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Development of memory in infancy

Development of memory in infancy. Discuss, with reference to appropriate experimental studies, the development of memory in infancy. Memory is the process of encoding, storing and retrieving information. Encoding is the acquiring and the entering of information into the system. Storage is the retaining of the memories over time, and retrieval is recovering the stored memories when required to do so. Memory consists of three systems. Firstly there is the sensory memory, which is the perceptual system which stores only the recently acquired images for long enough to integrate it with the next, therefore producing an apparent motion. Secondly there is short-term memory that is a temporary storage for small quantities of information for a brief time. Finally the long-term memory system holds relatively permanent information. Studying the development of memory in infancy has many benefits, as it helps to show how memory develops over time. This knowledge from research can be applied to different settings, for example an educational setting, where the more a teacher understands about the memory development of children the more they can use this information to guide children’s learning therefore giving the best possible learning outcomes. This essay will discuss the strategies used to help with encoding, storing and retrieving information. To help compare the development of infant’s memory, studies with older children have been included. Memory strategies are the ways in which people effectively remember information. These strategies include encoding strategies and retrieval strategies. Encoding strategies are used to help enter the information into the memory; this can include rehearsal, organisation and elaboration. Rehearsal refers to the mental repetition of information. Brainerd and Reyna’s (2002) fuzzy trace theory suggests there are two memory representations. These are verbatim trace and gist trace. The verbatim trace refers to remembering information exactly, whereas gist trace is remembering the general meaning of the information. The gist trace representations last, but the verbatim trace representations leads to more forgetting. Flavell, Beach and Chinsky (1966) studied rehearsal in 5 year, 7 year and 10 year olds. Each age group had 20 children, who were all given a set of 7 pictures. The children were told to try and remember some of the pictures. After a 15 seconds gap, the children were asked to say aloud the pictures they could recall. During the 15 seconds gap a lip reader assessed what they believed each children might have been saying to themselves. They found that two of the 5 year olds, more than half of the 7 year olds, and most of the 10 year olds repeated the pictures to themselves. It was found that rehearsal lead to better recall. Flavell et al. (1966) found that age differences may show the development of strategies used, such as rehearsal. Although some of the children may have been using rehearsal strategies, but may not have moved their lips. McGilly and Siegler (1990) carried out an extension on Flavell et al.’s (1966) study, by also asking children to report how they remembered the pictures. They found a high amount of children (74%) reported using rehearsal strategies. However only 39% were observed, by lip reading techniques, using rehearsal strategies. Therefore suggesting that children of all ages use rehearsal, however it may not be as effectively used in younger children (Smith, CowieDevelopment of memory in infancy
Walden University Community Resources for Older Individuals Research Paper.

Assignment: Community Resources for Older IndividualsVolunteers and political officials in local communities often campaign to improve conditions and provide services to increase the well-being of individuals and families living in those communities. If you are the parent of young children, you might focus on improving the local school or creating safe places where children can play. If you are an individual in later adulthood or a caregiver for an individual in later adulthood, what community resources might be important to you? For this week’s Assignment, you evaluate the resources that your local community provides for its older members.To prepare for this Assignment, research the resources available in your local community to support the issues and concerns of the older population. Note any gaps in these services and consider what improvements might be made to existing services as well as what services should be added.By Day 7Submit a 2- to 4-page paper that includes the following:A description of the services in your local community that support individuals in later adulthoodAn evaluation of the effectiveness of the services you identifiedA description of service gaps you identifiedAn explanation of how to improve existing servicesA description of services that should be added, and whySupport your Assignment with specific references to the resources. Be sure to provide full APA citations for your references.
Walden University Community Resources for Older Individuals Research Paper

AIU Anne Hathaway Organizational Development Practitioner Discussion Response.

