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Design Project

Design Project.

I want All these Steps to be Covered word limit should be 5000 or above FIND the ATTACHMENT and Follow the GuidlinesTOPIC NAME : T-roll outSince the beginning of the human mind and looking for what makes his life go easily, whether inside or outside his home. One of the important things is the table. Almost everywhere there most be a table. In house, office, workshop even outside wherever there are people. Today people are looking for a multi- use table with better features. So we decided to make a table with more advantages and we called it “T-roll out”.This advancement venture is a portable table; it can be utilized wherever with a normal surface by simply open it whiten a back formed project. The T-roll out can be utilized as a part of multi undertaking substitution it made out of wood and metal joint which influence it to light and simple to convey and can be fitted in the storage compartment of any automotive car. The purpose of this project is to specify the general population and making them comfortable when they are heading off to family journey or even can be utilized as an additional table when are having a family barbecue.The temporal period:After our study of the project and expected time period for the project design and after distribution of work and work steps we will need at minimum 55 days.The cost:We calculated the cost of materials used in the project manufacturing and the total cost of the project will be from 15 to 20 OR approximately.We expect the project to become popular in customer environment as Oman is a tourist country and there is a lot of internal tourism in the country. The project serves two categories of society lover’s trips and lovers of family gatherings. The project is a tool that facilitates the process of organizing the preparation of food, entertainment games and hold external meetings. Also, we expect its success because it is easy to carry, water prove table, lightweight. Easy to store and doesn’t need much storage space.Action steps:• Draw a diagram and outline of project design and arithmetical equation.• Combine the component, requirements and tools required for the project.• Distribute the work equally the the project members.• Collection of parts after the completion of each member of work entrusted to him.• Ensure all measurement is properly fitted.• Coasting with waterproof coasting.• Test and test and test the project
Design Project

East Tennessee State University Principles of Classical Conditioning Discussion.

Question 1OPTION 1. This option includes a part of Assignment 6 related to Classical Conditioning. You MUST complete the entire assignment, including this portion, but this wiki is intended to help you with this section. Please do not include your name with your responses to this section. I don’t want you to feel bad if your answers in not quite right. Concept and GoalThis activity demonstrates how a single powerful event can be traumatizing and can lead to a life of conditioned fear; it serves as an example of classical conditioning. This is an individual student activity. Read the passage and complete the activity. We will then discuss the results and discussion questions during class (or via discussion board). A Case of Physical ViolenceA woman who lives in the suburbs goes downtown one night to meet friends for dinner at an Italian restaurant. After the dinner, she and her friends say good-bye. She goes to the parking garage alone. As she turns the key to unlock her car, an intruder with a gun forces himself into the car with her. He forces her to drive to a desolate place downtown near a stadium where he tells her to pull over and let him out. He then steals her money and valuables, ties her up, and leaves her in the car. For many months, the woman has nightmares about the attack, is afraid of the dark, is afraid to go near her car, and is afraid to go downtown. When she passes by an Italian restaurant, a parking garage, or a stadium, her heart pounds and she sweats. She is afraid of strangers, especially men, who resemble the attacker. Ten years later, the woman’s conditioned fears are subsiding. Still, she remains extremely cautious about personal safety and occasionally has nightmares about the experience. In this scenario, the woman’s fear (conditioned response – CR) is powerfully associated with (and generalized to) several locations and people (conditioned stimuli – CS), associated with the violent attack. For this wiki, LIST ONE conditioned stimuli (CSs) mentioned in the passage. You must list CSs ONLY to document your understanding and ability to distinguish CSs from CRs. CS1CS2CS3CS4CS5CS6CS7CS8EXTINCTION: According to Ivan Pavolv’s principles of classical conditioning, what can be done to extinguish the fear that the woman in the passage is associating and generalizing to the locations and people you have mentioned? (HINT: how did Pavlov arrange extinction of salivating to the tone?) You are welcome to write your response in your own words (being as accurate as possible) and I will review your responses in class and provide feedback. Question 2I have chosen an article that pulls together material from the human development material (namely the sections on parenting and children), and learning (classical conditioning, operant conditioning, observational learning/modeling). The article is posted at the website of the American Psychological Association ( and provides evidence-based suggestions for how to correctly apply learning principles in raising children. I think it’s a must-read for all parents and anyone who has contact with children. I hope you agree Applying Learning Principles to ParentingRead the article titled, “Parenting that works: Seven research-backed ways to improve parenting”. In a paragraph or so, reflect on how the learning principles of classical conditioning, operant conditioning, and observational learning/modeling are evident in many of these parenting strategies. The goal is for you to reflect on parenting skills (which relate to our recent coverage of human development) and their connection to the material we are now covering, as well as convince me that you understand this course material. Be sure to change your font color
East Tennessee State University Principles of Classical Conditioning Discussion

