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Design of Phenomenological Research

This is a philosophical movement concerned with the study of conscious experience, from the point of view of the first person (Moran, 2000). There is emphasis on the intentionality of experience – that is, the idea that conscious experience is directed towards some phenomena, rather than being merely aimless. Such purposefulness is usually contained in the meaning that the first person ascribes to his or her experience. Human experience is said to be conscious, meaning that we are somehow usually aware of an experience as it is happening, as opposed to for example Sigmund Freud’s psychoanalytic view in which experience isn’t always conscious. Conscious experience is defined in broad terms, incorporating a wide range of factors including sensation, perception, objects, events, time, self, others, space, sequence, emotion, logic, and so on, with particular emphasis on the meanings of these experiences (two individuals may have exactly the same experience, yet attach completely different meanings). Historically, phenomenology has been a fragmented philosophy, with numerous variations emerging and becoming established especially since the early part of the 20th century, deriving from works of philosophers like Martin Heidegger, Jean-Paul Satre, Edmund Husserl, G.W.F Hegel, Max Scheler, and others. The basic tradition of Anglo-Saxon European philosophy as we know it has been dominated by phenomenology throughout the last century, and currently provides the philosophical basis for a major part of clinical studies, usually subsumed under the heading of qualitative research. EXPERIMENTAL (SCIENTIFIC) APPROACH Scientific experimentation forms part of the wider traditional positivist doctrine, developed by Auguste Comte during the early part of the nineteenth century (Coolican, 1994). Positivism dictates that only phenomena that can be quantified and measured, are worthy of scientific experimentation. Emerging from this philosophy is the hypothetico-deductive doctrine, which entails making observations, developing theories, formulating and testing predictions from those theories, and modifying or supporting the theory accordingly. This procedure is what many researchers refer to as the ‘scientific method’. Experimentation is often regarded as the ‘gold standard’ in scientific (clinical) research. It entails the deliberate manipulation of variables under controlled conditions, in order to establish causality, and important factor in clinical settings. Control is achieved primarily by random allocation of participants to conditions, effectively distributing any differences between people evenly across the conditions, and hence ‘balancing things out’. Many experiments are also conducted in a controlled environment, such as laboratory. Experimentation is underpinned by a number of assumptions, including the idea that people can be isolated from their social environment and treated as a group rather than as individuals. Furthermore, it is possible for the researcher to remain objective, remaining distant from the subject and hence having no influence on their behaviour. RESEARCH METHODS Aims and Objectives Phenomenological research is exploratory, seeking to understand people’s conscious experiences through that persons’ own viewpoint, what ever it may be. By contrast experimentation focuses on testing specific hypotheses, which have usually been selected by the researcher, hence reflecting the researchers own perspectives, rather than those of the participant. For example, take the case of a patient who has recently being diagnosed as anorexic. She is receiving treatment but there is a need for research to establish whether the treatment is having the desired effect. Phenomenology will focus on the patient’s own conscious experience of anorexia and recovery, and the meaning she attaches to these experiences. For example, the individual may view anorexia as a devastating experience with feel that she is not recovering despite her treatment. The whole experience may have created a sense of revulsion about her condition and pessimism about the recovery. The phenomenologist will try to explore – to use Husserl’s Greek terms – her “noesis” or intentional act of consciousness (e.g. her beliefs and feelings) and “noematic”, meaning the object or phenomena (anorexia, recovery). By contrast, the experimenter will aim to test hypotheses that the treatment is or isn’t effective in eliciting recovery, which will be appraised in quantifiable terms, such as changes in body-mass index, blood sugar levels, and blood pressure. Given the different aims/objectives (i.e. exploration, hypothesis testing), the experimenter and phenomenologist could arrive at completely different conclusions. For example, the patient may feel and believe they are not getting better albeit experimental (medical) parameters suggest otherwise. Research Questions
Taibah University Psychology Behavior Modification Project.