Out of the choices of the movies, I have only seen “The Devil Wears Prada,” starting Anne Hathaway. The movie presents a young and ambitious woman starting a new dream job with a popular magazine. After starting work, she notices the dysfunctional culture of the workplace. For example, all employees being fearful of the boss, played by Meryl Streep, who is straight forward, demanding, and created a no-nonsense culture at work. As an OD practitioner, I would focus on the positives of the organization to have a successful outcome, as the employees already feel negative with the boss’s approach, as evidenced by the employees’ constant insecurities and fear of being fired. As OD practitioner, how would you use appreciative inquiry to address the issues observed in the film? As an OD practitioner, I would use appreciative inquiry, which focuses on what is going well in an organization and addressed the views of everyone within that organization, to assess the movie. According to Rothwell (2015) focus should be on the strengths of employees, management and organization. In addition, acknowledge the valuable qualities of hard-working individuals within the organization and inquire about new ideas. Kelm (2011) recommends the use to 4 D’s: discover, dream, design and destiny. The discover stage inquires about what is working well within the organization, like the strengths. The dream stage questions the employees as to what their ideal approach within the organization. In the design stage, in collaboration with the employees generate a plan and later implement in the destiny stage.How would you assess the emotional intelligence of the key characters? Cote (2014) states that emotional intelligence is the ability to identify, analyze, and control one’s emotions, it is being self-aware and learning to self-regulate. Also, it is important to identify other feelings around you and communicate feelings clearly. To avoid any miscommunication, it is better not assuming and leave room for assumptions. For the case of the boss, Ms. Priestly, she shows negative emotions throughout the movie until the end for a moment when she appeared to care. As for the character Andy, she was sensitive towards the beginning of joining her position but overtime she followed Ms. Priestly’s demands and not being self-aware, which resulted in a breakup with her boyfriend. One assessment method is the performance-based assessment, which maximizes performance over time by giving the respondent a score in the different areas of emotional intelligence so performance plans can be built around specific skill sets that can be enhanced and measured (Cote, 2014). The benefit of understanding each other’s emotions allows for a safe and respectful working environment, which is result in high productivity.How might you use Killman’s conflict management style to mitigate the conflict in the film you viewed? According to Trippe and Baumoel (2015) the Kilmann’s conflict management style model examines what happens when the interests of two individuals separate and has 5 styles. The 5 styles consist of competitive, avoidant, accommodating, compromising, or collaborative. As in this movie, Andy had an accommodating style, trying to accommodate in her relationship as to what her boyfriend wants and in work, literally running around and serving her boss. As for Ms. Preistly, she is fully in the competitive style and mindset, she only cares to represent the best of the best magazine.References Fox 2000 Pictures. (Producer). (2006). The devil wears Prada. [DVD]. Kelm, J. (2011). What is appreciative [Video file]. Retrieved fromRothwell, W. J. (2015). Organization development fundamentals: Managing strategic change.Alexandria, VA: ATD Press.Trippe, B., & Baumoel, D. (2015). Beyond the Thomas–Kilmann model: Into extremeconflict. Negotiation Journal, 31(2), 89–103.
AIU Anne Hathaway Organizational Development Practitioner Discussion Response

