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Development of Genetically Engineered Pig Organs

Development of Genetically Engineered Pig Organs. Introduction In the United States, an average of 21 people die per day waiting for a transplant 1. Due to the shortage of human organs, biotechnology companies have been looking for alternatives. Xenotransplantation, the process of transplanting tissues or organs of different species into humans, is one of them. Revivicor is focusing on genetically engineering pigs for xenotransplantation. The main barrier for xenotransplantation is rejection. One cause of rejection is due to alpha 1,3 galactosyltransferase, an enzyme present in most animals except for humans and primates. When a tissue containing this enzyme is grafted into a human, the body’s immune system signals an attack causing a hyperacute rejection 2. To overcome this barricade, Revivicor knocks out the gene that produces alpha 1,3 galactosyltransferase then clones pigs from the modified cells. Figure 1. Revivicor’s xenograft process. [http://www.revivicor.com/technology.html] Company History Formed in 2003 by David Ayers and based in Virginia, Revivicor is a regenerative medicine company that concentrates on genetically modifying pigs to be used as a tissue source for treatment of degenerative diseases in humans. The company is a spin-out of PPL Therapeutics, a UK company that produced Dolly the Sheep: the first cloned animal. Revivicor built upon the PPL Therapeutics’ technology and became the first company to clone a genetically-engineered pig. In 2009, a study was run on primates induced with diabetes to test the viability of hCD46 transgenic porcine islets, acquired from Revivicor. After a 3-month follow-up, four of five monkeys experienced graft survival and insulin‐independent normoglycemia. The fifth monkey, selected at random and studied for more than a year. … The study marked the first time a functional islet xenograft in a diabetic monkey survived over a year3. The pigs that produced the hCD46 transgenic porcine islets had CD46 added and the pig gene alpha-GAL deleted. CD46 is a protein produced by a human gene, that aids in suppressing an immune attack on the transplanted cells4. Alpha-GAL epitopes trigger an immune response that results in rejection of the transplanted organ or tissue into primates. By removing alpha-GAL, the transplant is less likely to be rejected as well as degrade5. Revivicor was purchased for approximately $8 million in 2011 by United Therapeutics Inc., and now operates as a subsidiary under the company. United Therapeutics is a biotech company that focuses on aiding rare and life-threatening diseases. The company was founded by Martine Rothblatt, who strives to create an endless supply of transplantable organs6. In 2014, $50 million was invested in Synthetic Genomics by Rothblatt. The company designs and inserts genetic add-ons into pig cells, which Revivicor uses cloning to produce pigs from the cells 6. The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute in Bethesda, Maryland implanted a pig kidney, genetically engineered by Revivicor, into a baboon. Conclusions Revivcor is still in business today but faces stiff competition: eGenesis, a company using CRISPR/Cas9 to genetically modify pigs for xenotransplantation. This technology allows eGenesis to more quickly and precisely edit the genes. The Cambridge, MA company is working on two different designs that they plan to combine into one pig cell, a pig with a humanized immune system and a pig wiped of viruses 7. The cell will then be cloned into a pig, the same process used by Revivicor. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) may cause some setbacks to Revivicor as well. At the moment, the FDA suggests that xenotransplantation only be available to individuals with life-threatening diseases. With a majority of serious epidemics initiating from animal pathogens that have jumped to humans, the FDA is concerned with the possibility of disease from PERVs in the transplanted animal organs and tissues. Aside from the concern for disease, another hurdle to face is the regulations on genetic engineering. For a pig organ or islet to be able to go to market, the process in which the animal was genetically engineered must be approved8. Even with these roadblocks, the CEO of United Therapeutics is pushing Revivicor to engineer transplantable pig lungs and have plans in the pipeline to create xenotransplantable kidneys, hearts, and lungs by 2029. References 1. Hansman H. The Future of Animal-to-Human Organ Transplants. 2015. https://www.smithsonianmag.com/innovation/future-animal-to-human-organ-transplants-180956402/. Accessed November 12, 2018. 2. Phelps CJ, Koike C, Vaught TD, et al. Production of alpha 1,3-galactosyltransferase-deficient pigs. Science (New York, NY). 2003;299(5605):411-414. 3. Van der Windt DJ, Bottino R, Casu A, et al. Long-term controlled normoglycemia in diabetic non-human primates after transplantation with hCD46 transgenic porcine islets. American journal of transplantation : official journal of the American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons. 2009;9(12):2716-2726. 4. Roth M. Can pig pancreas help cure diabetes? 2009. http://old.post-gazette.com/pg/09338/1018307-114.stm#ixzz0mOsOvbzG. Accessed November 11, 2018. 5. Park S, Kim W-H, Choi S-Y, Kim Y-J. Removal of alpha-Gal epitopes from porcine aortic valve and pericardium using recombinant human alpha galactosidase A. Journal of Korean medical science. 2009;24(6):1126-1131. 6. Regalado A. Surgeons Smash Records with Pig-to-Primate Organ Transplants. 2015. https://www.technologyreview.com/s/540076/surgeons-smash-records-with-pig-to-primate-organ-transplants/. Accessed November 7, 2018. 7. Weintraub K. CRISPR May Speed Pig-to-Human Transplants. 2017. https://www.technologyreview.com/s/603857/crispr-may-speed-pig-to-human-transplants/. Accessed November 13, 2018. 8. Reardon S. New life for pig-to-human transplants. Nature News. 2015;527(7577):152. Development of Genetically Engineered Pig Organs
ACCT 001A Drexel University Nordic Data Grid Facility Case Study.