Answer each set of questions below. Please number your answers to correspond to each numbered question set below, and please write complete sentences. Your responses will be graded for quality and thoroughness in response to each question (at least 2 sentences per question) and communicating clearly that you understand the learning principles in these questions. Revisit M 4.3 readings and videos, as well as your notes and slides to help you work on this.The Present Situation: Identifying learning principles in your current behaviorThe “problem” behavior: Briefly but clearly describe the current behavior you plan to change. Describe your current behavior, in detail, as it typically occurs lately; What time of day? How often? With whom? How do you feel when doing it? It may be a good idea to do some self-observation for a day or two, taking notes about the circumstances that surround the behavior you want to change to prepare you to answer this question. What does the current behavior look like in your daily life?The conditioned stimuli: Based on your answer to question 1, identify the stimuli in your environment that have become associated with the problem behavior you wish to change (associative learning; classical conditioning). These are situations or other behaviors that come before or at the same time as the problem behavior, and may implicitly “trigger” you to do the problem behavior. For example, a person who wants to quit smoking might notice that they typically smoke while drinking coffee; coffee-drinking has become a conditioned stimuli for the desire to smoke. They might also notice that they smoke whenever they get in their car, and so now the car has become a conditioned stimuli for smoking (perhaps implicitly). If they want to quit smoking, they may need to change their relationship with coffee, and perhaps change something about the interior of the car or their habits when they get in the car to help break this learned association. What are the conditioned stimuli that you are noticing may be associated with the problem behavior?The reinforcers: Identify the reinforcers that are keeping the problem behavior going (associative learning; instrumental or operant conditioning). Be thorough and honest with yourself when trying to identify what rewards (positive reinforcement) or unpleasant things you get to avoid or reduce (negative reinforcement) by engaging in the problem behavior. For example, a person who wants to quit smoking may recognize that this problem behavior is negatively reinforced because it temporarily decreases tension; it may be positively reinforced if the person experiences added enjoyment talking with friends while smoking. Identify the various reinforcements (positive and negative) that are currently keeping the problem behavior going for you.Creating Your Plan for ChangeThe new behavior is the goal behavior change, or the habit you want to develop to replace the old, problem behavior. Remember, one cannot merely stop doing something; something different is happening in the old behavior’s place. If your plan is to “just stop” doing the problem behavior, the change is not as likely to last. For example, someone stopping overeating will not stop eating entirely as a healthy new behavior; he or she will eat differently perhaps by portioning meals smaller on the plate (new behavior) or changing from eating several times per day to three times per day on a schedule (new behavior). Describe the new behavior that will replace the old, and remember to choose a new behavior that is S.M.A.R.T. (Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Relevant, and Time-Limited). What will you do instead of the problem behavior?Conditioning new stimuli: Objects or events you plan to associate with the new behavior to help it become established. For example, someone trying to quit drinking caffeine in the afternoon may set a timer for 2:00pm to remind her/him to fill up their water bottle and take a brisk walk (associating afternoons with new behaviors that will help reduce afternoon fatigue in place of coffee). What new conditioned stimuli will you train yourself to associate with the new behavior, and how?The reinforcements for the new behavior: These need to be both immediate and long range. Plan specific, positive reinforcements and set specific times when they will be received. For example, someone trying to quit smoking may reward him/herself at the end of each day that they successfully chewed gum or called a friend instead of smoking by eating one small piece of candy (positive reinforcement). At the end of one month with no cigarettes, she/he might purchase something equivalent to the value of the cigarettes they did not buy. How will you be rewarded for the new behavior?Integrating Biological, Cognitive, or Developmental factors: So far we have discussed some of the biological, cognitive, and developmental factors that shape human psychology. Identify and describe at least one biological, cognitive, or developmental key term from Modules 2, 3, or 4 that may impact (support or hinder) your success in changing the new behavior.Road Blocks: With any behavioral change there are likely to be obstacles that have the potential to interfere with success, but these obstacles will be easier to overcome if you prepare for them ahead of time. For example, someone who wants to get more sleep, but tends to stay up very late with their roommate may plan to tell his roommate that he is working on this change and ask for their support. What are some potential obstacles (which could come from answer 7), and how do you plan to overcome them?
Taibah University Psychology Behavior Modification Project