Abstract This paper studied the contributing factors to climate change, the effects of climate change on the Arctic biome’s environment, along with the effects of climate change on the species of the Artic biome. This topic was chosen to research climate changes impact on a specific environment to determine its effect on a climate’s biodiversity. The Arctic was specifically chosen because it is a biome that has clear effects of climate change thus the effects on biodiversity is clear. This was done through researching scholarly articles. The results were clear that biodiversity is being impacted greatly by climate change through its degradation of habitat and negative impact on species within. Introduction: Climate change has become a notorious political and social issue in recent decades. Climate change is known as the rise in temperatures of climates due to human actions. Climate change happens over a long period of time although the repercussions can be severe and irreversible. Some effects of climate change that have been observed are habitat degradation, habitat loss, and potential risk of species extinction. Because of these reasons climate change has become a heated debate and has many groups and individuals debating next steps to prevent the harmful consequences of climate change. The biome that this paper researches in depth is the Arctic biome. The reason for this is due to the characteristics of the biome and how they may be more vulnerable to climate change than others. Because of the cold climate and the species reliance on the natural environment the impacts of climate change may be more prevalent. Due to this the Arctic biome was selected to research further. Purpose of study The purpose of this study was to gather a better understanding of the effects of climate change on the polar biome’s biodiversity, factors that contribute to climate change, and what actions must be taken to avoid future negative impacts on the biome’s biodiversity. The research question that this paper works to answer is: What are the effects of climate change on the biodiversity of the Arctic biome? Methods To research this topic and research question in depth these are the methods used. The primary method used to conduct research was locating scholarly peer reviewed articles from the DePaul University Library’s Database. The type of scholarly articles that were used were journals discussing topics on climate change, the Arctic biome, species of the Arctic biome, along with effects of climate change on the Arctic biome. These articles were selected based upon the research question and the topics covered were selected to gain a better understanding of the issue of climate change and an in-depth understanding of the Arctic biome’s biodiversity (including the species inhabiting it and the landscape of the biome.) Results To first understand the impact of climate change on the Arctic biome it’s important to first understand the impact of climate change as a whole. Climate change is caused by many factors some of which include emission of greenhouse gases and anthropogenic activity. Emission of greenhouse gases include gases such as carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and other gases. These gases contribute to what is called the Greenhouse effect. The Greenhouse effect is when these greenhouse gases are released into the atmosphere that then causes the planet’s temperature to increase (Crowley, 2000, 271). This has been a major contributor to the problem of global warming and has been increasing due to the activity on the planet. This activity is mostly anthropogenic, meaning that it has been mainly caused by human actions. “Anthropogenic climate change is one of the main contributors to the global loss of biological diversity (as defined in the Convention on Biological Diversity), and it has caused accelerated rates of species’ extinctions and changes to ecosystems.” (Geyer, Kiefer, Kreft, Chavez, Salafsky, Jelttsch, Ibisch, 2011, p. 709). From this excerpt its clear that human activity is a contributor to climate change and thus leading to the loss of biodiversity globally. Some human activity that can be associated with climate change are the rising levels of pollution and as stated earlier the emission of greenhouse gases. The ways that humans contribute to the release of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere include burning fossil fuels, increasing population, and deforestation. With the world increasing its population the activity seen contributing to the emission of greenhouse gases continue to rise. These actions cause greenhouse gases to be released then warming the atmosphere, which then leads to the harmful effects on biodiversity on the planet. These effects are dangerous to biodiversity as a whole although this paper will now narrow down to the Arctic biome to observe more specific effects and observations on biodiversity. To gain a better understanding of climate changes biodiversity the Arctic biome was researched along with the species that inhabitant it. One species that was researched thoroughly was the polar bear to show effects on a single species. With the pattern of temperature rising it has created changes in the Artic environment that were not present before. Expanded vegetation, altered ecosystems, reduced spring-summer snow cover, and declining level of sea ice (Holland, Jahn, Bailey, 2012, 2696) are all issues that seem to be arising due to the changes caused by global warming. With these issues present it is clear that there is a correlation between climate change and the changes in biodiversity. These issue are consistent with the effects of greenhouse gas emissions and one article states “Because these kinds of observed changes are consistent with the Arctic’s response to greenhouse forcing projected by climate models, there is widespread concern that the recent behavior is a