Philosophy homework help. This is a paper that is focusing on What is the molecular formula of the Coenzymes or vitamins. The paper also provides additional information to use in writing the assignment paper.,What is the molecular formula of the Coenzymes or vitamins,The report is on Coenzymes/vitamins:,In your paper, you will discuss the following:, 1.      Firstly, the structure of the coenzyme or vitamin.  How does this structure enable a biochemical pathway?,2.     Secondly, chemical and physical properties of the chemical including the molecular and structural formula and the family of molecules of which this coenzyme is derived from or vitamin transition into.,3.     Thirdly, the reason why this substance is of interest to the scientific community and why it is being researched.,4.     Fourthly, research results that have shown the importance of these chemicals in human diets, and what diseases may be  associated with the deficit of these chemicals. Investigate both positive and negative results of chemical usage.,5.     Discuss the methodology of the research (tissue cultures, bioassays, animal studies, etc.),All information must be cited and you are to submit a reference page with your report.  Remember that what is not original to you, MUST be cited.  If there are no citations, it will cost you 5 points off your grade.   The format and also rubrics are as follows:,What is the molecular formula of the Coenzymes or vitamins,Title page — 5 points, Description of biochemical pathway involved in producing the molecule– 20 points,What is the molecular formula of the coenyme/vitamin– 20 points, The signs and symptoms of the disease associated with vitamin or ,coenzyme deficiency, — 20 points, what has been learned about the importance of the coenzyme/vitamin by scientists as a specific research of interest –20 points, putting information into your own words and also citing information accurately –10 points, reference page — 5 points, The 100 will be equivalent to the 10 points.  Any points off will be translate in a fraction of the 10 points.  Example -20 points will give a grade of 8.  A perfect paper will be 10.,In your paper, you will discuss the following:,6.      The structure of the coenzyme or vitamin.  How does this structure enable a biochemical pathway?,7.     Chemical and physical properties of the chemical including the molecular and also structural formula and the family of molecules of which this coenzyme is derived from or vitamin transition into.,8.     The reason why this substance is of interest to the scientific community and why it is being research.,9.     Additionally, research results that have shown the importance of these chemicals in human diets, and what diseases may be associated with the deficit of these chemicals.  Investigate both positive and negative results of chemical usage.,10.  Lastly, discuss the methodology of the research (tissue cultures, bioassays, animal studies, etc.),Attachments,Click Here To Download,Philosophy homework help
1. Introduction Roads are constructed to bring benefits to the people. Investment in roads is huge for which funding most time is limited. Therefore the decision to invest and protect the investment in form of maintenance is important so as to bring optimal benefits and value for money. In order to maximise the benefits in the choice of investment, road investment appraisal may well be part of the planning process. The purpose of economic appraisal is to determine the investment cost and economic returns expected from such investment. Investment cost consists of construction and annual maintenance costs and are normally shouldered by the road agency. While economic returnsis in form of savings to the road users resulting from new road facility. These costs are referred to as total (road) transport cost or whole life cycle cost (HDM-4 documentation). It is therefore necessary to determine the works that will minimise the total transport cost over the extended analysis period, say expected life of the road. This report presents the economic analysis of a project to upgrade an existing gravel road to a bituminous pavement. The aim is to assess the economic benefit resulting from the proposed investment. This is to be carried out using Highway Development and Management (HDM-4), a road investment appraisal tool. HDM-4 is known to have the capability which assist with the selection of appropriate road design and maintenance standards that minimises the total transport cost. The support system will also indicate the economic viability of the proposed upgrading. The run will include sensitivity analysis, which involves repeated economic evaluation changing one parameter at a time, to identify the parameter(s) which affect the viability of the road project. 2. Literature review: 2.1 Economic appraisal of a road project. Economic appraisal is very important in planning a road project. It enables the road agency knows the investment cost as well as the economic returns of various alternatives, thereby assisting them in the selection of that which gives the highest returns. Total transport cost, also referred to as whole life cycle cost, includes construction and annual maintenance costs as well as road user costs (RUC). The RUC, in most cases, is the benefit due to the provision of a better road facility i.e VOC, travel time, comfort, reduction in accident. HDM-4 is a decision support tool for the analysis of road management, evaluation of investment alternatives and strategic planning among others. It has four models that are used to predict the effects of road construction and operation. Road deterioration model considers pavement structure, traffic loading and climate condition to analyse and predict the progression of structural and surface condition variables. Works effects model uses these variables and application of maintenance and construction measures to predict the physical quantities of resources required. These are used to multiply the unit costs specified to obtain the construction and maintenance cost for the analysis period. Road user effect model uses vehicle characteristics, geometric data and the forecast condition variables (e.g. IRI) to calculate the expected travel speeds of the different vehicle types, which in turn affect the vehicle and owners costs. The social and environmental effect model can forecast vehicle emissions and energy consumption. 