Developement of an Anti-Fraud Program. I’m studying for my Accounting class and need an explanation.
2 part assignment essay and powerpoint
Option #1: Development of an Anti-Fraud Program
This Portfolio Project option has two parts: a written report and a PowerPoint presentation.
A typical organization loses a certain percentage of annual revenue to fraud. The potential for fraud occurs in all organizations, regardless of the industry in which it operates, financial structure, or size. Every organization is vulnerable to fraud. The risk of fraud should be reduced as much as possible to improve the longevity of the organization. Hence, preventing, deterring, and detecting fraud are crucial to the success of organizations. Deterring and preventing fraud can be more economical than detecting, investigating, and recovering from fraud after the fact. These anti-fraud measures must start at the top and must be communicated throughout the organization. They must go beyond internal controls yet consider the cost-benefit.
Develop an anti-fraud program, or model, that can be implemented in any organization. In other words, don’t apply the model to a specific organization. The model, if applied correctly, must be efficient in preventing, detecting and deterring fraud. At minimum, your model must address the following factors:
Fraud risk assessment
Employees’ Code of Conduct
Policies and procedures to prevent, deter, and detect fraud
Technical tools to prevent, deter, and detect fraud (i.e. SQL, ODBC, Digital Analysis, etc.)
Resources to consider:
AICPA. (n.d.). Managing the business risk of fraud: A practical guide. Retrieved from https://competency.aicpa.org/media_resources/209048-managing-the-business-risk-of-fraud-a-practical-gu/detail (Links to an external site.)
Protiviti. (n.d.) Evaluating your anti-fraud program. Retrieved from https://www.protiviti.com/US-en/insights/suggestions-evaluating-your-anti-fraud-program (Links to an external site.)
Part 1: Requirements for the paper:
Demonstrate your comprehension of the course material.
Use professional business language.
10-12 pages in length (double-spaced), not including the cover and reference pages. Supporting documents (i.e. charts, graphics, etc.) should be included as addendums to your report and not in the body of the report.
Formatted according to the CSU-Global Guide to Writing and APA. (Links to an external site.)
Include a minimum of six credible, academic or professional references from the CSU-Global Library (Links to an external site.), in addition to the textbook.
In addition to your written report, prepare a PowerPoint to present your Anti-Fraud Program to management.
Part 2: Requirements for the presentation:
6-8 slides, not including the cover and reference slides.
Demonstrate your comprehension of the course material.
Use professional business language.
Include slides that are professional in appearance and not too wordy.
Include voiceover that is clear and have minimal background noise (If you do not use the Voiceover feature, you must provide detailed notes in the “Notes” area to support the information presented on your slides).
Citations and references should be formatted according to the CSU-Global Guide to Writing and APA. (Links to an external site.)
Requirements for the final deliverables:
Submit 2 files:
Developement of an Anti-Fraud Program
Beta-alanine is an amino acid of the beta class and it has grown popularity in the exercise and sports world because of some of the specific effects it has been said to have such as enhancing performance during cycling (1). For this literature review, the effect of beta-alanine on someone’s performance during endurance activities will be the primary focus. It has been said to produce this effect because it has the ability to increase muscular carnosine levels, which allows carnosine to continually perform it’s buffering effect on acid build-up in the muscles and inhibit the effects of fatigue (2). The activation of this process in relation to the claims made about beta-alanine regarding its effects on improving endurance performance in individuals will be focused on in this literature review. The first claim that will be discussed is the claim that is supposed to be how beta-alanine supplementation begins what is supposed to lead to it improving endurance performance. This claim that will be focused on is that beta-alanine supplementation leads to increased carnosine levels in the body (specifically the muscles). All the studies in this review refer to beta-alanine supplementation increasing carnosine levels in the body. For example, a study in 2014 stated that beta alanine leads to increased carnosine levels in males and females (3). In regards to endurance performance, a study performed in 2009 found that beta-alanine supplementation was effective in increasing power output in individuals while they were sprinting compared to the placebo group, resulting in better sprinting performance (1). Another study performed in 2015; however, stated that for performance beta-alanine supplementation does not produce significant effects, but in regards to exercise capacity it is effective (5). Regarding this claim, none of the articles seemed to have a specific time frame for when beta-alanine supplementation would lead to increased carnosine levels in the body. This is possibly because not enough research has been done on the topic to specify a time frame or that it isn’t fully understood when the effects of beta-alanine are supposed to kick in. The studies in the research articles also utilized various doses of beta-alanine and its effect of increasing carnosine levels in the muscle took effect for each of the varying doses that were used. For example, one study had its participants in an experimental group supplement 0.1 g/kg beta-alanine (4), while another study had its participants in an experimental group take an acute dose of 1.6 g of beta-alanine (3). This was likely the case because there isn’t an agreed upon amount for the minimum amount of beta-alanine that needs to be supplemented for this effect to begin. The other reason this is likely the case is because the amount varies depending on a multitude of factors such as age, gender, activity level, and body size. Lastly, the studies had different lengths, and this is another factor that could have affected how much beta-alanine an experiment group would have to supplement. After the beginning process of beta-alanine increasing muscular levels of carnosine in the muscles, these increased levels of carnosine are claimed to lead to it performing functions that can help with the performance of endurance activities. One of these claims is that beta-alanine supplementation can lead to reduced acidity in muscles. According to a meta-analysis done in 2011, fatigue can be caused by the buildup of hydrogen ions in the muscle because this buildup can impair important processes such as phosphorylcreatine resynthesis, glycolysis, and the contractile machinery of muscle (5). This same meta-analysis done in 2011 also states that carnosine is one of the physicochemical buffers in the body that provide defense against local changes in pH (5). There were other research articles that are a part of this review that mention the buffering activity of carnosine within the body so this claim that beta-alanine supplementation can lead to reduced acidity in the muscles is supported by the research. Lactate production in the body can occur due to decreased levels of oxygen and this buildup of lactate decreases the pH within the body as stated above, resulting in multiple consequences to metabolism within the body. According to a study performed in 2011, the experiment group that supplemented beta-alanine compared to the control group for an