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Determining Osmotic Potential Using Density Gradient

Determining Osmotic Potential Using Density Gradient. A cell, when exposed to an environment where the external water potential is less negative than the internal water potential, will loose water by osmosis down a concentration gradient. Conversely, when exposed to an environment where the internal water potential is less negative than the external water potential the cell will take in water from the surrounding solution. In the case of the former this has the effect of the cell loosing its ability to exert pressure on the cell wall and become flaccid. If water loss is consequential the cell will eventually plasmolyse. The point at which the cell is neither turgid nor flaccid and the net movement of water has reached dynamic equilibrium is known as insipient plasmolysis. It is at this point that the osmotic potential of the cell is equal to the osmotic potential of the surrounding solute. In a more concentrated solution, plasmolysis will continue, causing the protoplasm to pull away from the cell wall leaving a space which gradually fills with the external surrounding fluid. As the osmoticum enters the gap between the protoplasm and the cell wall, the cell density increases. Because the osmoticum of sucrose is denser than water, the plasmolysed cell is therefore denser than the non plasmolysed cell and will travel further and at a quicker rate through a density gradient. Aims To construct and utilise a density gradient to plot a graph from which the point of insipient plasmolysis can be ascertained, and hence the osmotic potential of a plant cell found. Method As script – A mean of two values was taken as time did not permit for the experiment to be run three times. A graph was then plotted of the mean distance travelled by each stem section against the molar concentration in which it had been equilibrated. The graph was then analysed to see at which point the gradient changed significantly and the point of insipient plasmolysis was found by interpolation thus giving the osmotic potential of the cell. Results Figure 1 shows the stems fell at a steady rate in a gradual decline until the 0.3m point where the graph dips sharply to the 0.2m point. Suggesting that the point of insipient plasmolysis is around 0.2m as the steep change in direction to the 03.m point implies that the cells have increased in density thus travelling further and more quickly. The readings at 0.1m do not fit the general trend of the graph suggesting that they are anomalies in the data. Discussion and Evaluation The change in the graph occurs because cell membranes in the tissue start to pull away from the cell walls, at the 0.2m concentration. At the 0.3m solution point, more water has left the cells by osmosis in an attempt to achieve equilibrium in the surrounding fluid, however in doing so the cells have become plasmolysed, allowing the sucrose solution to enter the space between the cell membrane and cell wall, therefore it is here the initial increase in density is seen as a sharp increase in the distance travelled by the stem sections. As the cells become further plasmolysed due to immersion in increasing extracellular concentrations, more sucrose solution enters the space in the cells causing them to become denser and hence the stem sections travel further. Insipient plasmolysis was shown to occur when the stems were equilibrated in 0.2 molar sucrose solution; hence because the solute potential of a solution is proportional to its molarity (Campbell Reece et al.) the osmotic potential of the solution was 0.2 moles. At the point of insipient plasmolysis the osmotic potential of the cell is equal to the osmotic potential of the surrounding fluid and therefore the osmotic potential of a plant cell is 0.2moles. The readings taken for the stem in the 0.1 molar solution show that the stem travelled quite some way, this should not have occurred as the cells should not have started to plasmolyse and they should in fact have been turgid at this point as the osmotic potential of the cell is 0.2m and as such has a less negative water potential than the surrounding fluid, encouraging uptake of water into the cell from the surrounding fluid. The stems were prepared in the group it may have been that the stems were not uniformly cut and possibly weighed heavier in the first instance. It would have been more prudent to run the experiment a few more times to gain a more accurate mean for the readings. However, the readings obtained are sufficient to produce a graph from which we can identify the point of insipient plasmolysis. Conclusion The Osmotic potential of