2.2 Method of economic appraisal of a road project. This is usually done in HDM-4 for at least for two mutually alternatives road construction, rehabilitation or upgrade, one of which is referred to ‘Do nothing’ or ‘base alternative’. While others are ‘do something’ or project alternatives. The ‘Do nothing’ or base alternative is where minimum investment is carried out in form of continuation of current maintenance strategy. This alternative has no construction component but has high maintenance cost and RUC. On the other hand, the ‘do something’ or alternative project is when the road standard is improved, the choice of which depend on many factors such as the road agency’s standard, traffic level, political and social consideration etc. This would normally have construction cost with both low maintenance cost and RUC. 3. Methodology. Create Project Define road network Section 2 Section 1 Define road sections Improvement Standard Mtce Standard (After) Mtce Standard (Before) Mtce Standard (Gravel) Define Work standards With Project Without Project Define Project alternatives Run analysis with sensitivity Generate Outputs The above flow describes the procedure for the economic analysis of the project using HMD-4. 4. Procedure for project analysis. 4.1 Project description: This Project is a 49.9 km gravel road classed secondary road and it is situated in sub-tropical/humid climate. It passes through varying topography. The road is divided into two sections based on geometric, pavement condition and traffic volume. The traffic and condition data obtained in 2008 are represented in table 4.1. The road is proposed to be upgraded to bituminous pavement. Both the degree of conflict between motorised and non-motorised transport and the effect of the road side activities on traffic flow were insignificant. 4.2 Data Input: Using the flow chart in paragraph 3 above all the necessary data require for the project analysis is stored in the system in the appropriate folders. These include detailed traffic composition and growth rate which are provided in the Vehicle fleet folder. A uniform growth rate of 4% was used for all vehicle classes on this project. The sections of the roads are defined under the road network folder. Each of the sections is considered homogenous in terms of geometric, pavement condition, traffic volume and composition. Therefore the physical details of the sections (length, width, and surface class), traffic direction and pattern, pavement type and condition, horizontal and vertical alignment information are among data set in the road network definition. However, only motorised traffic is considered in this analysis. 4.3 Defining the works standards: This is where both the maintenance and improvement standards are defined. The details are on Table 4.3. The maintenance standards are in the works standard/maintenance standards folder while the improvement standards are specified in the works standard/improvement standards folders. The maintenance standard has great effect on rate of deterioration of a road. Road will continue to perform to standard throughout its design life only when adequate and timely maintenance is carried out. Defining maintenance standard in the system imposes a limit to which deterioration could reach before a trigger. Furthermore the long term performance of a road is also affected by the improvement standard 4.3.1 Maintenance standard: There are three maintenance standards under the study. These are Gravel road maintenance, Maintenance before upgrading and routine maintenance after upgrade (crack sealing and patching paved road). These are effective at different time for the two sections of the road as detailed in Table 4.4. Scheduled for specified years. Duration is one year. Both economic and financial costs for each of the work items were stored in the system. 4.3.2 Improvement standard: The improvement standard is to upgrade the gravel road to bituminous pavement. However the year of implementation for each of sections 1 and 2 are 2011 and 2012 respectively. These are indicated at the intervention tab while keying the information for each of the section. Furthermore the financial cost for sections 1 and 2 are US$120,000 and US$150,050. The economic costs were estimated as 85% of the financial costs. These were stored in the cost tab. 4.4 Defining the project alternatives. There are two project alternatives – Without project (maintaining the gravel road) and With project (upgrade gravel road). Each of the alternatives has works standards specified for each of the two sections. The analysis type (by project), start year (2009) as well as analysis period (20 years) were specified. The currency output of US$ was also selected. 4.4.1 Analysis method: There are two methods of analysing road investment in HDM-4 – Analysis by section and analysis by project. The formal (analysis by section) is when the sections in the road are considered separately and analyse against a base section. While the latter (analysis by project) is when the entire sections in an alternative are considered against a base alternative. For this case study the analysis is by project. In this instance, the annual cost and benefit are added for the sections in the ‘With project’ to give the year total. The economic indicators so obtained are then used to compare the base alternative. 4.4.2 Without project alternative: This is the base alternative representing a continuation of current maintenance practice. The two sections were defined and assigned a maintenance standard ‘Gravel road maintenance’ earlier defined under the works standard/maintenance standards folder. 4.4.3 With project alternative: This is the alternative where the road is to be upgraded to bituminous pavement. The two sections were defined with both maintenance and improvement standards. Both sections are to be upgraded in 2011 and 2012 respectively. However, they are to be maintained before upgrade according to ‘maintenance before upgrading’ standard as defined. Furthermore, the period of maintenance after upgrade is also specified. 4.4.4 Sensitivity analysis: It is a technique used to find out the effect on the whole project of changes in value of each variable which is considered potentially serious risk to the project. In this case study, three variables – Traffic growth rates, Construction cost and Initial AADT were considered as sensitive to the project. Therefore each of them was changed at a time by ±20% from 20% to 80% to verify their impact on economic indicators. 5. Analysis concept, summary result and discussion. 