incremental test performed on a treadmill demonstrated better performance (6). In opposition to this support for beta-alanine improving endurance performance, a study performed in 2015 stated that beta-alanine supplementation is not effective for activities lasting less than sixty seconds (7). The research articles in this review don’t explain the amount of carnosine needed within the body for the buffering capabilities of carnosine to be effective. This in turn means there isn’t information on how much beta-alanine you should take for carnosine in the body to be plentiful enough to perform it’s buffering function optimally while exercising. This is possibly the case because the amount of carnosine needed by someone depends on factors such as age, genes, activity level, and gender. Another reason for this information not being available is because more research is needed on the topic of the optimal amount of carnosine needed in the body for optimal buffering activity to occur in its presence. The next claim that will be focused on is beta-alanine reducing the overall effects of fatigue. In a study performed in 2017, it was mentioned that the supplementation of beta-alanine increasing the carnosine amount in fast and slow twitch fibers leads to the buffering capabilities of muscle being improved and fatigue being delayed (8). Slow and fast twitch fibers can be utilized for a variety of endurance activities ranging from lower intensity exercises like walking to higher intensity exercises like running. This type of info coming from a research article signifies the support for the claim made about beta-alanine reducing the effects of fatigue. In this same study performed in 2017, it was mentioned that the group that used beta-alanine supplementation for the experiment demonstrated increased training effects for the RAST (running based anaerobic test) and twenty-minute multistage shuttle run test compared to the control group (8). High intensity activities like sprinting can cause someone to fatigue rapidly based on the increased needs for energy as exercise intensity goes up. Since fatigue is a factor that will hinder performance in endurance activities like sprinting, anything that can function in reducing this effect will be desirable by people performing these activities. This study provided a practical example of the reducing fatigue effects claimed of beta-alanine being put to the test. In a study done in 2014, it was stated that beta-alanine supplementation did not produce an ergogenic effect in relation to the effects low oxygen can have on someone during a workout (9). This provides a practical example that goes against what many articles in this review state about beta-alanine being effective in reducing the effects of fatigue. The condition of this study; however, was in low oxygen conditions so that may have been the determining factor in beta-alanine not being effective for the endurance performance of the subjects in the study. On the other end, it does provide a counter to the claim that beta-alanine reduces the effects of fatigue, so it is notable information that must be accounted for in this review. The next claim that will be discussed in relation to beta-alanine improving endurance performance is that beta-alanine supplementation enhances high intensity workout capacity. Multiple endurance activities require someone to increase their intensity to a high level and these types of activities can lead to exhaustion and fatigue very quickly. In a study performed in 2015, it was stated that beta-alanine supplementation has led to increased workout capacity in a variety of endurance type activities such as cycling and running (7). As stated earlier in this view by various studies, beta-alanine can lead to increased carnosine levels in the muscles and this carnosine has buffering activity which is used to counteract the effects of acid build up. High intensity workouts can trigger the buildup of acid in muscles rapidly and the buildup of carnosine to counteract this effect is essential for someone working who is trying to improve their high intensity workout capacity. This same study performed in 2015 stated that beta-alanine supplementation had effects that were beneficial for quick workouts lasting a minute to four minutes in length (7). Many high intensity activities have a short duration for time and people will be looking for ways to have better workout capacity when working at this type of intensity. There are high intensity activities that can have longer durations like a basketball competition, but the types of movements that are performed during some activities like these require a short burst of action. In a study performed in 2009, it was mentioned that beta-alanine supplementation produced longer times to exhaustion in experimental group compared to the placebo group, but the time differences were not significant (1). In regards to endurance performance, time to exhaustion is an important factor in relation to high intensity workout capacity, so this finding from the study provides information that goes against beta-alanine supplementation being effective for improving endurance performance. More research will need to be done to cover all the different factors of high intensity exercises that need to be accounted for and beta-alanine supplementations relation to them. Side effects are a topic of concern for any supplement and they should be discussed in regards to reviewing any potential supplement that could be intook. The magazine articles that were reviewed all had no mention of a side effect other than a pins and needles feeling known as paresthesia. These same magazine articles also stated that there were not any significant side effects that were associated with beta-alanine supplementation. The research studies support the claim that so far there are no other notable side effects associated with beta-alanine supplementation other than paresthesia. According to a meta-analysis performed in 2015, multiple studies have reported that beta-alanine supplementation (typically at higher doses) has been associated with someone having paresthesia and that supplementation has not affected clinical markers of health (5). From what has been studied up to this point, beta-alanine supplementation could be “safe” but further research is still necessary on this topic to see what new side effects may arise from supplementation of beta-alanine. The effects of beta-alanine supplementation on endurance in regards to an individual being trained or untrained is another important topic to discuss. The magazine articles did not bring up the effects of beta-alanine supplementation in regards to this topic, but the research studies in this review produced results based on subjects being trained or untrained. The results produced by the studies in regards to beta-alanine supplementation and its effects on improving endurance performance were mixed in relation to the subjects being untrained or trained. Athletes (whether recreational or elite) will likely be the population that is most interested in the effects beta-alanine can have on endurance performance, but if it can benefit those who are not trained then it can serve as something untrained individuals could utilize as they increase their training level. One specific example in regards to the effects of beta-alanine supplementation on trained versus untrained people was demonstrated by a study performed in 2014 that stated that the buildup of carnosine in the gastrocnemius muscle was greater for trained athletes vs untrained athletes (10). For trained athletes beta-alanine supplementation may produce more pronounced effects in comparison to untrained individuals for endurance performance, but overall both groups will