plant cells is equal to that of insipient plasmolysis which is, 0.2moles References: Campbell, R., Reece, J., Urry, L., Cain, M., Wasserman, A., Minorsky, P., and Jackson, R. (2008) Biology, 8th edition, Pearson International: Benjamin Cummings Bibliography Bioskills Practical book Enzyme Hydrolysis of Glycogen by Alpha and Beta Amylase Introduction After a meal carbohydrates are stored in the liver as Glycogen. Glycogen is a branched polymer of glucose where glucose residues are linked by alpha 1-4 glycosidic bonds in linear chains and branched points are linked by alpha 1-6 glycosidic bonds. When required this Glycogen is released back into the bloodstream but first needs to broken down into smaller ‘usable’ disaccharides. Alpha amylases catalyse the hydrolysis of glycogen at the 1-4 linkages, producing Maltose and Maltotriose. Beta amylase also acts in the same manner, but only acts at the non reducing end of the polysaccharide as it is an exo-amylase. Once a branch is reached a limit dextrin is produced as hydrolysis stops. Glycogen digestion by enzymes can be ascertained by determining the amount of product produced during hydrolysis. The resulting product being a reducing sugar, which reduces yellow DNS dye to produce an orange red colour (3-amino-5 nitrosalicylic acid). The more reducing sugar produced, the darker and denser the colour produced during the reduction reaction. A spectrophotometer is used in order to measure the density of the resulting solution as density increases so does absorbance at 540nm. Aim To determine which if any of two enzymes, Alpha and Beta Amylase digests glygogen most efficiently. Method – As Script Maltose concentrations were converted into micromoles per ml and a calibration curve was constructed. A regression line was added and an equation for the line found which was used later in order to find concentrations for each enzyme after the assay had been run and absorbance’s found. These concentrations were then plotted on a separate graph and the graph analysed to ascertain which enzyme performed most efficiently. Results The results in Figure 3 show that alpha amylase yields the most product reaching over 2.5 micromoles over time but the graphs also show a similar curve suggesting that the reaction for both enzymes is progressing at a similar rate. Discussion If a gradient is taken for the initial activity for both enzymes it is found that they both produce 0.1 micromoles of product per ml per minute and hence the rate of reaction appears to be the same for both enzymes. However alpha amylase clearly produces more reducing sugar, due to its reaction within the glycogen compound and the initial rate must therefore be faster than that of Beta amylase which only reacts at the reducing ends of the polysaccharide and is also inhibited by its own product maltose. ( 11.4.10) This suggests that t0 is not t0, as suggested. During the experiment the alpha amylase gave absorbance readings at 540nm at over 1 as did the maltose during the making of the calibration curve, as the absorbance of radiation at a particular wavelength by a solution is ‘directly proportional to the concentration of the absorbing solute’ the readings over 1 are highly likely to be inaccurate as the linear relationship only applies up to a certain concentration, and above this concentration the relationship becomes non linear. As can be seen in figure 2 most of the absorbances for alpha amylase were over one and as such should be questioned as to their validity. On this basis the alpha amylase should have been diluted further to give absorbances of less than 1 and then this multiplied by the dilution factor to give the absorbance of the original solution. From the curves in Figure 3 it is very apparent that t0 is not t0 and the majority of the reactions in both cases took place almost instantaneously. To find t0 further experimentation should be carried out during the time the curve represents a zero order reaction. I.e. where the rate is constant with time. The substrate concentrations should be the variable factor with multiple readings taken, and the velocity measured for each one. This data should then be plotted and the two parameters which define enzyme kinetics, Km and V max found. This information can then be applied to the Lineweaver-Burke model and the point at which the line crosses the y axis is the point of 1/V0. This figure can then be differentiated to find t0. Conclusion It would appear the alpha amylase is the most efficient enzyme for digestion of glycogen. Determining Osmotic Potential Using Density Gradient
my question is on my requirements. I’m studying and need help with a Communications question to help me learn.

