situation as the UK. The comparison of the UK with countries like Iran, Iraq, Syria, Spain and Belgium, there are differences between each country, in respect of geographical, cultural, political, and economical factors and religion but they have something in common. All of them have been established by a variety of nations, and these countries have been ruled by one nation which is in the majority, however, the nation rule such countries often is not in majority. For example, over 70% of the population in Bahrain are Shi`i Muslim but the government run by Sunnis in the minority. (Ojallan, 1999, p 120) There are some reasons why other nations in those countries want more power, autonomy or independence. A reason could be that the nation which is in power deprives and tries to assimilate the smaller nations, therefore, deprived nations attempt to obtain their own independence or autonomy or to have more power to make appropriate and enthusiastic decisions for their own regions. (Ojallan, 1999, p 134) To gain these kinds of powers two things have usually been used as political tools, devolution and revolution. In terms of devolution there are some similarities between the UK and Spain in respect of multinationals, there are other nations in Spain such as Catalonia and the Basques, they have their own autonomy. (Ojallan, 1999, p 140) The effect of devolution in the UK and how nations such as Wales, Scotland, and Ireland have been affected by devolution, People who lives in Wales see the advantages of devolution in Wales. As Welsh people are in the process of devolution they see how devolution create a greater regional identity and develops those structures that support the growth of business, political power, social welfare and culture which suit the people in the region. (Mitchell, 2009) Devolution enables Wales, Scotland, and Ireland to have more power to make their own decisions on the basis of cultural, politics and economical factors relevant for their regional demands. (Ryder, 2004) HISTORY OF DEVOLUTION IN WALES To really understand the importance of devolution in Wales, people need to look at the history of the country. As in every country in the world, the people of Wales have got their own geographical, cultural and political identity. People in the Wales faced a linguistic challenge from 18th century till 20th century, when the Welsh language was forbidden by the government in Westminster. In 1845 the Minister of State of Education was summoned to the Westminster parliament for an inquiry. As a result of that a commission of 3 young English advocates carried out an examination and ended up with a report which was published in 1847. Finally, they came to the conclusion that as well as poverty and degradation, the Welsh background and language had created barriers and affected the economical, educational and moral progress. As Sir Reginald Couplad mentioned “It is not surprising that the Commissioners should have swept aside the ancient language of Wales as ruthlessly as Macauley a decade earlier had swept aside the ancient languages of India”. But the commissioners ignored the fact that the reasons for poor educational, economical, moral conditions and poverty in Wales were discriminatory policies in central government. Thus, people of Wales had no chance except being poor and that is why Wales wanted more power and the people of Wales continued to fight to protect their identity and prevent the English ruling class from considering Welsh people as the same contempt with the people of Africa and India 50 years ago. (Kireey, 2007) By looking at the history of the United Kingdom’s flag how introduced and imposed to the UK by two Acts then you see the advantages of devolution in Wales. Henry VIII announced himself as king of Wales. Those acts forbade the Welsh language from being used in official places, this encouraged young wealthy Welsh man to go to London for their fortune and influence, and stop speaking Welsh. The English rulers attempted to change or remove the Welsh cultural principles and identity. This trend continued until 1746 when a Law was passed by parliament stating any Act by English Parliament automatically would include Wales, this process continued until 1967. (Kireey, 2007) In the 20th century Wales started getting back what they had lost in identity, accordingly, the Ministry of Education was created in 1907 and in 1957 Wales got Minister of State and gradually in 1964 he was given a position in the cabinet of the UK. From 1979 till 1997 when the Tory party was lead by Thatcher and Major, unemployment rose, coal, steel mines were destroyed, thus, the relationship between Tories and the Welsh people got darker and people lost their hope with the Tories. These poor policies and (historical conflict and cultural differences) were a good start for Welsh nationalists to encourage the public to decentralise the power and prepare Wales for a referendum in 1979 when the Labour Party took over the government. By the time Labour came to power in 1979 devolution was promised along with Scotland and Ireland. The first referendum occurred in 1979 whether to have a devolved Assembly or not. However, the majority of Welsh the people voted against devolution in the referendum. (Kireey, 2007) Discriminatory policies from Central Government towards Wales were sceptically considered as factors of devolution in Wales. Three decades ago majority of Welsh voters rejected the government Wales devolution Act in a Referendum in 1979 by 79.8% to 20.20%. Nearly two decades later Welsh people voted in a referendum in 1997 for devolution which resulted in 50.3% in favour and 49.7% against .