Nursing theories guide the way for nursing practice; it often redirects communal understandings grounded upon nursing paradigms or meta-paradigms. Meta-paradigm are defined by Fawcett (2005) “as the global concepts that identify the phenomenon of central interest to a discipline, the global propositions that describe the concepts, and the global propositions that state the relations between or among the concepts” (p. 4). Different nursing theories offer prospects for various methods and approaches to care, thus permitting nurses to be innovative and creative in their practice approaches. Theories provide meaning to nursing practice in everyday life through health promotion. McCarthy and Aquino-Russell (2009) explain that “Nursing is a unique, evolving, ever changing profession for which theory can be used as a guide for practice” (p. 34). The purpose of this paper is to give brief introduction and assumptions of Dorothea Orem’s self-care model (1971) and Callista Roy’s adaptation theory (1970), along with compare and contrast of both the theories in relationship of the four concepts of the nursing meta-paradigms which consist of person, health, environment, and nursing. In addition, these two theories will be compared through their application to a clinical practice. Essential concept of Orem’s Theory Dorothea Orem is considered as a pioneer in the development of distinct nursing knowledge (Fawcett, 2005). Orem’s theory is constructed on the basis that person has the inborn ability, right, and responsibility to care for oneself. Therefore in Orem’s theory a concept of human development is reflected that maturation and development is escorted by self-reliance, a desire to be self-directing, and to encourage others to be so (Clark, 1986). Her theory focuses on each individual’s ability to perform self-care. Orem explains, Self-care is a learned behaviour that a person performs for self (when able) that contribute to maintain health, life, and well-being (George, 2002). The basic conditioning factors that affects individual ability to engage in self-care explained by George (2002) are age, gender, developmental stage, health state, socio-cultural factors, health care system factors, family system factors, activities of living, environmental factors and resource adequacy and availability. She views care from the patient’s perspective where patients provide self-care with varying degree of assistance from the nurse. The fundamental basis of her theory is that every individual can take responsibility for their health and health of others. This means every person has the capability to take care of themselves and their dependents. Three theories evolve from the self-care model which includes theory of self-care, theory of self-care deficit and theory of nursing systems. Self-care demands are therapeutic actions to meet the self-care requisites through appropriate action and self-care requisites are the needs that are universal or related with development or deviation from health. Besides, she explains that nursing intervention may be aimed at maintaining health, preventing illness, or restoring health. Essential concept of Roy’s Model Roy’s model is a conceptual framework that guides nursing practice, directs research and influences education. Callista Roy’s model focuses on individuals’ ability to adapt with the environment. According to Phillips (2010) Roy’s adaptation model presents person as a holistic adaptive system who is in continuous interaction with the internal and external environment. The key task of the human system according to Roy is to keep integrity to environmental stimuli. The original basis and assumptions of Roy’s adaptation model is Bertalanffy’s (1968) general system theory and Helson’s (1964) adaptation theory. In Roy’s model, Adaptation refers to “the process and outcome whereby thinking and feeling persons as individuals or in groups, use conscious and choice to create human and environmental integration” (Roy

Cuyamaca College Social Control Through Criminal Justice System Essay

Cuyamaca College Social Control Through Criminal Justice System Essay.

Write a double spaced three page paper (not including a citation page) that researches a single policy or program that has been implemented by a law enforcement agency, court system or corrections system. The policy or program must be very specific. elements to include in paper:
Identify the problem the policy or program sought to address. Indicate the reasons, history, or intent that led to the creation of the program or policy. Be specific!
Review the history of the particular policy or program
Discuss any controversies the enactment of the policy or program created
Analyze the impact of the policy/program and discuss any controversies it has generated.
Evaluate the effectiveness of the policy and briefly discuss any alternatives Cite sources (use at least two) and use standard style MLA. Criminal Justice Policy, Procedure and Program Evaluation. I still haven’t decided on which policy in specific but ideas are always welcomed. (:
Cuyamaca College Social Control Through Criminal Justice System Essay

Crimes Against Persons and Property

online dissertation writing Crimes Against Persons and Property. Paper details   The following discussion comes from your week 7 readings. Outside research to address these issues is encouraged. I would suggest using the online library for additional sources of information and research. In addition, I would recommend utilizing the legal studies program guide. Please remember to cite your references. Mary ran a watch repair shop. A customer brought her a very unusual and costly watch to repair. Mary knew that she could not fix the watch, but out of curiosity she wanted to inspect it. Therefore, she told the customer that she could do the job and took the watch. Michael rented the shop and also an apartment above the shop to Mary. That night as Michael happened by, he saw a light on in the shop and finding the door unlocked, decided to investigate. While looking around the shop, Michael spotted the watch. Supposing that the watch belonged to Mary, and recalling that she was much behind in her rent, Michael decided to take the watch and keep it until Mary paid. Just as Michael was leaving the shop, Mary entered. Afraid of an altercation, Michael tossed her the watch and ran out. He was already well beyond throwing distance when Mary, by now enraged, picked up a heavy pendulum weight and hurled it at Michael. The weight fell harmlessly to the ground. Using the Model Penal Code- Answer the following: Did Mary commit Embezzlement, Theft, Larceny or Robbery with respects to the watch? Discuss why. Remember to support your position. Did Mary commit an Assault, a Battery or an “Assault and Battery” against Michael? Discuss why. Remember to support your position.Crimes Against Persons and Property

discussion forum

discussion forum. I’m stuck on a Health & Medical question and need an explanation.