5.1 Project analysis concept The concept of the project analysis, using HMD-4, is assessing the physical, functional and economic feasibility of the ‘With project’ alternative and compares it with ‘Without project’ considered as base case. The system uses Life cycle costing for the analysis period of 20 years. In achieving this cost, the system models and predict the road deterioration, estimates the road user cost, model the road works effects and the cost of these to the road agency as well as calculate the economic and financial benefits from the comparison of the alternatives. 5.2 Road Deterioration and road works effect modelling For each year of the analysis period, HDM-4 models the road condition and assigns road works effect using predefined works strategies. Road deterioration prediction is based on the data provided on such variables as the original design, material type, construction quality, traffic volume, axle load characteristics, road geometry, environmental conditions, age of pavement and maintenance standard. HDM-4 does predict change in condition, i.e. distresses, from the initial set conditions as a function of the above named variables. 5.2.1 Average roughness (IRIav) of project: The deterioration of gravel road is characterised by roughness and material loss. Therefore grading every six months was specified as one of the work items for its maintenance to keep the roughness within tolerable limit. Spot regravelling work item was to repair areas of severe depression, while gravel resurfacing is performed to augment gravel surfacing due to loss of material. These work items followed intervention criteria specified by the users. This is the logic HDM-4 uses to predict the gravel road deterioration and it is presented in graph 5.2. This graph correlates Appendix I which shows the pavement condition summary. The pavement condition of ‘Without project’ is a reflection of the interventions of the work items under continuous maintenance of the gravel road. Grading and Spot regravelling were effective every six month with no significant improvement to IRI values. However, gravel resurfacing was done in 2013, 2016, 2019, 2023 and 2025. There is a drop in IRI value each time the work item was carried out. In general the IRI was consistently high at between 7-13m/km throughout the analysis period for ‘Without project’ alternative. HDM-4 also predicts the deterioration of the road after improvement. This is done through surface distresses (cracking and potholing) and deformation distress (roughness). Out of the three work items for the maintenance of the paved (bituminous) road only resealing work item was triggered throughout the analysis period. This is a reflection of the intervention criteria specified. Under the ‘With project’ alternative there is a drop in IRI values in 2011 and 2012 following the upgrading of sections 1 and 2 at these years respectively. For instance, for section 1 the IRI value was 11.26m/km in 2010 but drastically reduced to 3.01m/km after upgrade in 2011. This is similar to the effect of upgrading section 2 in 2012. However, it is noticed that IRI continued to increase steadily subsequently but at low rate. In 2018, 2019, 2025 and 2026 there was resealing which changed the rate of increase in IRI (between 2018 and 2019) and actually reduced the value (between 2025 and 2026). Surface dressing does not necessarily improve the smoothness of road surface hence its effect on IRI is not significant. 5.2.2 Road works summary: This summary, as contained in Appendix 2, confirmed graph 5.1 and reflects the pavement condition summary in appendix 1. It shows the works items as they were triggered with associate quantities and costs (economic and financial). For the ‘With project’ the maintenance standard before upgrade is reflected in the two sections before the upgrade. Furthermore resealing was also carried out in 2018 and 2025 for section 1, while that for section 2 was in 2019 and 2026. On the other hand in the ‘Without project’ the average roughness for the project is shown in graph 4.1. This graph correlates Appendix 1 which shows the pavement condition summary. Road User Cost (RUC): From the economic indicator shown in Table 4.3 there is a decrease of US$3.828 million in Road User Cost (RUC) compared to US$3.105 million increase in Road Agency Cost (RAC) for the proposed upgrade. This is an indication of the viability for the upgrade. Cost Streams and Economic Evaluation Table 4.3 reflects the economic indicator showing a positive Net Present Value (NPV) of US$0.723 million, indicative of the project viability. The Internal Rate of Return (EIRR) is US$12.6 million. The economic indicator summary with sensitivity included in the analysis is provided in Appendix 3 Sensitivity Analysis As discussed in paragraph 5.2.2 above Tables 5.4a, 5.4b and 5.4c show the effects in economic indicators (NPV and EIRR) of changing the percentages of Initial AADT, Construction cost and Traffic growth rates considered as sensitive to the project. Increasing both initial AADT and Growth rate indicates positive values of NPV and EIRR, while reduction in their values gives negative economic indicators. On the other hand, increase construction cost gives negative NPV and its reduction gives positive NPV. NPV sensitivity diagram in figure 5.3 below indicates that the three variables have various degrees of sensitivity on the project, with AADT being most sensitive. An increase in construction cost as well as drop in AADT will affect the chances of achieving the positive NPV values. Therefore the accuracy of their estimation and forecast is important. Switching Values: A reduction in percentage of AADT and Growth rate beyond 11.5% and 25.6% respectively changes the NPV values from positive to negative. Whereas increase in construction cost beyond 19.5% also changes NPV from positive to negative. 6. Conclusion: The economic analysis, using HDM-4, indicates that upgrading the gravel road to bituminous pavement is viable because of the positive NPV value obtained for the analysis period. In implementing the project the gain in RUC outweighs the increase in the RAC when this is compared with ‘do minimum’ alternative. However, this result can only be achieved if the works are carried out according to the programme. The Initial AADT, Construction cost and vehicle growth rate have various levels of sensitivity on the NPV. However, AADT is the most sensitive. An increase in construction cost as well as drop in AADT is likely to affect the chances of achieving a positive NPV values. There is also an indication that more benefit could be derived from the project when AADT value grows even as high as by 80% of the initial value. Therefore the accuracy of the construction cost, AADT and its projection are important to getting the benefit from the proposed project