( Kireey,2007) Therefore, the referendum in 1997 delivered the establishment of the National Assembly of Wales; this referendum shows how people`s opinion has changed in Wales during these two decades. According to E.S.R.C (2004), (Economic and Social research Council) in a series of surveys they found out how Welsh people welcomed devolution and the continuation of that process and even in some cases demand a strong and powerful parliament for Wales and how these trend became a popular opinion. (Wyn , 2004) According to the same survey, nearly two -thirds of the Welsh population are now in favour of devolution compare to 1979. People in Wales have more trust in National Assembly of Wales to act in Wales than the central government in Westminster. For instance, the same survey shows that 67.6% of Welsh people trusted in the Welsh Assembly at least most of the time, to act in Wales but only 23.1% of people said it doesn’t make any difference for them. Wales as other nations has got internal differences, thus, these differences undoubtedly played a great role to change people`s attitude to welcome the referendum in 1997 and 1999 National Assembly for Wales election. Politician in Wales focused on three suggestions in order to encourage Welsh voters to vote in favour of devolution, these were: “Strengthen the sense of Welsh national identity Help to develop a more civic (rather than ethnic) Welsh identity Strengthen Wales affinity with Britain” According to ESRC (2004) the sense of Welsh national identity is stronger amongst younger voters. For example, this tables in below shows the differences by age. (Wyn , 2004) National Identity 18-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-59 60-64 65 Welsh, Not British 27.4 22.3 25.9 23.1 20.0 20.0 20.8 More Welsh than British 36.9 32.5 30.7 24.5 25.0 28.8 21.9 British not Welsh 8.3 9.5 11.6 12.5 5.0 9.8 9.8 NATION IDENTITY BY AGE COHORT, 2003 (%) (Wyn, 2004) The three referendums in Wales It was for the third time that the Welsh people voted for devolution in a referendum since 1979. There are some differences between the referendum in 1979, 1997 and 2011. The referendum in 1979 was the foundation of devolution for further referendums in Wales. In spite of that, Welsh people voted against devolution in the first referendum. The first referendum in 1979 created a positive atmosphere, however, the majority of the Welsh people voted against devolution because it was an informative start for future devolution referendums in Wales. The comparison of the second and third referendums shows the difference between now and thirty years ago in respect of people`s understanding about the advantages of devolution for the Welsh economy and cultural identities. (O`Reilly, 2011) In a speech in Cardiff University the Former First Minister for Wales, Rhodri Morgan, said that since the first devolution in 1979, Wales has created 120,000 more jobs and he believed it was the right time for Wales to have what Scotland and Northern Ireland had obtained decades ago. On the other side, unofficial spokeswomen for True Wales group “NO” campaigner, Rachel Banner, believes that Wales is in different stage compared to Scotland and Northern Ireland. She said, “Northern Ireland has got its own particular traditions and Scotland has got its own educational system for hundred years”. (Withers, 2011) Abby O`Reilly a news paper writer, believes that one of the main reasons that the majority of people voted against devolution in 1979 referendum was because people weren’t informed about the content and advantages of the devolution. She believes that a lot of the Welsh people were still confused whether vote ‘yes’ or ‘no’. She also mentioned in her Guardian article, February 2011, “My friends either have no interest in voting, or plan to vote ‘yes”‘ .A vast number of the electorate currently range from confused to indifferent, with 29% unsure how to vote or planning to abstain. (O`Reilly, 2011) She believes over 90% of welsh people read English newspapers which are devoid of Welsh news. She also believes Welsh politics are marginalised by English press. However, one of the most effective tools to inform people about the content of voting is an official campaigns which is absent in the most of the time in Wales. (O`Reilly, 2011) O`Reilly claims that, the main campaigner for True Wales tactically was short sighted and her aim wasn’t only to inform people about the risk of yes vote for referendum, However, she was confused and didn’t know the exact aim of referendum. Banner was supported by Welsh rugby union executive Roger Lewis, however, she said, “Yes for Wales was nonetheless denied public funding because legally campaigns must be funded on both sides, or not at all”. (O`Reilly, 2011) The common interest of nationalist parties in Wales and Scotland The referendum in 1979 was a good opportunity for the nationalist parties in the UK to accelerate their political activities, such as Plaid Cymru and SNP (Scottish National Party). Nationalism is used as a strong political method in politics in the UK. (Fusaro, 1979) Unlike Nationalist parties in Northern Ireland, the two nationalist parties in Scotland and Wales they weren’t violent and they were less familiar to the English people. Plaid Cymru and SNP both used the logical method of the referendum to raise people`s attention and they have been more successful in elections in recent years. The important ideological differences between SNP and Plaid Cymru were based on historical differences between Wales and Scotland. Another difference is Plaid Cymru usually is to the left in respect of politics, whilst SNP usually stands to the right of the centre. But they have got common interests to support each other in order to reduce the power of Westminster. (Fusaro, 1979) The last referendum on 3th of May 2011, gives more power to Wales. This referendum was very vital and important for Welsh people in general and politicians in particular. Politicians as true representatives of the public in Wales can pass its own laws without asking for permission from Westminster. The majority of constituencies in Wales voted in favour of allowing the Welsh Assembly to legislate instead of Westminster in devolved policy areas, such as health, education and transport. These new powers will be executed in May 2011. This is a clear indicator of a new history of true Wales to determine its own destiny and take the appropriate steps for a better Wales. However, there are areas which will remain within the responsibility of central government; these are economy policies, defence and foreign affairs, policing, criminal