harbinger of more transformative regional climate change this century that may reverberate globally.” (Holland, Jahn, Bailey, 2012, 2696). Although these are climate issues specific to this biome it does not mean they will not spread elsewhere overtime, which is what this excerpt explains. Through the change in conditions of the Arctic biome it is clear that biodiversity is being impacted. Biodiversity of a biome along with a biome’s ecosystem is fragile. If one thing changes in an ecosystem there can be a butterfly effect that can negatively affect the biome’s biodiversity. One issue stated earlier that showcases this effect on biodiversity is the declining level of sea ice in the arctic climates. This issue is prevalent when looking at the Polar Bear species who reside in this arctic environment. The level of sea ice is important to the survival of the polar bear because they relay on it for mating, feeding, and moving across the Arctic landscape. Due to climate change decreasing the level of sea ice it is affecting the day to day actions of the polar bears. Some of the effects of this decrease in sea ice is stated “Reductions in sea ice extent and/or duration have been associated with shifts toward more land-based denning, evidence of nutritional stress, reduced body condition, reproduction, survival, and body size for polar bears.” (Hunter, Caswell, Runge, Regehr, 2010, 2884). This article is a great explanation of how this change in environment is harming the species that reside within. Because of the conditions of the environment are changing it is causing negative repercussions on the species who inhabitant it. Polar bears were reliant on the climate they have resided in, but due to climate change it is shifting their behaviors and health. It was also noted that some polar bears are facing situations that are very uncommon. For instance, one observation stated that polar bear predation attempts are leading to untimely demises because of the lack of sea ice. Some polar bears have accidentally drowned while trying to hunt prey because there was no sea ice for them to get back to safety (See Appendix A.). This is a direct effect of climate change and the degradation of the environment the species resides in. These effects on biodiversity don’t stop with the polar bear and the environment. The prey of the polar bear will see an increase in population because they are not being hunted as often. This showcases a change in biodiversity because it changes the species evenness in this environment. When discussing the impacts of this issue it’s important to also consider the long term impacts. “The current southern Beaufort Sea population numbers about 1500 individuals (Regehr et al. 2006), so a decline to 1% of current size would almost certainly imply extinction. The probability of this outcome is estimated at 0.80-0.94 by the year 2100, which is certainly a serious risk.” (Hunter, Caswell, Runge, Regehr, 2010, 2884). This excerpt shows the long term implications if this issue is not addressed. Whether looking on a small scale or a large scale, short term or long term it is clear that climate change is having an impact on biodiversity of the Arctic biome. Discussion Through conducting research this paper has identified factors of climate change along with the effects on biodiversity in the Arctic Biome. The results tell a compelling story of how anthropogenic activity is creating issues that harm biodiversity as a whole. When examining a specific environment its clear to see the negative impacts already at play. With the landscape and conditions of the biome changing it is having a clear negative effect on the species that reside within. These species are not used to these conditions which is causing them to feed differently, breed differently, and change their behaviors. Species are not being able to get resources as they are used to which is causing starvation leading to a concern for potential extinction (See Appendix B). The impact of climate change is very real and very concerning to the future of biodiversity not only in the Arctic climate, but all climates. The issue is becoming more widespread and it effects will surely be seen more and more over time. One weakness of this study is that there was little quantifiable data. Many of the articles researched provided information with little numerical data that was useful. For future studies more data would be needed to showcase very specifically the effects of climate change. Conclusions and Recommendations Based upon the research it is clear that biodiversity as a whole within the Arctic biome is being negatively affected. The conditions of the environment are changing and the species who inhabitant are being harmed. Species are not able to carry out behaviors they were once able to do such as feeding, breeding, and moving about their environment. These are all effects currently happening and over time they will only get worse if preventive measures are not taken. Through the emission of greenhouse gases its clear that the cause may be anthropogenic. With this said its important that society takes a careful look at their actions and try to work to find more environmentally friendly solutions. Society must find green alternatives to help reduce emissions. Whether this is through finding cleaner transportation options or large corporations converting to cleaner manufacturing, steps must be taken in order to help preserve biodiversity. There is only one Earth and biomes are fragile and must be respected and preserved for future generations. Climate change is a direct effect based upon the actions of humans and innocent species should not be negatively impacted for human’s actions. References Crowley, T. (2000). Causes of Climate Change over the past 1000 Years. Science, 289(5477), 270-277. Retrieved from GEYER, J., KIEFER, I., KREFT, S., CHAVEZ, V., SALAFSKY, N., JELTSCH, F.,