Primary and Secondary Research Summary

Primary and Secondary Research Summary.

DeliverableTo complete this project, you will form small groups and choose a local problem affecting USF or in the local Tampa Bay community. (the problem is homeless people in Tampa Bay area)Each group member will complete primary and secondary research on the problem and write a 2-3 page research summary report in memo format.Although you are part of a group working on a shared research problem, each group member will complete their own primary and secondary research and write their own research summary report memo. Your memo should include the following section headings:Memo header with Date, To, From, and SubjectSection headings:Background InformationProblem DescriptionImpacted PopulationsProblem CausesReferences (Note: use APA format for references)Project 3 OverviewResearch in the workplace solves a problem. Tasked with a problem in the workplace, you may be asked to gather the information necessary to fully understand the issue at hand, solve that problem (or offer potential solutions), prove that your solutions are viable, and/or test your solution(s). Doing this work requires different types of research that go beyond simply querying (searching) a library database or using Google. Often, you will need to speak directly to target populations and audiences and directly contact resources and experts in different professions and in the community. You may also need information in addition to or instead of scholarly resources. Local and national journalism (newspapers and magazines) may add context and perspective. Professional experts, government agencies, and state and local authorities may serve as be relevant sources, as are individuals in target populations.Essentially, research in the workplace requires you to think critically and creatively about:The type of information you need; and The best way to get that information.Your job as a researcher is to address, explain, and/or solve a problem using the most relevant and applicable methods and resources. If a resource can supply information you need, then it is the right resource for the job.It’s also important when thinking about a problem your researching to keep in mind that you probably aren’t the first person or organization to deal with this issue. Look at other organizations, groups, or communities negotiating the same or similar issue. Research how those groups describe and deal with the problem. The perspective of experience is invaluable to your work.Project 3 Assignment InstructionsThis project asks you to do community-based research into a local problem impacting USF or the surrounding Tampa Bay community. Your goal for this project is to describe a problem in detail using as much information as you can gather from as many different kinds of sources as are useful. This project requires a mixture of primary research and secondary research. This means you may look at research gathered by others (e.g., government agencies, non-profit organizations, professional and academic experts), but you will also gather your own data by contacting experts and asking impacted population for their perspective. Once you have formed small groups and agreed on a local problem, you will conduct research using any of the following methods and resources, or anything else that helps you explain the scope of your problem. Remember that your report must include a mixture of primary (original) and secondary (published) research.Newspapers (local, university, national)Reports from government agencies, universities, and/or NGOsScholarly researchFacts and statistics compiled by government agencies and/or NGOsInterviews with experts and/or impacted individualsSurveys (social media makes doing surveys easy)Online audience analysis using Voyant tools: (Links to an external site.)See student example using audience analysis here: Project 3 Voyant.pngClick here for instructions on how to use Voyant-Tools for Project 3.As a deliverable, you will produce a report memo approximately 2-3 pages in length that reports your findings and provides readers with a robust understanding of the problem you have researched.OutcomesUpon successful completion of this project, you will be able to:Identify and engage with a problem-based scenario similar to those found in the workplaceDevelop primary and secondary research skills appropriate for addressing a specific problemIntegrate research into a written deliverableDevelop professional writing and editing skillsPractice writing for a specific (local) purpose and audienceProduce a specific genre of professional discourse (research summary report in memo format)
Primary and Secondary Research Summary

Hypothesis Testing with One Sample

python assignment help Hypothesis Testing with One Sample. Paper details This assignment explores using hypothesis testing to determine whether significant mean differences exist in certain scenarios. -Step 1: Find solutions to the following problems. Be sure to include all relevant information for each of the following problems, including hypotheses, critical value, degrees of freedom, and a statement about significance. 1. A researcher hypothesizes that people who listen to music via ear buds have greater hearing loss than those in the general population. On a standard hearing test, the mean (μ) is 24.75. Higher values indicate better hearing; lower values indicate greater hearing loss or worse hearing. The researcher gave this same test to a random sample of 30 individuals who regularly use ear buds. Their average score on the hearing test is 21.57, s = 3.85. Determine if using ear buds significantly reduces hearing. 2. As an industrial psychologist, you have been hired by a large hospital to automate the admitting procedure and reduce the admission time. Previously it took an average of 40 minutes to admit each patient, with a standard deviation of 9 minutes. You create a new computerized procedure and find that your automated procedure takes an average of 34.5 minutes for the 35 patients in your pilot study. Determine if your system significantly reduced admit time. 3. Dr. Simpson was surprised to learn that her 28 students get on average 7.2 hours of sleep per night (s=0.80). She had just read that the national average is 7 hours per night. Determine if Dr. Simpson’s students get significantly more sleep than the national average.Hypothesis Testing with One Sample

Westcliff University Workplace Diversity Discussion

Westcliff University Workplace Diversity Discussion.

Part One: 1 page
Suppose that you are part of a virtual team and must persuade other team members on an important matter (such as switching suppliers or altering the project deadline). Assuming that you cannot visit these people in person, what can you do to maximize your persuasiveness? (Remember, you have NO positional authority, so many sources of power are not available to you).
At least 2 sourcesPart Two: 1 page (2 sources)
How does this PLO apply to your current internship job? Give an example. Are there areas in your internship job where there could be improvement concerning this PLO topic or is it being handled well; what are your recommendations?In your response, provide at least one (1) peer reviewed source to support your ideas on this subject. PLO = Collaborate with people of diverse backgrounds, values, and life experiencesA little about my internship:I just joined the company and a lot of what I’ve been doing so far is training and getting introduced to the mortgage industry.Job Description:A little about my company
Westcliff University Workplace Diversity Discussion