justice, social security, employment and energy. (Wyn J, 2011) Political parties have different views about devolution in Wales Most of the Conservatives in Wales believed that the Plaid Cymru see devolution as a tool towards independence, thus, they were opposing Plaid Cymru idea of devolution. They were determined to confront further devolution in Wales, but in recent referendum on 3th of March 2011, the leadership of Conservatives in Wales was supporting the “YES” campaign. (Jones, 2010) This change in Conservatives policy towards devolution in Wales shows that people in Wales are determined to continue the process of devolution. On the other side, Labour, Plaid and Liberal Democrats as usual supporting the process of devolution for further referendum, however, there are some members of Labour and Liberal Democrats are have no desire to show further devolution in Wales. The coalition between Labour and Plaid could squeeze the power of the Conservatives in Wales. (Copus, 2009) Other significant reason that might help Nationalist Parties and Labour in Wales and Scotland was the discriminatory and wrong policies by the government of Thatcher before 1997. During 1979 and 1990 when Thatcher was prime minster she changed the economical policies and deregulated the financial sector then as a result of that unemployment rose rapidly especially in Wales. All these factors and discriminatory policies of Conservatives made Thatcher the most unpopular prime minster in Wales. The only political party in the UK that uniformly antagonised the devolution when it was approved in 1997 was Conservatives. (Jones, 2010) One of the main reasons that Plaid Cymru is more successful, in compare to other political parties in Wales, Plaid Cymru was established in Wales in 1925 and the main ideology of the party was independence for Wales and Social Democracy. Plaid Cymru unlike other parties in Wales concentrated on promoting and defending the culture and identity of Wales. The majority of Plaid Cymru supporters are located in the Welsh speaking areas in Wales; this is an indicator of how successful it was the nationalism slogans and policies of the party. (Simon, 2008) The leaders of plaid Cymru focuses on Wales’s economy, culture, language and identity. In the most of their speeches they don’t mention England or other part of the UK. For instance, in a speech the leader of Plaid Cymru said that our party guaranteed over 50,000 jobs and 30,000 apprenticeships for Wales. He also said that Plaid `s policies have protected thousands of jobs in Wales during the hard recession and he also added that Wales economy will recover and once again will grow and the nation became wealthier. (Simon, 2008) Brief comparison of Kurdistan and Wales The first kingdom of Kurdistan was established 2711 years ago by king Dieko and they were known as median. Medians were in power until 580 BC, then gradually Cyrus the Great became the king of Median and Persian and incorporated both Median and Persian. One of the main reasons that Cyrus could rule these two nations was because his mother was Median and his father was Persian, thus, it was more possible for him to incorporate both nations under his kingdom. (Atroushi, 1994) In the 19th century Kurdistan was divided by two emperors the Sunni Muslim Ottomans and the Shi`i Muslim Safavids until the last Kurdish prince of Ardalan in 1865. After the collapse of the Ottoman Empire, President Woodrow Wilson tried to help to establish the Kurdish state in 1919. The Lausanne Treaty in 1923 completely undermined the issue of an independent Kurdistan. Having an independent country among Kurdish people anywhere in the world became a dream. One of the main differences between Wales and Kurdistan is the geopolitical location; the place where Wales is located in is Europe, this continent is the epicentre of democracy, tolerance and socialism in the world but the place where Kurdistan located is a place where countries still execute, imprison and torture the political activists. Unlike Wales Kurdistan has been occupied by some non democratic and dictator countries such as Iran, Iraq, Syria and Turkey they don’t allow the Kurds to have referendum on independence. Kurdistan unlike other occupied nations in the world has got more potential to be an independent state. Kurdistan is rich in oil and other minerals such as; copper, iron, coal. Kurdistan is one of the best places in the earth for agriculture and as we know Kurdistan is the mother of Neolithic revolution in Mesopotamia which is now known as Kurdistan. (Atroushi, 1994) In March 1988 the world witnessed genocide against humanity in Halabja Kurdistan of Iraq. Friday March 1988 over 5000 humans lost their life by the chauvinist Arab government of Iraq. Hundreds of thousands of people fled Kurdistan to neighbouring countries to save their lives. However, after second Gulf War the resolution 688 of no fly zone was imposed to on the Iraqi government, under that resolution a part of Kurdistan got half autonomy. After the war against Saddam Hussein in 2003 and the collapse of the regime of Saddam Hussein in the same, Kurds in Iraq changed their solicitation from autonomy to federalism and this solicitation has been admired and accepted by international society and the majority of the Iraqi parliament. (Atroushi, 1994) The differences between Catalan and Wales in respect of devolution Catalonia incorporated with Spain for nearly 300 years, the existence of Catalonia goes back for more than 2000 years. Catalonia declared independence many time but hasn’t been recognised by the Spanish government. Catalonia was a separate country and they had their own law and privileges until Felipe IV died in 1700. Gradually Catalonia`s ancient right were abolished and they were banned from speaking, reading and writing and Catalan, it was a crime for anyone to speak Catalan and they were imprisoned and punished for it. They closed down all Catalonia`s universities and replaced them with censored universities, they tried to destroy the Catalan culture and identity. Finally, the first Spanish Republic was formed in 1873, the most important