Individual Project Mitsubishi Company Business Strategy Presentation

Individual Project Mitsubishi Company Business Strategy Presentation.

PPT contains 3-5 slides, which demonstrate an ethical problem and related it to a firm. The company I picked up is Mitsubishi Materials. In 2017, Mitsubishi Materials admitted the fraud of product data. Please based on this event and ethical problem, answering the following request.Business Ethics Analysis “DELIVERABLE”: Please Turn in a 3-5 page power point presentation.You may use the framework presented below and provide your analysis in bullets.Please “answer” each of the following six (6) major questions presented in this analysis. Ethical Decision Making Framework DEFINE BUSINESS STRATEGY: Provide a high level overview of the Company’s Business StrategyWhat was the ethical issue the business faced? What is the company’s strategy?What differentiates them from their competitors?What are the company’s stated: Mission, Vision & ValuesCan you find this company’s “Code of Conduct” RECOGNIZE THE ETHICAL ISSUE Was this decision or situation damaging to someone or to some group? Which business stakeholders were impactedDoes this decision involve a choice between a good and bad alternative, or perhaps between two “goods” or between two “bads”? Is this issue about more than what is legal or what is most efficient? If so, how?What are the relevant facts of the case? What facts are not known? How could future decisions be implemented with the greatest care and attention to the concerns of all stakeholders?Considering all these approaches, which option could you present as a better alternate to more effectively address the situation? Litmus test…..”If I told someone I respect-or told a television audience-which option I have chosen, what would they say?”“ If this were me, would I feel comfortable with my decisions and actions , if they were published in the WSJ or in the NYU newsletter?” GET THE BASIC FACTS PRESENTED IN THE ARTICLE What was the key decision the individual or business took that is at Question?What individuals and groups had/have an important stake in the outcome? Are some concerns more important? Why?Evaluate the Action taken by the Business/Individual by asking the following questions: FROM THE EXTERNAL CONSULTANT’S PERSPECTIVE – Evaluate Alternative Actions Which option will produce the most good and do the least harm? (The Utilitarian Approach)Which option best respects the rights of all who have a stake? (The Rights Approach)Which option treats people equally or proportionately? (The Justice Approach)Which option best serves the community as a whole, not just some members? (The Common Good Approach)Which option leads me to act as the sort of person I want to be? (The Virtue Approach)How did the business/individual decision turn out and what can the organization learned from this specific situation? REFLECT ON THE OUTCOMES FROM THE EXTERNAL CONSULTANT/ETHICIST PERSPECTIVE, WHAT WOULD HAVE BEEN A BETTER ALTERNIVE DECISION / PROVIDE ANY IMPROVEMENT RECOMMENDATIONS
Individual Project Mitsubishi Company Business Strategy Presentation