have mixed results based on how well beta-alanine will be able to improve endurance performance. Finally, the topic of cost will be reviewed. Based on price ranges presented by the amazon company website, beta-alanine prices range from about ten to thirty dollars in price. The cost of the product is an important topic to consider because if people are going to put their money into purchasing a supplement for its claimed effects, they’d want it to work for them. Beta-alanine supplements aren’t too costly overall, but for performance effects that aren’t conclusive, the price they are ranged at may not be worth it for an individual. The next discussion will begin with the weaknesses that the magazine articles demonstrated. One of these glaring weaknesses is the lack or absence of supporting articles for the information that was stated in these articles. It’s difficult for any body of information to exhibit credibility when there isn’t any peer-reviewed article evidence supporting it. Without this support from scientific evidence, the information isn’t any more credible than most things you find while looking up information on google. One of the magazine articles did have one scientific article that was used as a reference, but that isn’t nearly enough for information to be taken seriously among professionals in a specific field. This type of information may be seen as legitimate and credible by many people, and this kind of misinformation is detrimental to a population’s knowledge about a subject. Another weakness that was demonstrated by the magazine articles was the credibility of the authors. In the article “Why Beta-Alanine works”, the author is a sports nutritionist. Anybody can claim to be a “nutritionist”, and this is an issue that can lead to people being misinformed about nutrition topics. These people who classify themselves as “sports nutritionists” do not possess the necessary credentials or knowledge/experience to talk about supplements that a registered dietitian has. Unfortunately, this person is giving out info on an active ingredient in a supplement that could have adverse effects on someone depending on factors like what medications they are taking. This self-proclaimed sports nutritionist could be endangering readers of the information they are putting into articles. The article “New Info on Beta-Alanine” has an author that is classified as a “top researcher”. This classification doesn’t inform people what makes this person a top researcher and it doesn’t tell what credentials they possess. It is contradictory for anyone to be stated to be a “top” anything without some credential showcasing that. As stated about the other article’s author, this can be dangerous because readers will assume this person’s information is true just because of some key words that signal to them that someone is credible like “scientist” or “researcher”. The title “top researcher” looks appealing to readers, but it can mislead them about the legitimacy of that person in relation to the information they are talking about. Also, anyone can claim to be “top” in regards to any subject, but whether that is backed up properly is a whole different matter in itself. The article “Supplement Guide: Beta-Alanine” does not have any author listed so the credibility of that person cannot be evaluated. This is an issue though because no one can know the background on the person who put the information up for this article. A credible author for the subject would likely present themselves in that manner by having their name and credentials stated somewhere in an article. Two of the articles “Supplement Guide: Beta-Alanine” and “Why Beta-Alanine Works” provided a dosage recommendation for beta-alanine supplementation and this is a weakness that must be addressed. The recommended dosage for supplementing different ingredients is not regulated (at least not heavily) by regulatory authorities and this is a big safety concern. Someone can take this information as being a definite truth and it can lead to adverse consequences for them. This dosage recommendation ties in with the credibility of the authors in these magazine articles and further demonstrates the weakness of the articles. Moving on to the discussion of the strengths of the magazine articles, one of the articles did not present a dosage recommendation for beta-alanine supplementation. There is plenty of research that must be done on the safe amounts of intake for a supplement and recommendations can’t be given loosely when that can lead to someone harming their health in a major way. This article not putting dosage recommendations is the safe side of the topic to take until more research is performed. None of the articles explicitly state that the claims made about beta-alanine are definitive truths. This shows that those who wrote these articles at least acknowledge that what they are supporting isn’t completely the truth and that more research is necessary to better back up the claims. Some of the supporting articles are not even referenced and one of the articles only referenced a single study, but many lay information articles don’t even do that much so that is a strength of the magazine articles. The next topic that will be discussed is the weaknesses of the research articles. To start, the studies in the research articles contained small sample sizes across the board. The highest amount of people in a study didn’t even surpass the sixties for the amount of people and most were in the ten to twenty range for participants. This is a concern because small sample sizes for studies don’t represent the varying populations in the world effectively. Even if multiple studies show similar results for what is being experimented on, the small sample sizes will always have people questioning the size of the study in relation to the results that are discovered for an experiment. Some of the studies had only male or female participants. Males and females have distinct physiological differences and it’s hard to show how effective a supplement is if one sex group has no representation in a study. Aside from representation, people will have issues relating to the information in a study if they are a male or female and no one of that group is within in a study. Some of the studies only focused on a specific age group like young males or older citizens. Even if some studies have the aim of focusing on a specific age group, it doesn’t change that these studies are not properly representing the other age groups that are not included. Across the life cycle, there are many physiological changes that occur and many physiological differences between different age groups. For example, older citizens who age from the age of fifty and up don’t absorb nutrients as well as those who are younger than them. This is just one way in which the effects of a supplement would differ in one age group compared to another. These age group differences are very important to consider for someone who wants to start utilizing a supplement and it’s beneficial to the credibility of a study if as many age groups as possible are represented in it. The articles in the study did use a variety of methods that involved testing the effects of beta-alanine supplementation on endurance performance; however, the research articles in this review did not have a test on the supplements effect for a longer duration endurance activity. The energy and performance requirements for longer duration activities are vastly different, so it would better support the claims about beta-alanine supplementation improving endurance performance with this topic researched and covered. The type of tests that were used included activities such as a quick spring and running on a treadmill. With this being the