Examining the Market and Operations Strategy of Tesco

Introduction Human resource management or shortly said H.R.M. is a designed and articulate way to management of people working in the company or organization. The other term used for this is personnel management which is used instead of human resource management. It cn be defines as:- “A continues processes managing people in any organizations in a way to achieve its objectives and goals.” Human Resource Management is basically a study as well as a department in any organization that stands on ideas and techniques set to improve employee motivation, efficiency and performance. The HRM models makes necessary emphasizes: search for new ways and methods of working key role of managers in making progressive change treating all the workers as individuals encouragement of staff to think management as their partners instead of bosses Human capital is the important quality and capability of businesses especially in service based business. Human resources are some time major proportion of costs for many businesses. Management of such important and valuable resources is necessary for the success of business. Human resource management means recruiting employees, arranging their training to improve their skills, utilizing these skills, maintaining their performances and paying off their services as required. Employees are a value asset for an organization. The purpose of all this arrangement is to contribute in achievement of company or organization targets. Human Resource Management practitioners have modern view about workplace management comparing to the traditional thinking. As such, HRM techniques, when properly practiced, are expressive of the goals and operating practices of the enterprise overall. HRM is also seen by many to have a key role in risk reduction within organizations. HRM and Employees Performance HRM and organisational performance, evident in improved employee commitment, lower levels of absenteeism and turnover, higher levels of skills and therefore higher productivity, enhanced quality and efficiency . This area of work is sometimes referred to as ‘Strategic HRM’ or SHRM (. Within SHRM three strands of work can be observed: Best practice, Best Fit and the Resource Based View (RBV). The notion of best practice – sometimes called ‘high commitment’ HRM – proposes that the adoption of certain best practices in HRM will result in better organisational performance. Perhaps the most popular work in this area is that of Pfeffer who argued that there were seven best practices for achieving competitive advantage through people and ‘building profits by putting people first’. These practices included: providing employment security, selective hiring, extensive training, sharing information, self-managed teams, high pay based on company performance and the reduction of status differentials. However, there is a huge number of studies which provide evidence of best practices, usually implemented in coherent bundles, and therefore it is difficult to draw generalised conclusions about which is the ‘best’ way (For a comparison of different sets of best practices see Becker and Gerhart, 1996 Best fit, or the contingency approach to HRM, argues that HRM improves performance where there is a close vertical fit between the HRM practices and the company’s strategy. This link ensures close coherence between the HR people processes and policies and the external market or business strategy. There are a range of theories about the nature of this vertical integration. For example, a set of ‘lifecycle’ models argue that HR policies and practices can be mapped onto the stage of an organisation’s development or lifecycle. Competitive advantage models take Porter’s (1985) ideas about strategic choice and map a range of HR practices onto the organisation’s choice of competitive strategy. Finally ‘configurational models’provide a more sophisticated approach which advocates a close examination of the organisation’s strategy in order to determine the appropriate HR policies and practices. However, this approach assumes that the strategy of the organisation can be identified – many organisations exist in a state of flux and development. The Resource Based View (RBV), argued by some to be at the foundation of modern HRM, focusses on the internal resources of the organisation and how they contribute to competitive advantage. The uniqueness of these resources is preferred to homogeneity and HRM has a central role in developing human resources that are valuable, rare, difficult to copy or substitute and that are effectively organised. Overall, the theory of HRM argues that the goal of human resource management is to help an organization to meet strategic goals by attracting, and maintaining employees and also to manage them effectively. The key word here perhaps is “fit”, i.e. a HRM approach seeks to ensure a fit between the management of an organisation’s employees, and the overall strategic direction of the company (Miller, 1989). The basic premise of the academic theory of HRM is that humans are not machines, therefore we need to have an interdisciplinary examination of people in the workplace. Fields such as psychology, industrial relations, industrial engineering, sociology, economics, and critical theories: postmodernism, post-structuralism play a major role. Many colleges and universities offer bachelor and master degrees in Human Resources Management or in Human Resources and Industrial Relations. One widely used scheme to describe the role of HRM, developed by Dave Ulrich, defines 4 fields for the HRM function: Strategic business partner Change Agent Employee champion Administration Expert Human Resource Department Responsibilities Companies can have different departments, ranging from sales to human resources. Depending on the size of a company, the human resource department may have an entire staff. Employment opportunities found in the department include human resource coordinator, assistant and director. Human resource department responsibilities can involve understanding federal, state and local laws. Training and Development The human resources department assists companies with training and development. Companies train employees for different reasons, ranging from employee motivation to new technology. The length of training can differ from hours to weeks. Types of training can range from workshops to classroom participation. Some topics discussed in training sessions include employee safety and customer service. Benefits Companies must use different incentives to attract and maintain employees. After compensation, benefits are a common incentive to keep employees. The Society for Human Resource Management states benefits can involve federal and state requirements, such as unemployment insurance. Some companies offer a range of benefits. Types of benefits include dental insurance, vision insurance and paid days off. Compensation The Human Resources Department verifies that employees receive proper compensation. One form of compensation involves the amount of pay an employee receives in exchange for work performed, known as base pay. Commissions offer another form of compensation. Some companies offer only a combination of base pay and commissions, such as for a sales job. Staffing A company requires staff to provide products and services to its customers. One human resources staffing-related activity involves advertising. Advertising allows companies to match applicants with potential jobs. Forms of advertising