Hi there,Please answer each question with one page long answer. No outside sources can be used. Please see case attached below.Who are the major stakeholders associated with Nordic Data Grid Facility (NDGF) and UniNETT? What critical resources are stored within the system and what concerns might stakeholders have regarding the resources?How did employees, information security (infosec) processes, and infosec tools inadvertently help the attacker succeed in breaking into Titan?What should Margrete Raaum do now? Would you suggest that Titan is ready to be turned on for local access? Is it ready to be reconnected to the computational grid?
ACCT 001A Drexel University Nordic Data Grid Facility Case Study

Write an essay that performs a close reading of one poem or compares and contrasts two poems. Support your explication using logical reasoning and relevant quotations from the poem you have chosen.

Write an essay that performs a close reading of one poem or compares and contrasts two poems. Support your explication using logical reasoning and relevant quotations from the poem you have chosen.. Can you help me understand this English question?

1. Do NOT use outside sources for this essay. Your analysis should be entirely in your own words based on your interpretation of the poem and class discussion.
2. Your essay MUST conform to MLA format:
a. Poetry quotations MUST follow MLA short or long quotation format as appropriate.
b. Include an MLA-formatted Works Cited page listing the poem(s) you analyze in your essay.
3. Include a copy of the poem on a new page following the Works Cited page (i.e. the last page of your essay.
4. Essay length: 4-5 pages (1000-1250 words, double spaced, 1” inch margins, 12 pt. Times New Roman font)
Write an essay that performs a close reading of one poem or compares and contrasts two poems. Support your explication using logical reasoning and relevant quotations from the poem you have chosen.

Becoming a Participant Observer (Gene Tierney)?

essay writer Becoming a Participant Observer (Gene Tierney)?.

I will upload files that has the instruction and the book that u need to do the homework. please follow the instruction You need to choose a place and write about it,and don’t forgot to include the location(map) for the place.Using the guidelines in chapter one of “Doing Cultural Anthropology” (Angrosino 2007), attend a public gathering and do a miniature ethnography. Any public location will do. Follow the instructions in “Doing Cultural Anthropology.” Look for the following things:Examples of cultural symbolsExamples of culture being learnedExamples of culture being sharedExamples of culture helping to adapt to the environmentOnce you have taken notes on your observation, submit them online in the appropriate location. Make sure you follow the Rubric!
Becoming a Participant Observer (Gene Tierney)?

Education homework help

Education homework help. This essay entails a paper on the writer Ann Helen Petersen’s on How Millennials Became the Burnout Generation. Ann Helen Petersen’s argues on the new and the old relationship between the people and how the behaviors have changed from the old genrations to new genaration.,Ann Helen Petersen’s How Millennials Became the Burnout Generation.,Firstly, using one of the questions below, write an essay at home responding to Ann Helen Petersen’s “How Millennials Became the Burnout Generation.” You will use ONE question to develop your own argument, making reference to the essay. Your essay will be well-developed and well-argued and will be between 1000 and 1250 words in MLA format. You may use personal experience and knowledge as well as the essay.,Also, Ann Helen Petersen suggests that Millennials (and younger generations) have been taught the art of self-optimization since childhood. Making reference to both Petersen’s and Rosin’s essays, comment on how both essays deal with children’s leisure and the urge to protect and “optimize” children’s lives. ,Do you agree with Rosin’s argument that there has been an “erosion of child culture”? Why or why not? Make sure to provide evidence in each paragraph.,Furthermore, in arguing against the criticism of Millennials—that “[they]’re lazy and entitled”—Petersen points to a number of structural economic and social reasons why younger generations are “burned out,” suggesting that people in many different circumstances experience burnout.,In conclusion, choose one (or several) of the definitions of burnout that Petersen relies on. Does burnout effect young people here in the Lower Mainland? Why or why not? Write an essay exploring why a young person working and going to school in Vancouver may experience the “burnout” that Petersen is talking about. Give clear examples and make sure to respond directly to Petersen.,Your essay should have:,Secondly, A clear, concise thesis that is arguable. A one-to-two line summary of the reading you have chosen. A fully developed introduction with a hook, a methodology (or blue print) and a thesis statement that argues (yes, I’ve said that twice).,Consecutively, several main points (one per paragraph) that are significant, relevant and distinct. At least three points/ three paragraphs and three instances of direct evidence (quotations) with in-text citations.,Thirdly, you may use personal knowledge, but do not introduce generalizations that you cannot back up. If you use information outside of these two essays, make sure to provide them on your works cited page. Please see links on Moodle.,Lastly, Petersen points out some examples of how modern life makes us more “efficient” and pushes us to “self-optimize. Often in the name of selfcare. You may wish to devote each body paragraph to a different product/ activity/ social media trend that fits into this idea. Feel free to provide images to accompany your essay.,Attachments,Click Here To Download,Education homework help

Saudi Electronic University International Business Saudi Arabian Airlines Essay

Saudi Electronic University International Business Saudi Arabian Airlines Essay.

The Assignment must be submitted on Blackboard (WORD format only) via allocated folder.Assignments submitted through email will not be accepted.Students are advised to make their work clear and well presented, marks may be reduced for poor presentation. This includes filling your information on the cover page.Students must mention question number clearly in their answer.Late submission will NOT be accepted.Avoid plagiarism, the work should be in your own words, copying from students or other resources without proper referencing will result in ZERO marks. No exceptions. All answered must be typed using Times New Roman (size 12, double-spaced) font. No pictures containing text will be accepted and will be considered plagiarism). Submissions without this cover page will NOT be accepted
Saudi Electronic University International Business Saudi Arabian Airlines Essay