Comparing two different styles of policing

nursing essay writing service This essay will examine the difference between these two styles of policing and try and ascertain which is better for the community. “Community policing is an oxymoron, for if the police could serve the whole community there would be little point in having a police force at all” fn 1 However for the purposes of this essay community policing will have the meaning which is ascribed to it by the Home Office. It is seen as a key and permanent element of reforms to make the police service more citizen focused. The aim is to build a more responsive, locally accountable and citizen-focused police service through a programme to transform policing at a local level to meet the needs of communities. ??dddddd The notion of zero tolerance policing was inspired by the apparent success of the approach taken in NY, and a variation of it-confident policing-pursued by DCI Mallon in Hartlepool as well as others within the UK. The notion of zero tolerance policing is based upon the “broken window theory” and the conviction that the best way to tackle serious crime is to tackle disorder in which policies such as the community safety order, parental responsibility order, composite offence and final warning all have a role to play. It is arguable that this policy adopts a social exclusion rather than inclusion policy approach towards community safety. The result may be that healthy urban futures are established but not necessarily all inhabitants will benefit. Crime, disorder, anti-social behaviour and nuisance may all be particularly unpleasant but it is not clear if placing such a strong emphasis upon criminalisation and enforcement is the best way of tackling the problems contributing to and created by those behaviours. It leaves very little space for more constructive actions and even where it is possible to do so, they take place on terms which strengthen the criminalisation of the discourse of social policy so that the measures end up being more about containment and control within the community. In 1996 the London Metropolitan Police carried out a zero tolerance initiative in partnership with the Transport Police, City of London Police and local authority councils. This initiative involved active confrontational measures to deal with homeless beggars, drug dealers, prostitutes and pimps who were congregating at the St Pancreas Railway Station. The result of the action was the temporary displacement of the undesirables to adjoining neighbourhoods until the control measures were withdrawn. The benefits included over 400 arrests of drug dealers and a raising of the quality of life for people in the area (Leigh et al 1998; 73) A recent Home Office Study of policing styles noted that Cleveland Police responsible for Middlesborough remain convinced that zero tolerance is compatible with community policing in a problem orientated policing form. Cleveland police viewed it as a “short term prelude to the implementation of longer term measures in high crime areas where fear of, and intimidation by a minority of residents is having a detrimental effect” (Leigh et al 1998, 26 and Romeanes 1998). The statutory enforcement powers for zero tolerance are contained within the Crime and Disorder Act with its emphasis on taking back control over unruly neighbourhoods and so it is not unreasonable or unlikely that the Home Office would give the initiative a qualified endorsement although it chooses to term it “order maintenance” (Jordan 1998 72). Zero tolerance style of policing is popular with a majority of the public who se the police as being tough on crime. In July 2003 an ICM Poll for the think-tank Reform questioned public support for zero tolerance comprising a highly visible policing on the streets bearing down heavily on anti social behaviour and vandalism. 83% thought that this would be a good idea, with over 50% thinking it would be a very good idea. Does Safer Neighbourhood Policing Help p 62-63 Zero Tolerance does have the negative repercussions of souring police community relations and can antagonise racial tensions in neighbourhoods. This is in conflict with the philosophy and practice of community policing which depends upon strong support from the public and discretion from police officers, proactive policing, problem solving and an intimate knowledge of the neighbourhood in which the police are operating, acquiring intelligence and building trust. Officers viewed discretion as an important part of community policing. A firearms officer was outside a school monitoring traffic and flagged down a middle aged man who was not wearing a seat belt. He managed to resist the temptation “to alienate the police service further by scoring 5 easy points” and after some advice, he let the man proceed on his way. A few months later the firearms officer found himself in an unoccupied house where a gun had been found in very suspicious circumstances. The same man as in the seat belt incident approached him and provided invaluable information which saved many hours of police investigation. The officer maintained that the man assisted him because he had dealt with him leniently in the seat belt incident and the officer wondered if the man would have assisted had he not used his discretion in the earlier incident? The officer said that police should be left to use their common sense on the streets. Cited in The Public and Police by Harriet Sergeant page 52 Is the answer for the two concepts to sit side by side? It would appear that the two concepts are not mutually exclusive and there is a need for both within certain communities. A police system based on consensus and working in and with the community seems the better option for the community as a whole. This method allows the community to be involved in the law enforcement process and encourages the community to be involved in its own safety by the informal policing of its on neighbourhood, collecting intelligence on suspected trouble makers to assist the police. Community policing allows the community to be a partner with the police in crime reduction and as such are more receptive to police initiatives. Zero tolerance should be used selectively in reducing certain types of deviant behaviour such as anti social behaviour and also for knife and carrying weapons, but its success is limited to selected areas. Its use should be limited to a short sharp approach and it should also be seen as a short term policy rather than overall police policy. It has been shown that a tactic of the targeting of repeat offenders and victims, a high level police visibility in some crime hot spots, and problem orientated strategies and police initiatives have worked. Zero tolerance style of policing can impact on human rights and liberties but it is popular with most members of the law abiding community and politicians as it demonstrates that the state is seen to be tough on crime. Of course whatever is the better option for the community depends on whether you look at the community as a whole or a particular section. If one block of flats is being terrorised by anti social behaviour and zero tolerant tactics are adopted to deal with it, it will not be considered beneficial to the whole community if the perpetrators are merely dispersed to a neighbouring block within the same community. What is best for the community can also be said to be the eradication of crime in the first place, so that the causes are addressed (community policing) rather than the symptons (zero tolerance). It would appear that there is a place for a zero tolerance approach within community policing itself particularly if the community is kept informed of the police approach so that it is included in adopting the policy. So although it may be seen to some members of the community as the better style of policing overall it is better to have the community policing system which is a softly softly approach to law enforcement underpinning the relationship between the police and the community.

Ashford University Wk 3 Business Competition at Bath and Body Works Inc Essay

Ashford University Wk 3 Business Competition at Bath and Body Works Inc Essay.