Take a look at US WWI propaganda posters (animated in this video or in a basic Google image search) and describe the themes you see emerge.In addition, explain how these meet our criteria for being propaganda, and conduct a brief analysis using the six questions we defined in Unit 4 (Oct 21 UPDATE: we didn’t get that far in class–they are listed below!)
Who/what is the source?
Who is the audience?
What is the purpose?
Who benefits?
What means are used?
Is critical thinking encouraged?
my question is on my requirements

Table of Contents Overview Demographic Information Relating to the Orthodox Jews Institutional Barriers Factors affecting Multicultural Competency Recommendations for Improving Counseling Reference Overview For the most part, the literature on cultural diversity tends to ignore the effects that religion has on psychotherapy and counseling. Judaism is an excellent example of a religion that ignores its effects on both psychotherapy and counseling. Orthodox Jews also serve as an excellent example of a minority group that fails to utilize the psychological health services offered by the majority culture. According to Schnall (2006), many barriers, both personal and institutional tend to prevent Orthodox Jews from receiving satisfactory psychological health services. The main reason that contributes to this situation is the fact that multiculturalism tends to exclude Jews, their issues and anti- Semitism. Such treatment is highly discouraging because it demonstrates a worrying trend of anti- Semitism. Besides, there lacks comprehensive scientific studies that examine psychotherapy relating to Orthodox Jews. This lack of concern is manifest in that most forms of literature, including books and academic journals, hardly ever cover Jews in their studies. Moreover, although there are clear signs that Orthodox Jews favor non-Orthodox therapists, the number of culturally competent counselors to handle this population adequately is small. However, it is still sensible for the Orthodox Jews to receive counseling services from non-Jewish or non-Orthodox counselors. Demographic Information Relating to the Orthodox Jews The term Orthodoxy has been in use for quite a long time. The first application of the term dates back to 1807 when Napoleon liberated the Jews from the slums. This term was applicable to the Jews who abided by the Jewish laws and customs. Orthodox Jews believe that God gave the Torah to the Israelites at Mount Sinai together with a number of exquisitely designed interpretations of its commands. When working with this population, mental health professionals should understand that Orthodox Jews has several subgroups. The various subgroups differ widely in terms of worldview, language, religious practices, diet and dressing. In the United States, there are approximately 5.2 and 6.7 million Orthodox Jews, with the Orthodox Jews constituting only a small fraction of this population (Schnall, 2006). Although the Orthodox Jews population is relatively small, they are often inclined to live in concentrated neighborhoods. They also prefer living in major capitals in the northern parts of America such as Baltimore, Toronto and Los Angeles. Institutional Barriers The incompatibility of Western mental health care and the needs of the Orthodox Jews arise because of the differences in these cultures. For this reason, it has been difficult for them to seek these services and receive sufficient care. One of the obstacles affecting counseling relates to the issue of finances. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Most Orthodox Jews are highly devoted to their religion, which leaves them financially pressed. In addition, most Orthodox Jews tend to perceive seeking mental health services as revealing their personal weaknesses. Furthermore, classical Jewish literature is highly critical of the medical profession in general. Consequently, many Orthodox Jews tend to question how non-Jewish counselors can understand some significant aspects of their culture such as the Jewish soul using worldly knowledge (Schnall, 2006). University education of mental health practitioners presents another significant barrier for the Orthodox Jews. In most cases, the Orthodox Jews consider such people as corrupted and belonging to the secular world. Besides, they fear that therapists and counselors will not respect their values. Orthodox Jews are also likely to demonstrate suspicion when dealing with outsiders owing to their long history of persecution. In this case, they are likely to suspect outsiders for holding ulterior or anti-Semitic motives (Schnall, 2006). The Jews might also harbor fears that the counseling sessions might involve inappropriate interactions with members of the opposite sex. Finally, there is a disgrace attached to seeking mental health services in the Orthodox Jewish culture. They fear that others may perceive them as being crazy. The situation becomes even more complicated because an individual’s background plays a critical role when considering a marriage partner. The Orthodox Jewish community is cohesive, which means that keeping secrets is not easy. For that reason, Orthodox Jews often seek the services of a rabbi to solve their problems. Factors affecting Multicultural Competency Numerous barriers affect multicultural competency in counseling. The most disturbing barrier to multicultural competency is the fact that there are numerous subgroups among the Orthodox Jews. Each subgroup has different religious practices, worldviews and customs. This requires the counselor to have the ability to understand different body movements, languages and facial expressions. The stigma associated with seeking mental health services also serves as a barrier for counselors working with Orthodox Jews patients because the shame involved complicates matters. In addition, it is not easy to counsel Orthodox Jews on matters relating to family planning because they do not acknowledge modern methods that require ceasing or delaying childbearing. Besides, they aspire to replace family members killed in the Holocaust (Schnall, 2006). While therapy often requires making inquiries about spouses, Orthodox Jews often show reluctance to share any negative information. Asking certain questions to assess intelligence also poses problems for the counselor because the Orthodox Jews isolate themselves from the secular world. The conflict between Western explanatory models and Orthodox Jews religious beliefs and preconceptions also complicates matters because they both have different ways of interpreting the problems (Schnall, 2006). We will write a custom Article on Multicultural Counseling and the Orthodox Jew specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In addition, many Orthodox Jews will consider seeking counseling from their rabbis, as opposed to professional counselors. Besides, it is difficult to provide counseling to women because their role in society is not clear. Moreover, counselors may not understand issues revolving around Jewish spousal relations because strict laws often guide them. Lastly, the issues of countertransference and embarrassment also act as barriers during counseling. Recommendations for Improving Counseling The most effective recommendation for counselors intending to work with the Orthodox Jews is for them to coordinate with the rabbis and other authoritative figures of their community. Such liaisons are essential because they help the counselors to earn legitimacy and credibility. Counselors should also learn some of the mannerisms and customs of the Orthodox Jews because this will enable them to understand them in a better way. The counselors should also consider incorporating customary Jewish thought into their treatment plans (Schnall, 2006). Similarly, the counselors should incorporate some biblical readings in their treatment plans because this helps to promote emotional and psychological well-being. In addition, counselors should frame their ideas and explanations in religious terms because this helps to make the therapy more convincing. In some cases, incorporating Jewish ritual may be helpful in encouraging participation. Besides, use of biological models to deal with mental illnesses is appropriate because the Orthodox Jews patients’ are more comfortable with this approach. Moreover, counselors must ensure that the clinic environment is comfortable and staff members observe a reserved dress code to reduce anxiety. Counselors should also appreciate that Orthodox Jews patients’ value privacy and would prefer meeting at secluded locations, away from other members of their community (Schnall, 2006). Additionally, counselors should be cautious when determining their fees because most Orthodox Jews are not financially stable. Lastly, counselors should consider employing a team approach when proving counseling. In addition, the counselor may advise the client to bring along a chaperon who would act as a “cultural bridge.” Reference Schnall, E. (2006). Multicultural Counseling and the Orthodox Jew. Journal of Counseling