case, more research will need to be developed on activities such as marathon or cross-country events. The research studies in this review did not measure the blood levels of beta-alanine for individuals. This type of information would be beneficial to see how increasing beta-alanine levels in the body through supplementation can lead to the increase of carnosine in the body and use this value to compare the effects of beta-alanine supplementation for the experiment group in comparison to the group that is receiving a placebo. As mentioned earlier in this review, the research articles did not have any dosage that could be recommended for people to intake. The dosage amounts were all over the place and the results produced by each article were likely skewed by the differing dose amounts. Combining the various dose amounts with the effects of supplementation that is acute over done for a longer duration of time before the study activity was performed, it makes the results less uniform because there isn’t a range specified for how much should be taken to produce ergogenic effects. The next topic to be discussed will be the strengths of the research articles. The research articles all contained studies that utilized a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. This is beneficial because using double blind studies can prevent bias from researchers since they’d know who would be in what group for an experiment. A double-blind study can also prevent participants from demonstrating the effects they expect from the group that they are placed in. A double-blind study preventing these things is a way to increase the legitimacy of a study and to prevent these factors from skewing the results of an experiment. Continuing with the topic of study design, the studies in the research articles also did an effective job of controlling for factors that could skew the results in unwanted ways. The studies in these articles would make sure that before being tested to see the results that beta-alanine would have on endurance performance that factors such as time since last meal, environment for testing, and time since the last workout for an individual were properly accounted for so these factors wouldn’t impact the results that were produced. In doing this, these studies are addressing and preventing these variables from leading to results that wouldn’t be produced otherwise. Following these strengths, the next topic to be discussed is that some articles used multiple tests to demonstrate the effects of beta-alanine supplementation. No matter what is being experimented and studied, more tests means there are more ways to evaluate something and this is very essential for when testing the effects of something. One exercise test for seeing how beta-alanine affects endurance performance doesn’t show that the supplement can work under various conditions. A study utilizing more than one test to see the effects of something allows for the study to demonstrate what tests produced results supporting or not supporting the suggested effects. One article, “Beta-alanine (CarnosynTM) supplementation in elderly subjects (60–80 years): effects on muscle carnosine content and physical capacity”, had a study with an extensive length of eight months. Longer term studies like these allow for results to be gained for a longer period to see if the results remain consistent as time goes on. Most studies are not able to examine the long-term effects an item has on a person so the more months an experiment can run, the more results can be produced. This increases the credibility of a study as well and allows for stronger correlations to be made utilizing the results that were produced. Finally, some of the studies in the articles had variety in the ages represented. As mentioned earlier, there are many different aspects about people physiologically based on what age group they fall into. The more age groups that are present in a study, the more representative a study is of different populations of people. The claims made for beta-alanine supplementation for its physiological effects on individuals have support behind them in regards to the research articles in this review. The performance effects of beta-alanine; however, have produced mixed results. In some different exercise tests, beta-alanine was shown to be effective in improving endurance performance for an activity but in other cases it does not produce a performance effect based on the articles in this review. This suggests that on a case by case basis, beta-alanine can be effective in improving endurance performance, but there isn’t a majority of evidence from the articles in this review backing this claim. There also is a lack in research on beta-alanine in relation to endurance events that are longer durations. This is the type of information that would be beneficial in showcasing if beta-alanine supplementation is effective for improving endurance performance. So in conclusion, beta-alanine will need more research in regards to its effects on the improvement of endurance performance and should be taken with caution in regards to this. Beta-alanine can also be obtained from food products in amounts that are significant, so the supplementation of beta-alanine is not necessary for improving beta-alanine amounts in the body that can be used for the synthesis of carnosine. References Jagim, A. R., Wright, G. A., Brice, A. G.,
Culture is human during the historical development of human society have created the material wealth and the intangible wealth, it is also the historical accumulation. Simultaneously, it is a character with the different regions, different countries and different nation. The historical development created different cultures that it is mutual influence and permeate. But different countries and peoples of culture is still maintained their unique personality. Culture reflected in every aspects of human life, such as humans produce the material products, humans and other individuals or groups of relationships, including the social legal system, economic system, marriage system, family system, human’s behavior and so on. Culture is also reflected in ideology, through religion, philosophy, morality and art to express. It includes different nation of value, mode of thinking and sense of art. Nowadays, the world economy regionalization and integration trend is increasing, the different countries are in contact with economic exchanges and the cooperation has also developed rapidly. International businesses in the cooperation of members are often having different culture; therefore these different members have different cultural differences. The cultural differences influence the whole system and the whole process with cooperation. It not only has adverse effects but also have positive and beneficial effects. KEY WORD: culture, cultural differences, international business 2. The culture’s characteristic and concept 2.1 The concept of the culture Culture is the collection of values, beliefs, types of behavior, customs and attitudes that distinguish a society. Culture is a group in a certain period form of thoughts, concepts, behavior, customs, and habits. Cultural was born by human survival and development which was faced by all kinds of challenge, such as flood, beast of prey, and earthquake and so on. Traditionally human often had said a people whether have culture that is stand for the people’s education level. Culture is reflecting the human life activities and historical accumulation, it is also the lives of the people needs and requirements, the ideal and desire, and it is people’s senior spiritual life. Culture include material culture and intangible culture heritage, it is unique phenomenon of human society. Such as