Prompt: For this milestone, you will work on the Problem Analysis and Plan sections of the final project. In your analysis, you will analyze the problem facing your chosen company and review the potential implications if not resolved. Then you will create a plan that will support your company in successfully resolving the identified problem.The following critical elements must be addressed:2. Problem Analysis:A. Describe the problem that the company is currently facing.B. Establish potential implications facing the company if the problem is not resolved.C. Describe how other companies have handled similar problems in the past, providing evidence to support your response.3. Plan:A. Explain your duties and responsibilities within the company based on your selected role.B. Determine a relevant theory that could be applied to support the success of your proposed plan.C. Recommend a plan for how the company can successfully resolve the problem, supporting your plan with research.
Ashford University Wk 3 Business Competition at Bath and Body Works Inc Essay

Structuralist and Modernist Theories of Development

Structuralist and Modernist Theories of Development. This essay is going to look at the rather broad question which theory of development I find most persuasive. It will look at the different theories of development and then critically assess the theories to show that I believe Modernisation theory to be the most persuasive, using examples to back up my argument. To fully engage with the question the essay will start by looking at and assessing Modernisation theory, secondly the essay will look at a structuralist approach and how it differs to modernisation theory. The essay will then look at political development theory and the differences between the theories, before concluding to try and show that overall the most persuasive theory of development is Modernisation. After World War Two we saw a departure from Classical Economics and Growth Theory to Modernisation Theory. The Theory reflected both a changing international political circumstance and developments made in social science circles with the journal Economic Development and Cultural Change publishing the social scientist’s findings of their Modernisation research . Walt Rostow presented his thesis on Modernisation theory looking at it as a five-stage process, showing countries moving from traditional societies to modern societies, the last stage for Rostow being “The age of ‘high mass consumption'” (Hopper, 2012), which is when a country maintains high economic growth for an appropriate length of time. It follows the general principles of the Modernisation theory that it is a linear process of changing older traditions, methods and structures that countries have previously followed. Rostow believed that a way for Developing countries to benefit from Modernisation was for aid from developed countries to be sent to these countries so that they could gain some productive investments. The Marshall plan and the Alliance for Progress in Latin America were programs that were influenced heavily by Rostow’s theory. The Alliance for Progress was established between America and Latin America to promote economic and political development within the countries (Ish-Shalom, 2004). The Alliance had a few successes, for example growth in regional output in Latin America increased by 0.4% per capita, however during the 1960’s 13 of the governments within the alliance were taken over by a military dictatorship leading an abrupt failure of the alliance. By the end of the 1960’s the theory of Modernisation was under attack, a main reason being because many believed that the theories linear view dismisses the extent to which societies can be very diverse and different to other countries, especially those in the west, as these countries may fight change and resist changing their traditions, as it is assumed by authors that Third World Countries are traditional whilst Western countries are developed. In his book, John Martinussen talks about how some Modernisation theorists assume that because the model has worked in developed countries it will automatically transfer to work in developing countries (Hopper, 2012). Similarly, these ideas of development hugely downplay the level to which international conditions could impede development in the South. Structuralist’s would argue that developing countries are powerless to control their own futures because modernisation theory was to focused upon endogenous factors that it overlooked external factors due to the international economic order. Structuralist’s focused on the structure of the international economy to look for patterns of the level of development in countries around the world. The theory is influenced by Keynesian which is a critique of classical economics and talks about how states rely upon government intervention and having a mixed economy, and that to become developed states should focus on achieving this, as the belief was that it would stimulate the economy and development within the country. The belief relied heavily upon governments in developing countries encouraging industrialisation through support such as financial help. Therefore, like modernisation theory we can see that structuralism shares a belief in industrialisation in a countries development. Also, the structuralist approach is rooted in Latin American experience, where the countries were very critical of international trade and there were attempts to discover and explain the lack of development in the area. Raul Prebisch looked at the idea of there being a “structural rift in the international economy” (Edgar J. Dosman, 