Ways Of Transferring Capital From Savers To Borrowers Finance Essay

Find the most recent financial statements for two companies of same industry which are listed in KLSE (Kuala Lumpur Stock Exchange). Evaluate the financial position and performance for each of these two companies using accounting ratio analysis. You are required to compute and compare the accounting ratios between these 2 companies, and conclude the results of your findings. The limitations or problems of using accounting ratios for performance analysis should be included in your conclusion. Identify and discuss three different ways of transferring capital or fund from savers to borrowers in the financial market. 1.0 Introduction What is accounting ratios? Accounting ratios are the ratios which used in calculation and indicate the relationship between figures from the financial statements of a company. The financial statements are the statements that summarized a company’s activities either quarterly or annually. It consists of a profit and loss account and a balance sheet. In accounting, accounting ratios are often used in interpreting and evaluating a company’s overall financial condition and business performance. Accounting ratios are classified into 5 categories for measuring 5 different aspects of business performance. The 5 aspects are shown as follow: Profitability of company Liquidity of company Asset management of company Debts management and capital gearing of company Market value of investment to ordinary shareholders / common stockholders 1.1 Profitability of company Gross profit markup Gross profit markup (%) = Gross Profit x 100 Cost of goods sold Gross profit margin Gross profit margin (%) = Gross profit x 100 Net sales value Operating profit margin on sales Operating profit margin (%) = Operating profit before interest and before taxation x 100 Net sales value Profit margin on sales Profit margin on sales (%) = Net income available to common stockholders x 100 Net sales value Basic earning power (BEP) Basic earning power (BEP) = Operating profit before interest and before taxation x 100 Total assets Return on total assets (ROA) Return on total assets (ROA) = Net income available to common stockholders x 100 Total assets Return on total equity (ROE) Return on total equity (ROE) = Net income available to common stockholders x 100 Common equity 1.2 Liquidity of company Current ratio / Working capital ratio Current ratio / Working capital ratio = Current assets Current liabilities Liquid ratio / quick ratio / acid-test ratio Liquid ratio / quick ratio / acid-test ratio = Liquid assets Current liabilities 1.3 Asset management of company Inventory turnover or stock turnover Inventory turnover or stock turnover = Cost of sales Average stock value Fixed asset turnover Fixed asset turnover = Net sales Fixed assets net book value Total assets turnover Total assets turnover = Net sales Total assets Debtor ratio Debtor ratio = Debtor Credit sales Debtor payment period Debtor payment period = Debtor x 365 days/ 52 weeks / 12 months Credit sales Days sales outstanding (DSO) Days sales outstanding (DSO) = Debtor x 365 days Credit sales 1.4 Debts management and capital gearing of company Debts ratio Debts ratio = Total debts Total assets Capital gearing ratio Capital gearing ratio = Prior charge debts capital Total capital Debts equity ratio Debts equity ratio = Total debts Common Equity Times interest earned Times interest earned = Profit before interest and before taxation Interest charges Creditor ratio Creditor ratio = Creditor Credit purchase Creditor payment period Creditor payment period = Creditor x 365 days / 52 weeks / 12 months Credit purchase 1.5 Market value of investment to ordinary shareholders/ common stockholders Earnings per share Earnings per share = Net income available to common stockholders Number of ordinary shares in issue Price / Earnings ratio Price / Earnings ratio = Market price per ordinary share Earnings per share Dividend cover Dividend cover = Earnings per share Net ordinary dividend per share Earning yield Earning yield = Gross earnings per share x 100 Market price per ordinary share Dividend yield Dividend yield = Gross ordinary dividend per share x 100 Market price per ordinary share Price / cash flow ratio Price / cash flow ratio = Market price per ordinary share Net cash inflow per ordinary