thing which surprised the Catalonia was, and the first two presidents of the Spanish republic were Catalan. However, this republic didn’t last more than one year but it was a good start and the opportunity for political parties to express themselves freely in other regions of Spain such as, Galicia and Basque country. In spite of all barriers, attempts and ethnocentrism by the Spanish central government, Catalan not only didn’t become a lost nation, the Catalan language and traditions once again continued and showed its enriched culture. The Catalan economy`s success in the 19th century surprised the world and Spanish people in particular, these successes convinced central government, to accept and to believe in the ability of Catalonia . The great culture, economy, politics and traditions of Catalans encouraged central government and various political parties in Spain with different ideologies such as, socialists, Republicans and Carlists to pay more attention and to show more support to the Lliga Regionalista. Finally, in 1914 central government was convinced to offer some autonomy to Catalonia. But once again these concessions didn’t last long, in the beginning of the 20th century, when Miguel Primo de Rivera came to power in 1923 he executed his as a dictator in Spain, thus, once again the Catalan language was banned, his dictatorship lasted until 1930. In 1931 the president of Generalitat came to power and he declared the federal republic of Catalonia but two years later a right wing government came to power in Madrid by general election. In 1936 dictator Franco became head of state of Spain. Franco was supported by his fascist allies, Italy and Germany. He killed, tortured and imprisoned many people in Spain. (Harris, 2008) President Luis Companys was captured by Nazis in France and extradited to Spain where he was executed in 1940. Catalonia was under bad economical, political, cultural and linguistic repressions. In the 1950s some Catalan groups organised under cover activities. Abbot Escare of Montserrat, a religious leader, who was supported by the Vatican, determined to fight against Franco. Catalan once again took control of Catalan society after the death of Franco in 1975. Finally, in 1980 the democratically elected Catalan parliament officially opened under the presidency of Jordi Pujol. In 2005 a new statute of autonomy was passed which guaranteed the Catalans identity as a nation but within the Spanish state. (Harris, 2008) Devolution in the Northern Ireland As we know the Northern Ireland and the republic of Ireland they were one nation and one country in 1169. Ireland was occupied by the Romans in 1169 and they ruled Ireland until middle Ages. After British victory in 1603 over Ulster, Britain controlled completely whole Ireland until 1801, but Irish people like other occupied nations resisted freeing their country. (NK, 2003) Finally, Britain inevitably signed a truce in 1921 which was considered as final “solution of Irish problems” to solve the dispute between the Irish Catholics and Irish Protestants and the ends of British occupation on the whole country. The above Armistice recognised the Free State of Republic of Ireland and continuation of the Northern part of Ireland as a part of United Kingdom. One of the main factors which encouraged the division of the Ireland and separated Ireland to the Northern Ireland and Republic of Ireland was religion. Majority of the southern part of Ireland are Catholics and the majority of the Northern part of Ireland is Protestants, thus, these religious differences since the Romans occupation in 1169 created conflict between Irish people in North and south of country. (NK, 2003) In 1997 along side of the Scotland and Wales, devolution return to the Northern Ireland in 1998 under the Good Friday Agreement, as the result of this agreement, the establishment of the Northern Ireland Assembly and power sharing executive was occurred. In March 2010 the Hillsborough Agreement, transferred the power of policing and justice to the Northern Ireland. The Good Friday Agreement in 1998, transferred the below matters to the Northern Ireland: Transferred Matters: Education, Health and Agriculture. Reserved Matters: Policing and Criminal Law, which will be transferred to the assembly at the later date. Excepted Matters: Matters of National importance, such as defence, taxation and foreign policy.( NK,2003) The devolution in Belgium To find out the conflict between Dutch speaking Flanders and French speaking Francophone Wallonia we have to look at the history of Belgium. The name Belgium comes from Begae a Celtic tribe. Belgium existed before the first century. Belgium was occupied by Romans during the first century. Gradually, Romans lost their control over Belgium, and then Spain in 1519 invaded Belgium until 1713.The Belgium was occupied by Austria in 1713 to 1794. Belgium was ruled by different invaders since first century, but after all these rulers, once again Belgium was occupied by Napoleonic France in 1795. During the French Revolution but after the defeat of Napoleon`s army, Belgium divided from French territory and joined the Netherland as a part of the country by the congress of Vienna in 1815. (Humperdink, 2011) Finally, Belgium became independent from the Netherlands via an uprising of Belgians. The celebration of an independent Belgium didn’t last longer than 1914. Belgium was occupied twice during 1914 and 1940 by Germany. Belgium was liberated by British, Canadian and American armies in 1944; these liberties helped Belgium to regain the economic and political power. But the language and political differences between Dutch Speaking Flanders and French speaking Wallonia encouraged the increase of division between them. The linguistic differences in Belgium encouraged Flanders and Wallonia people toward separation. According to a poll by Le Soir newspaper, over 49% of Wallonia people who are French speakers would like to become French if their country broke up. The majority of Flanders welcome autonomy because Flemish people are richer than Francophone’s. Flanders comprises 60% of Belgium population and they