village, city, factory, railway, dress and personal adornment and so on, they are belongs to the material culture’s form; on the other hand human living in the long term social life that it is a form of psychological sense, manners and customs, emotion, knowledge and so on, they are belongs to the intangible culture heritage. Culture is reflected in every aspects of human life, such as humans produce the material products, humans and other individuals or groups of relationships, including the social legal system, economic system, marriage system, family system, human’s behavior and so on. 2.2 The characteristic of the culture Culture contains a certain thoughts and theory that it is people face to ethics, moral and cognitive behavior. It is people a way of the daily life methods and standards. Thought and theory is culture of core and soul. If culture don’t have thought and theory, in this way the culture is inexistence in our daily life. The every culture contains a kind of thought and theory; therefore it is also have the survival of the manner and method. In other words culture is a social phenomenon; it is the product of long-term that is created by people. Culture is a country or nation’s history, geography, customs and traditions, lifestyle, literature and art, behavior standards, way of thinking and values and so on. Culture includes two different characteristic, the one is national characters, and the other one is epochal character. The cultural national character means that cultural production and development is inseparable from the particular geographical environment, economic conditions and social structure. Different countries and peoples produce and develop different social environment and culture. In this way different counties will appear different characteristic of cultural differences. The cultural epochal character is reflects the spirit of the times, it also contain the contents of the era of aesthetic requirements and aesthetic standard. The cultural national character and cultural epochal character created cultural differences. It is provide a theoretical basis of culture and international business. 3. The cultural differences The culture have has cultural differences that is a very important things to influence culture change, about other factors that it is not importance to culture change. Following the world economy structure changes and the world economic globalization, the international business is continuously expanding and deepening. Development of international business and cultural differences affect more obvious. The world trade cultural differences have affected the international business activities. (1)The language of differences. Language is tools that express ideas and exchange thoughts; it is a special and universal social phenomenon. Language is the core of the culture. Each language has special cultural connotation. In the economic globalization develop international trade activities the different language of communication conversion is indispensable. But the cultural differences of existence influence different language exchange, therefore the language differences affecting international business contacts. (2)The religious of differences. Religion is a kind of social phenomenon and social behavior; it includes the guiding ideology, organization, action, cultural aspects of content. It is a universal phenomenon, extending as far back in history as we can trace human activity and showed among people in every part of the world. It is an important social behavior that training and strengthens human’s social activity. Accordingly, the ideology of religion is also effect the international business operation. The world different countries have different regions, different nationalities and different religious beliefs. The world’s major religions have Judaism, Christianity, Hinduism, Islam, Buddhism, Confucianism and Taoism. Therefore, in international communication should be paid attention to in the different religious beliefs. (3)Social custom of differences. Social habits is long period gradually nurturance, it is don’t easy to change the behavior and tendencies. It not only will affect consumers’ consumption values, but also affects the people’s work and thinking mode. The international business unceasing develops that make multinational companies and rapid development. Famous multinational companies must have been a goal in their cultural understanding of the company and pays attention to cultural differences. For example; The Hilton Hotel is world famous hotel, it emphasize social habits difference is one of the reasons to achieve success. Hilton emphasize each hotel must have personality, according to their respective regions or countries to the needs of the market and have individual character of decoration and service. Moreover, encouraging chef use local materials made with local flavor food. (4) The political philosophy of the differences. Politics is the advanced field of powers in subject to maintain our own interests of specific behavior. It is an important social phenomenon that it was produced by human history to certain period. Political has significant impact on all aspects of society. International business is in different countries and regions development, it was necessary to influence and effect of political philosophy. In international business, because every country has different conditions, therefore the political factor is different from the commodity packaging material, structure, design and texts marking have different requirements. For example; Arab state regulations import commodity packaging don’t use six-angle star patterns, because the six-angle star and pattern is similar with Israeli flag. Therefore, recognize that political differences, understand relevant historical and cultural background that is better promote foreign trade export. (5) The social structure of the differences. Social structure is a social system of the basic elements of the organizational relationship. Social structures include social stratification, along with the class rating and human’s level. Social structure greatly affecting international business operation and multinational company target market positioning. (6) The differences in education. As a branch of culture education, through the change of a country’s comparative advantage or marketing way affect different countries and the area of trades. If the national education level and the quality-oriented education with low levels, the comparative advantage more tilt to labor-intensive. But if a country seriously receive education and the education level is higher, therefore the countries advanced technology, innovation ability, and the comparative advantage mainly for technology-intensive or capital-intensive industries. Similarly, education is also affecting marketing way. About the companies implement sales strategies, they employee education training for the development of the company has the important influence. The world famous multinational companies more pay attention to staff’s education training, such as Wal-mart, GE, and IBM. What’s more these companies establish specialized schools which cultivate own management personnel. On the other hand, the marketing strategy recipients namely customer, the different education level of customer demand is different, so its development international business activities should be formulated different marketing strategy. 4. The impact of culture to international business Culture is a kind of the invisible power, business personnel must learn the cultural differences as cooperation advantages tries to use. Every enterprise should process Cultural differences to use correct ways. In this way it can enhance the vitality and competitiveness with collaborators, what’s more it become the business cooperation development of the power. The culture has different impact to international business; the enterprise should make use of beneficial effect and avoid the adverse effect. 