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Descriptive Statistics Central Tendency and Variability Discussion Paper

Descriptive Statistics Central Tendency and Variability Discussion Paper.

Central Tendency and VariabilityUnderstanding
descriptive statistics and their variability is a fundamental aspect of
statistical analysis. On their own, descriptive statistics tell us how
frequently an observation occurs, what is considered “average”, and how
far data in our sample deviate from being “average.” With descriptive
statistics, we are able to provide a summary of characteristics from
both large and small datasets. In addition to the valuable information
they provide on their own, measures of central tendency and variability
become important components in many of the statistical tests that we
will cover. Therefore, we can think about central tendency and
variability as the cornerstone to the quantitative structure we are
building.For this Discussion, you will examine central tendency
and variability based on two separate variables. You will also explore
the implications for positive social change based on the results of the
data.To prepare for this Discussion:Review this week’s Learning Resources and the Descriptive Statistics media program.For additional support, review the Skill Builder: Visual Displays for Categorical Variables and the Skill Builder: Visual Displays for Continuous Variables, .Review the Chapter 4 of the Wagner text and the examples in the SPSS software related to central tendency and variability.From
the General Social Survey dataset found in this week’s Learning
Resources, use the SPSS software and choose one continuous and one
categorical variable Note: this dataset will be different from your Assignment dataset).As you review, consider the implications for positive social change based on the results of your data.Post, present, and report a descriptive analysis for your variables, specifically noting the following:For your continuous variable:Report the mean, median, and mode.What might be the better measure for central tendency? (i.e., mean, median, or mode) and why?Report the standard deviation.How variable are the data?How would you describe this data?What sort of research question would this variable help answer that might inform social change?Post the following information for your categorical variable:A frequency distribution.An appropriate measure of variation.How variable are the data?How would you describe this data?What sort of research question would this variable help answer that might inform social change?Be
sure to support your Main Post and Response Post with reference to the
week’s Learning Resources and other scholarly evidence in APA Style.
Descriptive Statistics Central Tendency and Variability Discussion Paper