share Market price / book value ratio Market price / book value ratio = Market price per ordinary share Net book value per ordinary share 1.6 Company’s background Gamuda was incorporated on 6 October 1976. It was listed on the main board of the Kuala Lumpur Stock Exchange (KLSE) on 10 August 1992. In Malaysia, Gamuda is a leading infrastructure group. It has a wide range of business activities all over the world. Its core competencies are engineering and construction, infrastructure concessions, and also township development. Besides, they have mega projects such as internationally acclaimed SMART (Stormwater Management and Road Tunnel), intra-urban highways, Kaohsiung Mass Rapid Transit System in Kaohsiung, Taiwan, and so on. On the other hand, WCT was incorporated on 14 January 1981 as WCT Earthworks

UMGC Wk 6 Long Term Effects of College Debt on Students Life Choice Research Paper

assignment helper UMGC Wk 6 Long Term Effects of College Debt on Students Life Choice Research Paper.

Task:       Write a research paper using evidence to support a thesis that addresses your research question examining a current issue or event in the news from the perspective of your field of study. The audience is people who are generally educated but do not have extensive knowledge of your field or topic.
Length:   At least 2000 words
Sources: Minimum of 6. At least 3 of these must be from scholarly journals, and all sources should be selected based on reliability, currency, and level of information/analysis. The UMGC library will be very useful in helping you find appropriate sources. You can, but do not have to, include all of the sources from your annotated bibliography.
Due date and revision: The first draft of the research paper is due by the end of Week 5. Submit your draft as an attachment (Microsoft Word is preferred) to this assignment folder. This should be as complete a draft as possible, in order to receive the most helpful feedback. In working on your draft, you may want to look at the rubric that will ultimately be used to grade your final paper. You can see it when viewing these instructions through the Assignments area of the classroom.
During Week 6, you will receive feedback on your draft.
You will then revise your paper and submit it by the end of Week 7 to the folder “Assignment 3: Research Paper, revised draft.” This version will be graded using the rubric and will count for 35% of your course grade.
Your instructor may or may not complete the rubric for your first draft, but only the grade on your revised paper will count toward your course grade.
Outcomes you should achieve by completing this assignment
The outcomes for this assignment are listed below, with the associated course outcomes in parentheses:
Use research to write a paper that will inform or persuade an audience (Course outcome 1)
Form unified, coherent, and well-supported paragraphs in support of the thesis statement (Course outcome 2)
Select sources, use them to inform and support your writing, and document them in APA style (Course outcome 4)
Demonstrate accurate grammar and mechanics in writing (Course outcome 3)
Participate in the process of receiving feedback and revising your writing (Course outcome 1)
This paper is the culmination of your research project, in which you are examining a current issue or event in the news from the perspective of your field of study. Before drafting your paper, you will have chosen a topic, developed a research question, and identified several potential sources in an annotated bibliography. You should write on the same topic for this paper, unless your professor has asked you to make changes to your topic.
Organizing and supporting your paper
As you write your paper, be sure to include the following:
an engaging introductory paragraph that includes an effective and clear thesis statement
any definition of terms or background information that your reader is likely to need to understand your paper
focused body paragraphs that begin with topic sentences and use effective transitions. This is where you will support the thesis using arguments and evidence.
a concluding paragraph that reiterates the thesis, summarizes key points of the paper, and leaves the reader with the “So what?”
Research is a key element of this paper. Take care to support your claims with research throughout the paper. 