4. The impact of culture to international business 4.1 The beneficial effect (1) Help to improve the decision-making more scientific. Every culture has itself particular problem of understanding and the solving methods, Cultural differences make collaborators in decision-making through members of the ongoing debate and extensive communication that from many different factors and levels of understanding, analysis, and to grasp a certain question more comprehensive and profound. It can produce more alternatives scheme and consist of network decision-making. Through repeated analysis, comparison and selection learn the new ideas to the formation. Not only guarantee the decision-making scientific and feasible, but also prevent and avoid by personal bias or understanding the deviation and make the mistake of judgment. It can avoid your partner unnecessary management risks and losses. At the same time, members of decision-making the broad participation on the formed decision-making plan were agreed on understanding and the understanding that can improve the execution of the decision-making level. (2)It can improve competitiveness of the collaborators. Cultural differences make cooperation have to face to a series of challenges, but it also brings some opportunities and advantage. On the one hand, the international partners aware of different countries have different national culture. They understand that management culture differences to adapt the cooperator’s survival and development of significance. Therefore, they should learn In-depth understanding of international market demand and discern the foreign social, cultural, political and economic environment, and they clearly understood another culture the demand and expectations. Make a plan according to local customers with the characteristics of the nationalities market strategy, then developed by the cultural characteristics of products and services, moreover effectively occupy the local market target, and improve the local market competitiveness. On the other hand, different employees can communicate with other countries employees using the common communication channels that learn from each other and think out some new viewpoint. In this way, they improve the ability to solve problems, and enhance the innovative consciousness. However, this is a business personnel’s foundation in the constant development of market competition in remain invincible. (3)It can promote all kind of cultural exchange fusion The culture itself is dynamic and growing, it is not standing still. Cultural differences and fusion is culture in the process of the development of two contradictory aspects, they not only are opposite, but also are uniform. They are human culture development and advancement of source and direct motivation. The cultural differences often reject two different cultures to get together, but the absolute exclusion is impossible. Moreover, cultural fusion is not fully realized too. Cultural conflict and cultural exchanges fusion is always in order appeared. They occur during the development process. International business cooperation not only expresses the opposed point of view and it means different cultures fusion in the cultural differences. In daily life every enterprise in interactions and working process, gradually is aware of each cooperative partner’s culture, and through the cultural differences to communicate and study, in addition accept each other culture. Furthermore, in a certain extent promoted different countries and different nationalities of cultural exchanges for social development made significant contribution. 4.2Adverse effects of the culture differences (1)The language differences and behavioral differences may cause information understand error. The average person can understand the speaker of the content 80%-90% at the same cultural background. This fact means about 10%-20% information misunderstood or listen to the wrong. As you can imagine when a person speaking second language, misunderstanding or listen to wrong percentage will be increase sharply. When the second language ability is limited and even whole session may all be misinterpreted. When foreign cooperators send out the different of nonverbal signals with different cultural background partners easily misunderstood these signals, moreover it also not is realized that the mistake had been occurs. (2)Nonverbal communication skills differences may produce the asymmetry of information. Sometimes in order to gather information from cooperative rivals, enterprise often adopt “one-way type” cooperative strategy that let competitor to provide information. Because the different cultures result in objectively influence communication skills, such as silent time, differences between chime in frequency and stare at time difference. Especially, when these differences are relatively obvious and the information asymmetry is naturally produced. Such as, between French and Japan cultural comparison, people can discover not hard, the Japanese at gaze and cut in is low frequency in communication skills, when they were stay longer in silent environment. While the French seems unwilling keep silent, when other people keep silent time period. (3)The values differences may cause information feedback speed and content of asymmetry. Different cultures have different time utilization ways: single time utilization ways or more time utilization ways. The single time mainly emphasize “time” and “speed”. While much time utilization mainly emphasize “multi-purpose make use of time”. Values are a pattern constituted by a person or group through cultural communication. They are the deepest of culture; people believe that all people have values. The values will determine people have what kind of beliefs and attitudes. Any language culture will reflects certain values. The values determine how people communication. No matter what language communication or non-verbal communication is controlled by values. In communication people’s language and behavior is culture surface phenomenon that is a particular cultural value. In other words, values led to cultural differences that influence background of communicative language and behavior of the differences. For example; America is individualism as the center, they think people first individual and secondly is group, therefore the individual value above the group value. This kind of values for business staff has strong personal struggle consciousness and competitive consciousness. However China is “collectivism” as the center of the country, it advocate group value is more than the individual value, the individual is regarded as one of the group. It point of view is emphasize individual of social responsibility and duty, it also emphasize the collective strength and personal constraint. 