2012) in which Latin America sat on the edge of this “rift” as it had the function of being able to provide natural resources, mainly serving those countries in the centre. With assistance from Prebisch CEPAL developed a theory of economic development for Latin America. This approach was based upon the ideas that development should not be copied from Western countries but instead established so that it represents the reality within the developing country. It also believed that protectionist policies should be adopted, such as importing tariffs on imported goods, as without such policies these countries would struggle to survive in the international free trade market as they would be in direct competition with western countries. CEPAL concluded that development, in Latin America at least, needs to take place within a Capitalist system and that countries that produced industrial goods would grow faster than those which specialised in primary commodities. Some structuralist’s held that countries of the Global South could overcome the unintentional restraints put on them by the already developed countries through trading between themselves (Hopper, 2012). Therefore, Structuralist’s would advocate a policy of Import-substitution industrialisation (ISI) described by Valpy Fitzgerald as being “state-led industrialization”, when CAPEAL was formed the organisation continued to push ISI as it was dealing with the shocks felt within Latin America from the disruption of international trade because of the Great Depression through World War Two, and by the 1950’s CEPAL wanted to create a “region-wide market that would capture economies of scale in production.” (Love, 2005). Manufacturing in Latin America increased yearly by 6.3% (Sheahan, cited in Hopper 2012), showing that this structuralist approach had a positive effect in this area of the Global South, however some manufacturing industries in countries with small domestic markets struggled as they had limited population size to market their goods too and were further limited by the populations low incomes, leading to reductions in foreign exchange earnings so these industries would struggle to afford the technology needed to manufacture their goods which ISI was reliant on to work. ISI also ignored bureaucracy and corruption that have been a part of the states and governments throughout the world. Overall there were too many faults with some structuralist’s ideas and Latin America abandoned ISI after the debt crisis in the region in 1982. After the slow dissolution of ISI in Latin America, with a worsening debt crisis and terms of trade for primary products deteriorating a new approach, Dependency Theory, began to come to light from radical and neo-Marxist’s who began with critiquing both Modernisation and Structuralist theories. Their general argument is that Capitalism in the international community produces increased inequalities in levels of development allowing the North to exploit and extract wealth from the South. Paul Baran, a Development academic, considered this structure as “the morphology of backwardness.” (Bellamy Foster, 2007). Within Latin America André Gunder Frank argued that the lack of development within these countries can be directly connected to development in other areas of the world, this is through looking at a Capitalist world system characterised by a centre-periphery dichotomy where Latin America sits on the periphery with the countries of the North in the centre, the result of this dichotomy being an unequal exchange in the international market with the North becoming developed and dominating and the South being underdeveloped and dependent. A conclusion from dependency theorists seemed to be that capitalism needs to be abolished if underdevelopment is the result of a capitalist society. However, a challenge to the theory emerged when newly industrialised countries could almost be seen to be bridging the gap in the dichotomy, Immanuel Wallerstein disagreed slightly with dependency theory and stated that the dichotomy had three levels; centre, semi-periphery and periphery, Wallerstein developed World-systems theory. This theory sought to explain the central-periphery dichotomy produced by the Capitalist system, Wallerstein offer a more fluid concept of the dichotomy saying that it is possible for countries to move in and out of these categories whether it be due to development or economic decline, this can account for the change in countries such as China and India (Hopper, 2012). However, critics would argue that despite Wallerstein’s theory that Dependency theorists underplay internal and natural causes of underdevelopment. During the 1980’s Latin America witnessed an economic crisis leaving the areas “GDP growth rate as 1.1% whereas its overall growth rate of its per capita GDP was negative” (Shixue, 2008). This was due to flaws from the ISI model and corruption within the region by officials. Also, many claim that the theory fails to provide answers to developing countries predicament, as the theory states that dependency is a root cause of their underdevelopment but provides no escape. There is either a need for developed countries to disconnect themselves from the international market or for a creation of a new international economic system. Therefore, Dependency theory provides little hope to developing countries. In conclusion when analysing the different theories of development it is apparent that all the three main theories can be recognised as having some influence within developing countries. Structuralist and Modernist Theories of Development

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