produce 75% of GDP and they pay more than 80% of the net taxes. Therefore the above economical differences might encourage the Flanders to attempt for more devolution and these kinds of nationalist movements alarmed the Francophone’s that Flanders nationalist encouraging Dutch speakers towards independence. (Humperdinck, 2011) However, Kriss Peeters the Ministry – President of Flanders, in an interview with to BBC News said” I am not in favour of independence “, he also insisted the “solidarity “between Flanders and others will remain”. Gie Goris the editor of Mo Magazine believes the countries which the political parties formed on the basis of ethnics, for instance, “like Sri Lanka are inherently unstable”. The aim of the New Flemish Alliance (NVA) separatist party is an independence country for Flanders the Dutch speakers in the Belgium. In an election in 2010 NVA took 27 seats of 150 seats of Belgium parliament. This support by Flanders, to NVA in the above election, indicates the interest of Flanders towards an independence country for Flanders. (Hughes, 2010) These Linguistic borders are one of the main factors to create fundamental division within the countries like Belgium. The comparison of countries, such as Belgium and Wales in respect of devolution, explains the impact of nationalism on public policies and how this ethnic linguistic differences divide the societies and creates separatist opinion and accelerate the this kind division towards independence. (Erk, 2003) Conclusion This assignment has discussed the idea of nationalism as one of the main factors that encourage people towards devolution. The activities of nationalists based on geopolitical, cultural differences and these differences created a kind of cultural and political hegemony. Thus, the countries such as Wales and Scotland, feel that their culture and identity assimilated, they believe the way central government dealing with their regions is based on discriminatory policies. It has been found that Religion as culture and linguistic differences is also one of the factors that divided the nations. Referencing Copus C(2009) English national parties in post devolution,(online) www.palgrave.journal.com. Accessed 18/01/2011. Erk J (2003) Linguistic borders, Journal of Public Policy, volume 23, issue 2. Ferhadi A (1992) The Kurds in Iraq, Turkey, Iran and Syria, (online) www.wrmea.com. Accessed 29/03/2011. Fusaro A (1979) Nationalism in the UK, (online) Polity journal, cited in ww
INTRODUCTION The globalization era has made cross-border Mergers and Acquisitions an increasingly important means of integrating the world. There are many companies that are entering various combinations such as joint ventures or merging and some are even making absolute acquisitions. This paper researches the impact on an organisation post acquisition with emphasis on the acquisition of Europe’s second largest steel company Corus by Tata Steel. This study will also explore whether there are any international acquisition strategies that will succeed and why many acquisitions fail. The organizational culture change brought about by acquisitions creates a traumatic experience for all members within the organization and in many cases becomes a major reason for managerial difficulties post acquisition. This paper will also study the barriers faced by the acquiring company and effective management of cultural differences. Mergers and acquisitions almost always involve some level of transformational change and disruption, according to Towers Perrin Senior Consultant Clair Olson. Successful post-merger integration demands significant change on the part of both the acquiring and the acquired organization. The acquirer creates boundary disruptions – changes in stated goals, strategies, ways of doing things and customs. The acquirer also must deploy control mechanisms to manage transformational change and achieve the strategic goals that drove the M
NUR 590 GCU Organizational Culture and Readiness Type 2 Diabetes Proposal.

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In order to formulate your evidence-based practice (EBP), you need to assess your organization. In this assignment, you will be responsible for setting the stage for EBP. This assignment is conducted in two parts: an organizational cultural and readiness evaluation (assessment) and the proposal/problem statement and literature review, which you did in NUR-550.Section A: Organizational Culture and Readiness (Assessment)It is essential to understand the culture of the organization in order to begin assessing its readiness for EBP implementation. Select an appropriate organizational culture survey tool and use this instrument to assess the organization’s readiness.Develop an analysis of 250 words from the results of the survey, addressing your organization’s readiness level, possible project barriers and facilitators, and how to integrate clinical inquiry, providing strategies that strengthen the organization’s weaker areas.Make sure to include the rationale for the survey category scores that were significantly high and low, incorporating details or examples. Explain how to integrate clinical inquiry into the organization.Submit a summary of your results. The actual survey results do not need to be included.Section B: Proposal/Problem Statement and Literature ReviewIn NUR-550, you developed a PICOT statement and literature review for a population quality initiative. In 500-750 words, include the following:Refine your PICOT into a proposal or problem statement.Provide a summary of the research you conducted to support your PICOT, including subjects, methods, key findings, and limitations.General Guidelines:You are required to cite three to five sources to complete this assignment. Sources must be published within the last 5 years and appropriate for the assignment criteria and nursing content.Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center. An abstract is not required.This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.You are required to submit this assignment to LopesWrite. Refer to the LopesWrite Technical Support articles for assistance.