can take place on employment boards, specialty newspapers or business websites. Other human resource activities involve contacting applicants for interviews and confirming each applicant’s background. Employee Exit Interview HR Tools indicates employee exit interviews can help organizations maintain retention rates. Another benefit from exit interviews is a company can obtain positive feedback about its compensation, benefits or training programs. The human resources department has the responsibility of scheduling and conducting exit interviews. The employee should feel comfortable discussing employment issues, so a private office is advisable for the interviews. Business Practice Human resources management involves several processes. Together they are supposed to achieve the above mentioned goal. These processes can be performed in an HR department, but some tasks can also be outsourced or performed by line-managers or other departments. When effectively integrated they provide significant economic benefit to the company. Workforce planning Recruitment (sometimes separated into attraction and selection) Induction, Orientation and Onboarding Skills management Training and development Personnel administration Compensation in wage or salary Time management Travel management (sometimes assigned to accounting rather than HRM) Payroll (sometimes assigned to accounting rather than HRM) Employee benefits administration Personnel cost planning Performance appraisal Labor relations HRM strategy An HRM strategy pertains to the means as to how to implement the specific functions of HRM. An organization’s HR function may possess recruitment and selection policies, disciplinary procedures, reward/recognition policies, an HR plan, or learning and development policies, however all of these functional areas of HRM need to be aligned and correlated, in order to correspond with the overall business strategy. An HRM strategy thus is an overall plan, concerning the implementation of specific HRM functional areas. An HRM strategy typically consists of the following factors:- “Best fit” and “best practice” – meaning that there is correlation between the HRM strategy and the overall corporate strategy. As HRM as a field seeks to manage human resources in order to achieve properly organizational goals, an organization’s HRM strategy seeks to accomplish such management by applying a firm’s personnel needs with the goals/objectives of the organisation. As an example, a firm selling cars could have a corporate strategy of increasing car sales by 10% over a five year period. Accordingly, the HRM strategy would seek to facilitate how exactly to manage personnel in order to achieve the 10% figure. Specific HRM functions, such as recruitment and selection, reward/recognition, an HR plan, or learning and development policies, would be tailored to achieve the corporate objectives. Close co-operation (at least in theory) between HR and the top/senior management, in the development of the corporate strategy. Theoretically, a senior HR representative should be present when an organization’s corporate objectives are devised. This is so, since it is a firm’s personnel who actually construct a good, or provide a service. The personnel’s proper management is vital in the firm being successful, or even existing as a going concern. Thus, HR can be seen as one of the critical departments within the functional area of an organization. Continual monitoring of the strategy, via employee feedback, surveys, etc. The implementation of an HR strategy is not always required, and may depend on a number of factors, namely the size of the firm, the organizational culture within the firm or the industry that the firm operates in and also the people in the firm. An HRM strategy can be divided, in general, into two facets – the people strategy and the HR functional strategy. The people strategy pertains to the point listed in the first paragraph, namely the careful correlation of HRM policies/actions to attain the goals laid down in the corporate strategy. The HR functional strategy relates to the policies employed within the HR functional area itself, regarding the management of persons internal to it, to ensure its own departmental goals are met. Career and Education Several universities offer programs of study pertaining to HRM and broader fields. Cornell University created the world’s first school for college-level study in HRM (ILR School). University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign also now has a school dedicated to the study of HRM, while several business schools also house a center or department dedicated. There are both generalist and specialist HRM jobs. There are careers involved with employment, recruitment and placement and these are usually conducted by interviewers, EEO (Equal Employment Opportunity) specialists or college recruiters. Training and development specialism is often conducted by trainers and orientation specialists. Compensation and benefits tasks are handled by compensation analysts, salary administrators, and benefits administrators. Professional organizations Professional organizations in HRM include the Society for Human Resource Management, the Australian Human Resources Institute (AHRI), the Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development (CIPD), the International Public Management Association for HR (IPMA-HR), Management Association of Nepal (MAN) and the International Personnel Management Association of Canada (IPMA-Canada), Human Capital Institute. National Human Resource Development Network in India. Functions The Human Resources Management (HRM) function includes a variety of activities, and key among them is deciding what staffing needs to have and whether to use independent contractors or hire employees to fill these needs, recruiting and training the best employees, ensuring they are high performers, dealing with performance issues, and ensuring your personnel and management practices conform to various regulations. Activities also include managing your approach to employee benefits and compensation, employee records and personnel policies. Usually small businesses (for-profit or nonprofit) have to carry out these activities themselves because they can’t yet afford part- or full-time help. However, they should always ensure that employees have-and are aware of-personnel policies which conform to current regulations. These policies are often in the form of employee manuals, which all employees have. Note that some people distinguish a difference between HRM (a major management activity) and HRD (Human Resource Development, a profession). Those people might include HRM in HRD, explaining that HRD includes the broader range of activities to develop personnel inside of organizations, including, e.g., career development, training, organization development, etc. There is a long-standing argument about where HR-related functions should be organized into large organizations, e.g., “should HR be in the Organization Development department or the other way around?” The HRM function and HRD profession have undergone major changes over the past 20-30 years. Many years ago, large organizations looked to the “Personnel Department,” mostly to manage the paperwork around hiring and paying people. More recently, organizations consider the “HR Department” as playing an important role in staffing, training and helping to manage people so that people and the organization are performing at maximum capability in a highly fulfilling