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Why has Apple been so successful? What do you attribute it to? For several years, Apple has been ranked as the most innovative company in the world, but how it has achieved such success remains mysterious because of the company’s obsession with secrecy. Now researchers and business men have found more about its success. According to the case, the main reasons are showed as following. Product: 1. Technology innovation

Computers, music players, smartphones, etc are major products at Apple. In this field, technology is the first consideration. Constant innovation keeps Apple as the pioneer; otherwise, it cannot even exist. “Think differently”, is always what stuff at Apple do, they are always against Conventional Wisdom. “Innovation” to Apple, means both creating and eliminating. Constant learning and adaption is the reason to explain some “anti-business” behavior at Apple. However, Apple doesn’t develop the technology without any consideration.

For every step it takes, it will pay attention to resources, market research, and potential feedback. Innovation always comes with risk, so Apple’s success must also attribute to its caution. 2. Product development strategy Someone regards the products at Apple as a kind of modern art, since its design is so fashionable and attract so many loyal customers. However, according to Apple, “there is more to coolness than fashion”, since it is the combination of art and technology.

To those decision makers, beautiful, smooth, and consistent interface didn’t sacrifice features, some of which would not be seen on other PCs until years later. To customers, what they really expect is high technology, simplicity and customer-friendly interface; although beautiful and colorful looking of products can be very trendy, customers will not pay for Apple without unique technologies. Jobs drives the notion of design-as-product-integrity. He believed, the ntegrity of the entire product’s design, from its “intention” through its concept development, through the process of making it and, ultimately, to the user’s experience of working with it—such that the simplicity that resulted becomes the ultimate sophistication. Apple utilizes Platform Strategy so that their products and future products win the absolute loyalty from their followers. It can be taken as a kind of business magic. With a family of products envisioned at the earliest stages of product concept and planning, this kind of innovation requires designers and engineers to think ahead.

This strategy is proved to be successful, since companies who put a premium on design, resources and time invested into the initial product is leveraged across derivative products; these products can be developed and ramped up more quickly because they build on and make use of existing design elements in the platform. At the same time, customers will have to rely more on this family of products and expect more from it. Apple is very efficient at grasping the heart of customers.

Mac operating system developed and utilized by Apple products can be regarded only operation system to compete with Windows. Mac and Windows are not compatible to each other. Although Windows developed much earlier than Mac, more young people and business people turn to Mac. One of major reasons is that documents, files and all information in their Mac can also be used in their IPHONE, IPAD and other apple products. Consumer: 3. Consumer- oriented strategy To IT industry, they can create demand in the market, but what they most should do is to satisfy expectation and need of consumers.

The idea that design should be driven first by user needs and desires is reinforced by Cordell Ratzlaff. Apple’s consumer-oriented strategy is illustrated in their products, design thinking, services, etc. Simplicity in Design and Use, is one of the major characteristics of products at Apple. In the process of design, the stuff focuses on each detail that would influence using experience. The diversity of products can satisfy all kinds of need from customers. “…the best way is to design software at Apple is with the customer, which is now called participatory design. Interactive customer involvement in the design process guarantees that the products meet the expectations from customers. They create their “beautiful products” for their customers. Moreover, the most successful point is that Apple educate and cultivate the customers, and when Apple has been culture internationally, it has obtained success in business and society. Distribution channels 4. Distribution channels Apple has hundreds of Apple Stores worldwide. Although Dell succeeded with Internet sales, Apple chooses “brick store” but not “click store”.

Dell’s pattern cuts down cost and improves the profits accordingly in short term, however, it also makes Dell lose potential consumers. In the other way, the Retail stores bring Apple more customers; “foot traffic” attracts curious customers to step into the store and try the products; in this way, Apple can be more accessible. Apple also builds flagship stores in major cities of each country, these stores act as a place for experiment marketing. Execution and Leadership 5. Excellence in Execution and Leadership

A good founder and leader is always the reason for success. Steve Jobs and Apple seem like interchangeable terms. Jobs insists his idea and ways to manage his business. His ability, confidence, sensibility and innovative thinking contribute to all the success. Excellence in Execution not only requires a good leader but also cooperation and agreement from other executives and employees. Jobs’ leave upsets all his fans; however, it will not stop people’s enthusiasm for Apple’s products. When Steve Jobs took a leave of absence in 2009 to receive a liver transplant, Cook ran the company. The products rolled on, the stock went up…”, success of one enterprise is not only the effort of one person, but Jobs builds a solid foundation and culture for Apple. The excellence in execution will continue in the future. Apple will be a classical case for new product development, since its innovation has changed the history, influenced the life style of one or two generation. Its success is not only innovation, but also its management strategies and creative sense.

LEADER-MEMBER EXCHANGE 3 Running Head: LEADER-MEMBER EXCHANGE 1 Leader-Member Exchange Name Institutional

LEADER-MEMBER EXCHANGE 3

Running Head: LEADER-MEMBER EXCHANGE 1

Leader-Member Exchange

Name

Institutional Affiliation

Leader-member exchange (case of Steve Jobs)

The selected leader is Steve Jobs. His performance made him stand out and his leadership qualities remain extremely impressive. He was well recognized as a very inspirational person who motivated almost everyone he met. This gesture was always extended to the work place. As the CEO of a leading telecommunication giant, his task was in no doubt one that involved delegating duties and assignments to junior officers. The LMX model seeks to boost the morale of the staff through intergrading them into the managerial space. Steve ensured that his junior employees were closely monitored to establish the ones who put an extra effort to deliver best results (Cropanzano, Dasborough & Weiss, 2016). He achieved this by developing a keen interest in the ones who displayed leadership and other good qualities. For instance, he could note the people who got to work early, and utilized their time well. These few staff members were recognized for their good presentation of commitment and in most cases got promoted to higher offices.

LMX focuses on the leader member interactions. In most cases, well performing members are allowed many privileges by their leaders who like the dedication. On the other hand, poor performing or less active members are rarely, if not never recognized. Managers develop a liking for people who put some effort in driving the company forward. The extra sacrifice never goes unnoticed. Steve Jobs was known to pinpoint this caliber of members and nurture them into better resources in the organization (Ford, Wilkerson, Seers & Moormann, 2014). He organized events that employees of his company would meet and bond, share and network. Some of these events would be charity, team, building, family day of parties and luncheons. According to this theory, the leaders get an opportunity to meet and discover the members in a formal environment which then makes it easy to learn and understand them better. This has proven to encourage team work and cohesion among staff from different levels. The time spent together out of the workplace allows an appropriate setting to loosen up and be self. Steve Jobs has performed well in relation to this principle (Steinwart & Ziegler, 2014).

Reference

Cropanzano, R., Dasborough, M., & Weiss, H. (2016). Affective events and the development of leader-member exchange. Academy of Management Review, amr-2014.

Ford, L. R., Wilkerson, J. M., Seers, A., & Moormann, T. (2014). The generation of influence: Effects of leader-member exchange and team-member exchange. Journal of Strategic and International Studies, 9(1), 5-14.

Steinwart, M. C., & Ziegler, J. A. (2014). Remembering Apple CEO Steve Jobs as a “Transformational Leader”: Implications for Pedagogy. Journal of Leadership Education, 13(2), 52-66.