NUR 590 GCU Organizational Culture and Readiness Type 2 Diabetes Proposal

Understanding Legal Aspects and Current Issues of Compensation Methodologies Argumentative Essay

Labor laws in many countries recognize the legality of a collective bargaining agreement, which basically entails the voluntary negotiation between employers and employees through their trade unions aimed at reaching agreements that functions to regulate employees’ working conditions in terms of setting standards for wages, working hours, grievance mechanisms, and other issues that may directly or indirectly affect employees (Lardy, 1999). The right to collectively bargain with an employer is also recognized by a multiplicity of international human rights conventions in large part for enhancing the employees human dignity, liberty and independence through allowing them the chance to influence the development and implementation of workplace rules and thereby giving them some control over a major facet of their lives, namely their work. As such, the workers had a legitimate grievance since the collective agreement, as explained above, gives them every right to protect their work interests, including resisting any attempts to render them redundant by taking away their jobs. The collective agreement duly signed by the workers’ union and the management of the hotel states that all work shall be carried out by the union members and, therefore, taking away the work normally done by the employees amounts to an abuse of a legally binding agreement. In addition, the collective agreement gives employees a framework through which they can air their grievances whenever they feel their interests are threatened (Holley et al, 2009). In this context, the employees had a legitimate grievance. The collective bargaining agreement underlines the need for liberty and fairness in employees’ dealing with the management in their work contexts (Lardy, 1999). However, the decision made by the previous supervisor to save payroll dollars by taking away the jobs of union workers not only infringed on their rights to influence the development of workplace rules, but it was taken in bad faith since the main objective was to enhance the bonuses accruing to the supervisors. This demonstrates that the decision taken by the previous supervisor was not fair and didn’t have the interests of the workers at heart as per the collective bargaining agreement. The right to involve workers who would later be affected by the decision and enshrined in the collective bargaining agreement was also ignored (Holley et al, 2009). As such, this situation could have been amicably solved by involving the concerned parties, including the management and employees, in discussions aimed at coming up with practical and workable solutions towards saving payroll dollars and increasing bonuses instead of taking away the jobs of other workers. The supervisor could have used this avenue to negotiate for increased pay. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The duly signed collective agreement between the management and the union give employees the leverage to not only negotiate their fringe benefits and allowances, but also their working conditions and other issues related to employment (Holley et al., 2009). As such, the proposal to solve this situation would entail bringing the management, supervisors, and other employees in a round-table discussion under the provisions of the collective bargaining agreement and other labor laws in an attempt to air the grievances about bonuses from a collective standpoint. The tripartite discussions will ensure the interests of all stakeholders rather than using the position of authority to sideline employees who are duly protected by the collective bargaining agreement. In addition, such a proposal will ensure fairness of the concerned parties, including the management. Reference List Carrell, M. R.

NUR 674 Grand Canyon University Personal Model of Leadership Discussion

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As a nurse leader, it is important to understand a variety of leadership models and styles. This will help you adapt to different settings and apply strategies to support and inspire others. It may also be necessary to apply models in different professional settings to satisfy certification requirements. Write a 1,000-1,250 word paper about your personal model of leadership, including the following:How might your personal model of leadership be applied in your professional setting?Compare your personal leadership model to servant leadership, transformational leadership, and at least one other model of leadership.Describe your personal worldview, including the religious, spiritual, and cultural elements that you think most influence your personal philosophy of practice and attitude towards leadership.Describe how your professional leadership behaviors can inspire others.Use a minimum of three peer-reviewed resources (published within the last 5 years) as evidence to support your views.Prepare this assignment according to the APA guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center. An abstract is not required.This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.