5. The suggest to deal with the international business cultural difference Cultural differences in the one aspect can play a positive role, also can cause negative consequences. But it need a certain condition to play positive role, namely cooperators can with scientific attitude to cultural differences, and use correct scientific methods dealing with cultural differences. In international business cooperation every partners have to face of cultural differences, therefore every enterprise neither blindly avoid nor suppress cultural differences. The partners should take the right attitude to face the influence of the cultural differences. Enterprise should adopt corresponding countermeasures. In order to enterprise establish shared goals that enterprise need to improve the partner’s performance and service with cultural differences. Now, below are a few suggestions to deal with the international business cultural difference. Firstly, foster intercultural consciousness. Cross-cultural awareness reflects to business personnel for the cultural differences understanding and appropriate response of a kind of business awareness. In other words, it reflects international trader’s native culture values standards of behavior that had already cannot satisfy the needs of the development of the multinational company. International business operation of each link, such as international marketing, human resources management, incentive mechanism and so on all needs the higher cross-cultural awareness. Therefore, the international business personnel must learn basic cross-cultural consciousness. Secondly, understand intercultural business skills. Intercultural business contacts should possess the culture and organizational competence, adapting ability, establishing relations capacity, systems and thinking ability, attitude, sensitivity, language, and culture under the influence of the decision-making ability, diplomatic abilities and intercultural skills. Therefore, on-the-job personnel should strengthen relevant ability training; on-the-job personnel who had accepted higher education business talents, it should strengthen cross-culture business contacts consciousness cultivation, what’s more, the school should provide relevant courses and practice opportunities. Thirdly, in the strategy formulation should pay attention to the cultural integration. A transnational company which should make transnational investment management, it often needs to learn three kinds of culture: country’s culture, target market’s culture, and organizational culture. Therefore, transnational company focuses on the cultural integration. In this way, enterprise can adapt to market’s development, and then expand market. Fourth, Strengthen cultural exchanges and exhibition. Multi-layers and many forms of cultural exchange and exhibition is an effective way that understanding cultural differences. It is not only beneficial to cultural exchanges between countries and regions, also has promoted economy and trade cooperation. Finally, pay attention to cultural changes in international business. Every culture is not stagnant water, along with time change, culture is constantly development, and changes. Therefore, the international traders must timely change business strategy, in order to adapt to the new features of cultural change. Nowadays, more and more multinational company with the development of the world economy, globalization of trade has become an irreversible trend that means the enterprise need more cross-cultural management. However the cultural difference has affected the international business activities. Especially in ideology, is embodied in the cultural elements of all levels. In order to further promote the free trade development, and promoting trade environment legalization and standardization. Therefore, we should carry on the international cultural exhibition and pay attention to the local cultures, in various ways of culture training, foster intercultural management personnel. 6. Conclusion Every culture all have own value system, and only respect and in-depth research different culture, in this way, it can better development international trade market. With the development of international business, the cultural differences influence trade more obvious than other factors. It is reflected in language, religion, social habits, political philosophy and social structure, cultural education. Therefore, every enterprise must foster intercultural consciousness, strengthen cross-culture business communication ability, cultural exchanges and trade show. What’s more, enterprise should pay attention to culture fusion and promote the development of world trade. Culture is connected closely with the international business. With the development of social economy, the basic material needs to satisfy the different companies. Every transnational corporation begins to pay more attention to culture and spiritual and psychological need. Moreover, no matter what trade in goods or service trade, every enterprise will increase more cultural factors. In this way, in the current international business, how to play a unique indigenous culture are particularly important.
Please read the book, this is a high school assignment, instructions ( Discuss the role of setting and how it contributes to the development of a character within the novel.) This is an essay don’t put big words a high school student won’t use, no plagiarism please the teacher will be checking plagiarism from a app my school uses.Please read the rubric That I will upload to files that rubric is how I’m going to be graded. I need this assignment by Sunday 10:00am or 11:00am. Please only reply if you are willing to follow instructions I’ve had bad experience with others homework helpers. I won’t released payment until I see that instructions were followed.
Bainbridge Ethics Essay – Leadership centric paper on an emerging ethical dilemma or issue within the US Army
Bainbridge Ethics Essay – Leadership centric paper on an emerging ethical dilemma or issue within the US Army. Help me study for my Social Science class. I’m stuck and don’t understand.
Bainbridge Ethics Essay – Leadership centric paper on an emerging ethical dilemma or issue within the US Army. Ethical dilemma for this paper is military leadership’s abuse of power or abuse of authority and the effect is has on the military. Discuss the three (3) ethical lenses (rules, outcomes, and virtues). Expand on understanding as it relates to today’s world and its impact on the Army Profession. Use President Trump’s abuse of power as an example. Discuss the Root Cause, how it Impacts (Effects/Affects/Influences) the Army/force, and Recommendations (possible solutions). 5-7 page essay (not including the Title page and References page) using a minimum of four (4) scholarly sources, and a minimum of four (4) Level One headings (including Conclusion). Bainbridge Ethics Essay – Leadership centric paper on an emerging ethical dilemma or issue within the US Army
Discussion: Electrical Properties of the Neuron
help me with my homework Discussion: Electrical Properties of the Neuron. Need help with my Psychology question – I’m studying for my class.
The electrical signaling within each neuron is a complex process that is not just of theoretical interest. Knowing the electrical basis of brain functioning offers an understanding of disorders such as epilepsy, so that physicians can help people avoid or control the seizures associated with it. There is growing evidence that implanting electrodes in the brain can offer relief for movement and mental disorders. However, the power to manipulate the brain’s electrical signals raises ethical questions. Should society have the right to force someone to receive electrical stimulation in the brain? For example, would it be acceptable to implant an electrode in the brain of a person convicted of murder that prevents the person from being aggressive?
For this week’s Discussion, you examine the electrical properties of individual neurons and the ethical implications of electrical brain stimulation.
Note: For this Discussion, you are required to complete your initial post before you will be able to view and respond to your colleagues’ postings. Begin by clicking on the Post to Discussion Question link, and then select
Thread to complete your initial post. Remember, once you click on Submit, you cannot delete or edit your own posts—and cannot post anonymously. Please check your post carefully before clicking on Submit.