My research question is, How does college debt affect future life choices of students?. In this research question, I will narrow down my research to the students ,their challenges and the long term effects.
1. Individuals and the systemic factor that contributed to student debt.
2. Challenges student face as they prepare to pay college debt.
3. Long term effects (both positive and negative) of college debt on students life choice 

THESIS: College debt is contributed to by both individuals and systemic factors that lead to the students having challenges as they prepare to pay college debt, which has both positive and negative long term effects on students’ life choice.
To begin, there are individual and systematic factors contributing to student debt.
Moreover, as students prepare to pay their college debt they face challenges in the process.
Lastly, given every student has their life choices, college debt has both negative and positive long term effects to those choices. 
UMGC Wk 6 Long Term Effects of College Debt on Students Life Choice Research Paper

Concordia University Starbucks Social Responsibility Case Study Questions

Concordia University Starbucks Social Responsibility Case Study Questions.

For your case study, write out the question and thoroughly respond using APA formatting (example: in-text citations, double spacing, etc.). You do not need a cover sheet, running head, or an abstract, but you are required to have a separate “Works Cited” page. Generally, a quality case study is approximately three pages or about 3/4 of a page double spaced for each response. This does not including the “Works Cited” page. Your responses should be supported by at least one primary or secondary source per question. My expectation is that your responses will be succinct, and that they will be supported by both key facts from the case study and from your source data. In reading your responses, it should be clear to me that you have read the entire case study, and haven’t tried to respond by “cherry picking” information that only pertains to the question. If anything, your issue is not going to be that you don’t have enough information to respond to the question. Instead, it will be keeping your response succinct. Please review the section in the syllabus on acceptable source data before beginning.Your responses should also address the following three questions:What is the main issue?Who are the primary stakeholders?What did the company do? Is there anything else they could have done to address their issue?Sometimes the issues aren’t so obvious. For example, in the Starbucks case study, the company is concerned with expanding their brand in a socially responsible manner. To do so, they needed to address the needs of their primary stakeholders. Who are they and what actions did Starbucks take? Lastly, evaluate what Starbucks did to expand their brand in a socially responsible manner. Were they successful? Is there anything else they could have done? These responses should be incorporated in to your response questions.
Concordia University Starbucks Social Responsibility Case Study Questions

Business Practice Argumentative Essay

Business Practice Argumentative Essay.

Purpose of Assignment For this assignment, the student will create an argumentative essay explaining what makes a good business decision. This allows students to use critical thinking in their research to identify the importance of deductive reasoning and inductive reasoning.Assignment Steps Review the “Writing Argumentative Essays” section in Ch. 3 of Critical Thinking. Write a 1,050-word argumentative essay on your approved business decision including the following: Discuss why the business decision is good or not good for business.Define the term “good” for the purpose of this situation.Identify the premise and conclusion by placing a number in bold at the beginning of the sentence with the word premise or conclusion. For example: (1, Premise), (2, Premise), (1, Conclusion), (2, Conclusion).Sentences labeled as “1, premise” are premises for the sentence labeled as “1, conclusion.”All premises should be labeled for each conclusion in the article. If a sentence is a conclusion and a premise for another conclusion, place two labels.At the end of the paper, identify one example of how you used deductive reasoning and one example of how you used inductive reasoning. Format your paper consistent with APA guidelines.
Business Practice Argumentative Essay