NUR 674 Grand Canyon University Personal Model of Leadership Discussion

Quality In Higher Education In India

“Just as water needs the wind to create waves of change so does every individual need a helping hand to achieve the impossible” and education is that helping hand which can guide the individuals as well as the nations to the path of progress and success in this rapidly changing world. Primary education prepares a base for the whole education but higher education provides the cutting edge and the specialized skills required to move ahead. Higher education is the peak of the educational journey of any individual and it aims to contribute to the development and improvement of the society as a whole in a sustainable manner. Higher education should be able to meet the needs of all sectors of human activity. The World Bank and UNESCO report (2000) rightly presents a powerful message that “higher education is no longer a luxury. It is essential for survival. So we are interested in higher education because we are interested in our survival”. So, the importance of quality higher education is immense. But, Indian higher education does not stand anywhere among the world higher education in terms of quality and it is a matter of great concern for all the stakeholders of education i.e. students, teachers, institutions, society as a whole and policy makers etc. So, the higher education needs a total transformation to achieve the qualitative dimension of the higher education according to international standards. Present paper briefly talks about the factors which are influencing the quality of higher education in India and then recommends some of the ways through which the quality can be implemented to the Indian higher education system Key Words: Implement, Quality, Higher Education INTRODUCTION: We are living in an important and epoch- making age. This is an age of accelerated change and the age of unprecedented developments and Education is the tool through which individuals, societies and nations can live, progress and achieve success. Education is an enlightening experience which helps in making a meaning out of the complex realities of life. In India we have always believed that education is a liberating as well as evolutionary force, which enables the individual to rise from mere materiality to superior planes of intellectual and spiritual consciousness. Education is a dialogue between the past, present and future, so that the coming generations receive the accumulated lessons of the heritage and carry it forward. In the last two decades India has made rapid progress in the expansion of higher educational facilities and institutions and at present India’s higher education system is the second largest in the world, after the United States. Indian higher education system has expanded at a fast pace by adding nearly 20,000 colleges and more than 8 million students in a decade from 2000-01 to 2010-11. As of 2011, India has 42 central universities, 275 state universities, 130 deemed universities, 90 private universities, 5 institutions established and functioning under the State Act, and 33 Institutes of National Importance. Other institutions include 33,000 colleges as Government Degree Colleges and Private Degree Colleges, including 1800 exclusive women’s colleges, functioning under these universities and institutions as reported by the UGC in 2012. Fig. 1, Growth of Higher Education: Universities/Colleges/Students enrolment/Teaching Staff: 1950-51 – 2010-11 (Source: Higher Education in India at a glance, UGC Brochure 2012) The growth is very impressive in numbers but quality is far behind the existed standards and requirements. And that’s why quality of higher education in India is a matter of great apprehension. To stand at par with the developed countries we have to first meet out the challenges in imparting education especially in higher education. Reasons for concern for the quality of Higher Education: The quality in higher education is the biggest need of the hour as our country is progressing towards becoming the educational hub of the world. Prime Minister Manmohan Singh (2007) said that “our university system is, in many parts, in a state of disrepair…. In almost half the districts in the country, higher education enrolments are abysmally low, almost two-third of our universities and 90 percent of our colleges are rated as below average on quality parameters… I am concerned that in many states university appointments, including that of vice-chancellors, have been politicized and have become subject to caste and communal considerations; there are complaints of favoritism and corruption”. These words reflect the concerns for the quality of higher education in India. The quality of higher education in most of our universities and colleges requires substantial improvements. The following problems are common enough to be a cause for quality concern in higher education: First, curricula, which have remained almost unchanged for decades, have not kept pace with the times. Second, learning and creativity are at reducing in a system of evaluation that places its focus on memory rather than understanding. Third, the atmosphere is not favorable to anything beyond the classrooms, for it is caught in a 9.30 to 1.30 syndrome. Fourth, the academic calendar is no longer untouchable for classes or for examinations, as there are slippages in schedules so much so that, at several places, classes in the time table are not held and results are often declared with a time delay of 6 to 12 months. Fifth, the infrastructure is not only inadequate but also on the threshold of collapse. Sixth, the importance attached to research has eroded gradually over time. Seventh, the boundaries between disciplines have become dividing walls that constitute barriers to entry for new disciplines. Eight, there is little accountability, because there are no rewards for performance and no penalties for non-performance. Ninth, structures of governance are not responsive to changing times but the system is readily subverted by vested interests. Tenth, teachers are not playing their roles as per the changing needs and requirements. They are unable to prepare students to meet the demands of the digital, technological, interactive, collaborate changing world around us. Quality of teacher education curriculum also needs a transformation according to the present developments and needs. It is not possible here to provide a complete analysis of what are the other minor but relevant concern areas related to the quality of our higher education system. But, above mentioned areas need urgent transformation if India wants to move ahead or along with the world higher education systems. IMPLEMENTING QUALITY IN HIGHER EDUCATION: The following points provide a framework or guideline for improving the quality of higher education in India taking into account the various levels and key factors in education: Both, academic (institutional goals and objectives, curriculum design and review, teaching learning and evaluation, research and publications) and administrative (organization and management, infrastructure facilities, support services, student feedback and counseling and management of financial resources) aspects should be assessed and to be improved to improve the quality of higher education as it will be the first step towards the most needed education. Examination reforms like semester system, credit system are to be exercised to streamline them in a proper manner. As these are brought up from abroad, we should first of all check its feasibility for our organizational climate. Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation is to be encouraged. Standardized assessment procedures to strengthen the evaluation system. Financial Accountability is more important which means that the fund is to be used for the enhancement of the laboratory and library facilities. Gaps or deficiencies in our educational system are to be bridged to suit our economic, social and cultural requirements. Education is emerging as a service influenced by market operations, and so, it has to meet quality requirements and expectations of stakeholders for its survival. Distance education has a great potential for high productivity and we must take advantage of it in a big way. Curriculum restructuring and innovations and evolvement, conducting training programmes, orientation programmes, refresher courses. Accessibility, accountability and affordability are the major requirements. While the notion of quality was not fully developed, it was recognized that expanding access alone would be insufficient foe education to contribute fully to the development of the individual and society. Need to raise investment in education: education can be the next big area of economic growth in the country. Despite promises by the policy planners to raise investment in education to 6% of GDP, state and central governments together have spent less than 4% of GDP on education. Anything less now would mean further delays in providing quality higher education. Fig. 2, Expenditure on Higher Education in India (As % of GDP) (Source: Analysis of Budgeted Expenditure on Education, MHRD) Promotion of higher education with good governance, management, development and planning is very essential. Education should allow the children to reach their fullest potentials in terms of cognitive, emotional and creative capacities. For this appropriate aims must be described at the higher education level. Need to stop commercialization of education: any initiative to reverse the rapidly deteriorating situation will have necessarily to begin with educational institutions. There is, in fact, plenty that can be done even within the existing pattern of education and academic and professional course content to raise the level of awareness and proficiency of the students, provided the temples of learning and scholarship live up to that description. Teachers need to be the drivers of the qualitative change in the higher education. It would be pertinent to list down the key areas that teachers are capable and need to do to make higher education impactful/meaningful: Fig. 3, what teachers need to do to improve the quality of higher education? Teacher Education: the preparation of teachers for all levels of education is the responsibility of higher education. Therefore it is also necessary to enhance the quality of teacher education within the higher education by adopting new learner centered approaches like constructivism etc. Accountability: the higher education system must provide for accountability vis-à-vis the outside world and create accountability within the system. We need to create systems that enable students, or their parents, to choose between and assess universities. Information: institutions imparting higher education should be required to place basic information relating to their financial situation, physical assets, accreditation ratings, faculty positions, academic curricula, and so on, in the public domain. This would empower students and parents and can be an important step for maintaining qualitative standards. Thus these are only some of the steps which must be taken towards the qualitative higher education. But, implementing the above guidelines will require support from the management, government, teachers and students as well as the readiness to change as per required changing needs, and then only these guidelines can take a practical form. CONCLUSION: Thus, it can be concluded at the end that quality is a buzz word in today’s world of education. It has become an important ideology of education which helps make education more relevant to the needs of the individual and society. Every educational institution must strive to achieve excellence through adopting the highest measures of quality as ongoing basis as fostering quality in higher education is a continuous journey. We all know that education is the key to success as well as a very powerful tool for change. Higher education is the peak time of education of individuals which must be qualitatively strong so that it can guarantee to high employability at good and reputed positions. Improvement in quality of higher education will eventually draw more and more students and problem of low enrolment will get solved. For this higher education curriculum must be relevant so that students can directly link with their routine lives and find it useful to study. Teachers must also change their traditional role and be ready for their role as learners first because teachers have a pivotal role to play in the transformation process and the need of the hour is to get things moving and put them in place. What is needed is a vision of quality that goes far beyond mere conformance to standard; we need a passion for quality and continuous improvement, a quest for improvement that is never ending so that our higher education will always be qualitative and as per the needs. REFRENCES: Akhtar, SW (2011): Quality in Higher Education at par with International Standards; University News, 49(52) December 26-01: Delhi. Chaudhary, S. (2011), Problems and prospects of Indian Higher Education in the Age of globalization, University News, vol. 49(23): Delhi. Deka, B. (2000): Higher Education in India; Atlantic Publishers and Distributors: Delhi. Dube, S.C. (1988). Higher Education and Social Change, in A. Singh and G.D. Sharma (Ed.), Higher education in India: The Social Context, Konark Publishers Pvt. Ltd.: New Delhi. Kurhade, MS (2011): In Quest of Quality Education; University News, 49(32) August 08-14: Delhi. PM’s address at the 150th Anniversary Function of University of Mumbai: http://pmindia.nic.in/speech.content.asp?id=555. Premji, Azim (2004): Importance of Quality Education for the Development of the Nation; Legal News

Prepare a comparison table that summarizes at least 3 RECENT scholarly articles on the role and impact of hospitals

Prepare a comparison table that summarizes at least 3 RECENT scholarly articles on the role and impact of hospitals. Prepare a comparison table that summarizes at least 3 RECENT scholarly articles on the role and impact of hospitals in the healthcare industry in the U.S. versus that of another country. Look for peer-reviewed articles that address one of the following points: Determine the performance of the hospital industry. Apply economic models, theories, or assumptions. Offer objective methods for attempting to predict future market behavior in response to events, trends, and cycles. Assess economic policy recommendations for healthcare stakeholders. Make specific comparisons of the role and impact of hospitals in the U.S. to that of another country of your choice. Your comparison table should be thoughtful and thorough, well-written, and include the following: Focus of each article, Summary of methodology, Results of each article, and Key discussion elements.Prepare a comparison table that summarizes at least 3 RECENT scholarly articles on the role and impact of hospitals

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