Practicum: Population Cultural Considerations and Genetic Predispositions

Overview: This week, you’ll identify any genetic predisposition your chosen population has to a particular disease and develop primary practice interventions that reflect the cultural considerations of the population. Then, you’ll develop culturally appropriate, measureable interventions to help your population members maintain an optimal state of health, avoiding the problem that you identified them being at risk for developing.

Practicum Discussion: Culturally aware nurses recognize that states of health are revealed differently across cultures and ethnicities. Culture and ethnic background will affect the way each individual responds to health, illness, and death (Stanhope & Lancaster, 2016). These nurses are also aware of their own biases, which may affect the care they provide to others (Stanhope & Lancaster, 2016). Because most nurses work in institutions with individual patients, they are accustomed to delivering culturally competent care on a one-on-one basis. When a public health nurse deals with a population, he or she must consider how the population culture affects the ways in which the community nurse may interact. This can be with regard to the provision of education or mass health care needs such as those required in a foodborne illness, if mass vaccinations are needed for a communicable disease outbreak, or if education is required to prevent heart disease. In addition to understanding the nuances of the culture of a population, community health nurses must understand the role genetics play in health. Some disorders, such as glaucoma and diabetes, have a genetic link, as do some cancers, such as breast and ovarian.
Please discuss the following questions in your Practicum Discussion:

Provide a few examples of community resources that should be put in place to assist your population in resolving their health care needs. What gaps in service do you see that affect your population?
Are there any cultural considerations that might inform your approach to caring for this population?
Does your population have a genetic predisposition to the health care problem you have identified?
Identify at least one evidence-based, culturally competent behavior change that would promote health for your selected population and for the specific health care problem you are addressing?

By Day 4
Post your response to this Discussion.
Support your response with references from the professional nursing literature.
By Day 7
Read two or more of your colleagues’ postings from the Discussion question. As a community of practice, help each other refine and clarify the health problem remembering that this project focuses on primary prevention strategies at the community and system level of care.
Respond to at least two colleagues. Your responses should be substantial and should contribute ideas, tools, alternate points of view, resources, and information related to identified health problems.
For all posts, be sure to use evidence from the readings and include in-text citations. Avoid quotes; paraphrase to incorporate evidence into your own writing. A reference list is required. Use the most current evidence (usually ≤ 5 years old).
discussion forum

Answer the following questions, please provide the page number and location. Describe how the lungs and kidneys regulate volatile and

Answer the following questions, please provide the page number and location. Describe how the lungs and kidneys regulate volatile and. Answer the following questions, please provide the page number and location. Describe how the lungs and kidneys regulate volatile and fixed acids. Describe how the equilibrium constant of an acid is related to its ionization and strength. Define open and closed buffer systems. Explain why open and closed buffer systems differ in their ability to buffer fixed and volatile acids. Explain how to use the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation in hypothetical clinical situations. Describe how the kidneys and lungs compensate for each other when the function of one is abnormal. Explain how renal absorption and excretion of electrolytes affect acid-base balance. Classify and interpret arterial blood acid-base results. Explain how to use arterial acid-base information to decide on a clinical course of action. Explain why acute changes in the carbon dioxide levels of the blood affect plasma bicarbonate ion concentration. Calculate the anion gap and use it to determine the cause of metabolic acidosis. Describe how standard bicarbonate and base excess measurements are used to identify the nonrespiratory component of acid-base imbalances. Key Terms: Please provide the definition for the following key terms. acid acidemia alkalemia base base excess (BE) buffer base closed buffer system conjugate base equilibrium constant fixed (nonvolatile) acids Henderson-Hasselbalch (H-H) equation hypercapnia hypocapnia isohydric buffering metabolic acidosis metabolic alkalosis open buffer system paresthesia respiratory acidosis respiratory alkalosis reabsorption standard bicarbonate volatile acidAnswer the following questions, please provide the page number and location. Describe how the lungs and kidneys regulate volatile and