Review this week’s Learning Resources, focusing on the electrical signaling properties of a neuron and how neural signals are generated.
As you are reading, consider the ethical implications of electrical brain stimulation.
By Day 3
Post a description of the electrical properties of an individual neuron. Include the following in your description:
Excitatory and inhibitory post-synaptic potentials being received by the neuron
The role of the summation process in signaling
Ions and channels involved in generating and propagating the action potential
Ions and channels involved in triggering release of the neurotransmitter
Then, describe the potential ethical implications of mandating the implantation an electrode in the brain of a person convicted of murder that prevents the person from being aggressive, instead of sending him or her to prison.
Support your posting with specific references from literature in the Walden Library and Learning Resources. Zero plagiarizing, quote work, no.com’s
Discussion: Electrical Properties of the Neuron
DAC Job Opening for the Position of Windows Specialist Cover Letter
DAC Job Opening for the Position of Windows Specialist Cover Letter.
I’m working on a writing discussion question and need a reference to help me learn.
your purpose is to create a résumé that will get you an interview. Write a one-page chronological résumé or a one-page functional (skills) résumé tailored to the job listing you have chosen. For your résumé, include your skills/experience/education that relate to information from the chosen job listing, but do not simply repeat the words in that listing. Proofread and edit your résumé carefully, to achieve your purpose of obtaining an interview. << ETC Chapter 12 has examples of resumes.>>
DAC Job Opening for the Position of Windows Specialist Cover Letter
Harvard University Module 8 Respiratory Pathophysiology Homework
Harvard University Module 8 Respiratory Pathophysiology Homework.
Title of Assignment: Module 8: Respiratory pathophysiology Purpose of Assignment: This assignment will help the student evaluate of a respiratory disorder, which, if untreated, can be a serious condition. Students need to understand respiratory complications and how it can impact ventilation and respiration is important to the study for maintaining homeostasis in the body. Course Competency(s): Evaluate pathophysiologic alterations that affect the neurologic and respiratory systems. Content: J.S. is a 42-year-old man who lives in the Midwest and is highly allergic to dust and pollen and has a history of mild asthma. J.S’s wife drove him to the emergency room when his wheezing was unresponsive to his fluticasone/salmeterol (Advair) inhaler. J.S. was unable to lie down, and began to use accessory muscles to breathe. J.S. is immediately started on 4 L oxygen by nasal cannula and intravenous (IV) D5W at 75 mL/hr. A set of arterial blood gases is sent to the laboratory. J.S. appears anxious and says that he is short of breath. Vital signs BP = 152/84HR = 124 bpmRR = 42 Temp = 100.40F ABGs pH = 7.31PaCO2 = 48HCO3 = 26PaO2 = 55 Instructions: Investigate the pathophysiology of asthma and the clinical manifestations of the disease. Analyze the case study provided and determine what symptoms support the diagnosis of asthma. Identify the treatment provided in the emergency department and determine what additional therapies are needed to mitigate the asthma symptoms and return the client to wellness. Do you have any concerns with the numbers above?Identify what may be causing (etiology) J.S. to have an exacerbation of asthma. Prepare a 3-5 page paper outlining the causes of asthma, the symptoms that the client presents and the management of the disorder. Use two evidence-based articles from peer-reviewed journals or scholarly sources to support your findings. Be sure to cite your sources in-text and on a References page using APA format. Grading Rubric: Levels of Achievement Criteria Emerging Competence Proficiency Mastery Pathophysiology (15 pts) Did not include discussion on the pathophysiology the respiratory disorder. Failure to provide the pathophysiology will result in zero points for this criteria. Briefly identified the pathophysiology of the respiratory disorder. Clearly identified the pathophysiology of the respiratory disorder. Thoroughly identified the pathophysiology of the respiratory disorder. Points: 10 Points: 13 Points:14 Points: 15 Etiology (15 pts) Did not include discussion on the etiology of the respiratory disorder. Failure to provide the etiology will result in zero points for this criteria. Briefly discussed included etiology of the respiratory disorder. Clearly discussed etiology of the respiratory disorder. Thoroughly discussed etiology of the respiratory disorder. Points: 10 Points: 13 Points: 14 Points: 15 Clinical Manifestation (10 pts) Did not provide examples of the clinical manifestations of the respiratory disorder. Failure to provide clinical manifestations will result in zero points for this criteria. Briefly provided clinical manifestations of the respiratory disorder. Clearly provided clinical manifestations of the respiratory disorder. Thoroughly provided clinical manifestations of the respiratory disorder. Points: 6 Points: 8 Points:9 Points: 10 Treatment (5 pts) Did not present treatment for the respiratory disorder. Failure to provide treatment for hematologic disorder will result in zero points for this criteria. Briefly provided treatment options for the respiratory disorder. Clearly provided treatment options for the respiratory disorder. Thoroughly provided detailed treatment for the respiratory disorder. Points: 2 Points: 3 Points: 4 Points: 5 APA, Spelling and Grammar (5 pts) Six or more APA, spelling or grammar errors.Detracts from the readability of the submission. No more than five APA, spelling or grammar errors, minimally detracts from the readability of the submission. No more than three APA, spelling or grammar errors.Does not detract from the readability of the submission. No APA, spelling or grammar errors. Points: 2 Points: 3 Points: 4 Points: 5 Points:30 Points:40 Points:45 Points:50
Harvard University Module 8 Respiratory Pathophysiology Homework