manner. The Responsibilities of a Manager in Human Resources Planning The human resources department has many roles and functions. Historically, the department was responsible for recruitment and training within an organization. Human resources has evolved to include a wide variety of competencies that are necessary for an organization’s growth and success. Managers are in constant communication with the human resources department. Effective human resources planning requires managers and company executives to identify the needs of the company and develop a strategic plan to meet those needs. Recruitment The acquisition of experienced and qualified employees is vital to the success of an organization. Managers are responsible for interviewing potential candidates and making recommendations to hire a particular individual. Managers also attend recruiting events and evaluate applicants to determine whether the candidate’s personality will fit within the corporate environment. Retention Employee retention is an integral part of a manager’s responsibilities. Managers are obligated to ensure that employee work environments are conducive to individual success. Managers are responsible for motivating employees and developing programs that encourage good employees to remain with the company. Managers communicate the feedback they receive from employees to human resources so they may expand retention initiatives. These initiatives are designed to keep existing employees happy and satisfied with their jobs. Training Training within an organization is a work in progress. As new products are introduced or industry trends shift in a new direction, additional training and employee development will be necessary. Human resources departments watch markets closely to ensure their organizations remain up to speed on changes within their enterprise. Managers also must supervise employees to ensure that a lack of understanding of company products and services does not interfere with job duties. Further, managers are responsible for making recommendations that additional training be conducted if several employees fall behind on a particular objective. Employee Relations Employee relations involve many different aspects of human resources planning. Employee relations are events or situations that affect an employee’s well-being, such as managerial disputes or employee discrimination. Employee relations also involve employee salaries, benefits, health care and retirement. If an employee has a work-related issue, it is usually brought to the attention of his manager first. Managers are responsible for keeping employee relations matters confidential and referring complex issues to the appropriate department to remedy the situation. Job Duties for a Human Resource Specialist Human resource specialists provide a specific type of work in the human resources department of a business. Even though a person may specialize in any of several areas, the responsibilities of different specialists may overlap. Employee Recruitment and Placement Specialists in employee recruitment and placement manage the applicant screening process and hiring activities for open positions. They may seek out promising applicants through job boards or career fairs and help match them to appropriate jobs. Compensation and Benefits Specialists in this area design and administer employee benefit programs such as health insurance, retirement plans and flexible spending accounts. They must be knowledgeable about the various benefit programs offered by their company as well as laws that may affect these benefits. Job Analysis Job analysts determine job titles, develop job descriptions and designate position classifications. In some companies, job analysis is done by compensation and benefit specialists. Training and Professional Development These specialists provide employee training such as new employee orientation and continuing education. They often develop and present materials for professional development workshops. Labor Relations Labor relations specialists assist with the resolution of employee disputes and grievances, as well as contract negotiation and workplace safety. They negotiate with labor unions and act as liaisons between employees and management. Effective Interviewing Giving an interview is as nerve racking as having one! As an interviewer you want to get as much information from the interviewee as possible, so to do this you’re going to have to be nice to them! By making the environment calm and relaxing, both you and the interviewee will get the best from the interview. Before the interview, decide what information you require. It may help you to write yourself a list of questions or keywords, which will help the interview go smoothly. It is important that you listen to the candidate carefully, as well as getting all of the information you want, it will also help you to expand on the interviewees answers. Try to avoid asking questions together as this may confuse the candidate, as well as giving them the option to avoid certain questions. Glossary Of Terms Added Value often refers to the analysis undertaken by management of the cost and contribution made by employees involved at each stage in the process of producing a product or providing a service. Appraisal Schemes – an individual’s performance is reviewed by their manager. Their past performance is examined and future goals are set. Benchmarking measures standards of performance against others doing similar work. Business Process Re-engineering (BPR) refers to the methods by which a company or service undertakes a thorough review of all its operations. Business Units often have their own Trading Accounts and operate with relative autonomy from the rest of the company or service. Continuous Improvement (Kaizen) requires employees to constantly seek ways of improving the quality of the product or service. Delayering is the removal of middle layers of management resulting in a ‘flatter’ management organisation. Dismissal is when you are removed from employment Empowerment/Enablement are strategies aimed to give people more control and responsibility for their work Flexibility describes changes in the size of the workforce, depending on short-term changes in market conditions Management-by-Objectivesmeans each management team identifying its key tasks and goals and using these as a yardstick against which performance is measured. Multi-Skilling is the increase of the skills base of the workforce, usually bringing in new technology Multi-tasking requires for staff to take on a wider range of tasks, usually involving on-the-job training Outsourcing occurs when management invites external contractors to undertake work that was previously done by in-house staff. Performance Indicators measure the improvements in throughputs, outputs and outcomes. Performance Related Pay (PRP)links an individuals performance with their pay. Different schemes have been set up to measure Team Building brings together employers and employees, with the goal of increasing performance by strengthening relationships within the workplace Total Quality Management (TQM)usually involves the introduction of continuous monitoring. It refers to initiatives designed to improve the quality of products and services to meet customer’s requirements. Title Human resource management: a problem-solving approach linked to ISLLC standards G – Reference, Information and Interdisciplinary Subjects Series Authors Jerry R. Baker, Madeleine S. Doran Edition 2, revised, illustrated Publisher R