English Language and Literature homework help. I need this short writen assignment paragraph done by thursday. Below are the instructions and lesson overview.Instructions:Compare and contrast oratorio and opera. Your opinion is valuable. Please expand on what you have read here and elsewhere. Paraphrase the comparison and refer to the listening examples to help make your point. Remember, this lesson extends into the Viennese and Romantic periods. In your answer, consider whether the later operas follow the traditions of the early opera by Monteverdi.ÿ ÿ ÿ Search the Internet or the library for the termsÿoperaÿandÿoratorio. To narrow your search, you could type the words opera oratorio history (only sites with all these terms are returned). Or look up the phrase “opera history.” Putting the words between quotation marks gives you information on the whole phrase. (Try different words or phrases, depending on your area of interest, e.g., “Don Giovanni,” “program notes.”)You will refer to these selections in your writing assignment. Also, you may want to refer toÿtheseÿDon Giovanniÿby Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart -ÿ Walkreÿby Richard Wagner -ÿÿexcerpt by Giuseppe Verdi -ÿ BohŠmeÿby Giacomo Puccini -ÿ 6 – The Baroque Period – Special Focus: The Oratorio & OperaOverviewEmphasis on detail, an increased concern for expression of emotion, and a love of contrast are the hallmarks of the Baroque period. Such composing giants as Bach and Handel make their appearance in this period, and instrumental music is as popular as vocal music. The smoothness of Renaissance polyphony gives way to varied textures, and the elaborate treatment of polyphonic text gives way in some vocal music to a focus on making the words more speech-like and clear, which is the birth of opera. Dramatic arias contrasting with the recitatives allowed for large dramatic compositions.Both opera, and another vocal form, the oratorio, are explored in depth with a special listening assignment. The listening examples will take you into later periods so you can hear how this initial idea developed. As you will see, there are similarities between opera and oratorio, the greatest differences being that one is secular and acted out and the other is sacred and less staged.Opera Staging. This is a set up for a modern opera production in an ancient location (Hadrian’s Villa).What You Will LearnÿAfter successfully completing this lesson, you will understandúÿthe features that characterize Baroque music.ÿúÿthe revolution in vocal music that was started by the Camerata, a group of philosophers, noblemen, and some musicians in Florence.ÿúÿthe changing relationship ofÿrecitativesÿandÿariasÿin large musical dramas.ÿúÿthe features and development of opera and oratorio.ÿúÿthe new role of melody, tonality, and theÿfigured bassÿaccompaniment known as theÿcontinuo.ÿúÿthe major musical terms associated with the period.ÿúÿthe contributions of the era’s prominent composers.Ephesus AmphitheatherSummaryÿThe Baroque era was a period of detail, precision, and contrasts in the service of passion. It was another period where the energy started in Italy. In this case, it was the remarkable occurrence of a group of people, the Camerata in Florence, deciding on a new form of music (however much they hoped it was like ancient Greece). The development of monody, with its solo voice andÿbasso continuo, was a departure from the Renaissance ideal of four equal voices in counterpoint, which had tended to obscure the text. It led not only to a style of songs but also formed the basis of the recitative in opera, as well as the move in instrumental music to a melody with bass and harmonic accompaniment. While these elements had widespread appeal, Handel, Bach, and other giants of this period continued to blend their influence with polyphony of extraordinary genius. And instrumental music became as popular as vocal music. The period also settled into the major and minor scales, abandoning the other church modes and making the tonic-dominant relationship the primary harmonic force.Dramatic vocal music forms have played an important role in the history of art music, especially in the Baroque era, when both opera and the oratorio developed. There are obvious differences between these two forms, but they share many similarities. As opera developed in later periods, it maintained many of its original elements, but developed new conventions and expanded in scope.English Language and Literature homework help
The traditional roles of language as a source of communication and representation of the speaker; communicative means of various cultural, national, geographical, historical and other groups vary greatly, thus showing the natural means of discrimination and belonging. However, the modern socio-cultural linguistics is changing its focus and making the emphasis on not only the usage of language as a reflection of internal qualities and intentions, but on the assistance it can render in reading the speaker and analyzing his or her identity through implemented linguistic means. Since the concept of identity has been traditionally considered abstract and more often collective, the present stage of socio-linguistic study marks the revelation of individual identities and group identity features in a separate individual clearly, on the empirical level of communication (Joseph, 2006). One more breakthrough in the socio-linguistic theory is the recognition of inseparability of language and identity. Joseph (2006) proves this point by giving an account of linguistic evolution as a means of social discrimination and performing social actions. In addition, language gave each distinctive group social cohesion and uniqueness, helping the community group members to distinguish allies and enemies (Joseph, 2006). There has been a variety of identity foci researched by socio-linguistics through the lens of language studies. One of the most traditional foci is gender; the differences in language usage, the dominance of linguistic means and syntactic structures are a recognized historical fact. However, the construct of social identity as perceived before, pertaining to the class to which an individual belongs, was put under question because of limitations it posed in the identity research. According to the opinion of Joseph (2006), the concept of social identity appeared much broader and much more comprehensive than simple belonging to a social strata; it included such features as the individual belonging to a social group, the self-concept of the individual, the fact of membership in that group, and the awareness of that knowledge by the individual (clearly subjective) (Joseph, 2006). This hypothesis changes the angle of considering the social identity concept, and allows the researchers in socio-linguistics take a more subjective, individualized outlook at what identity really means for the individuals possessing, constructing and exercising it. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This hypothesis is supported by the later research of Lane (2009) who investigated the meaning of cultural identity the two immigrant Finnish groups residing in Canada had about their “Finnishness”. It turned out that the two groups managed to have identical language dialects and the same household items, but their identity was surprisingly different because of differing meanings they attributed to them. By means of using the language and household objects, one group tried to reaffirm their identity that had been long oppressed during their residence in Norway. The other group simply continued to exercise the same routines and speaking patterns as it used to while living in Norway (Lane, 2009). This research provides clear evidence of the fact that even similar identity elements reflected through linguistic means may pertain to different symbolic meanings and intentions, while the individual him- or herself influences the personal identity through the prism of personal perception. The theory of cultural and national identity reflected through language is not new, and it shows how similar traits are attributed to the representatives of certain groups. The national identity has always been the focus of attention disregarding the individual effect on the identity and the possible range of deviations it can bring to the collective one. Therefore, the new trend in exploring the individual contribution to the formation of identity may produce many new findings for the development of the socio-linguistic theory. References Joseph, J.E. (2006). Identity and Language. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 486-492. Lane, P. (2009). Identities in action: a nexus analysis of identity construction and language shift. Visual Communication 8(4), pp. 449-468.

FNU HIV Infection in The US Prevention of The Disease & African Americans Essay

FNU HIV Infection in The US Prevention of The Disease & African Americans Essay.

I’m working on a nursing question and need support to help me study.

HIV Infection in US.Around 1.1 million people are living with HIV in the United States of America (USA). Nearly one in seven of these people are unaware they have HIV. The size of the epidemic is relatively small compared to the overall population but is heavily concentrated among several key affected populations.You, as a future FNP should be able to identify populations in US at highest risk and also highest incidence of this disease. Expose in a clear and academic matter what is the actual situation of this Infection in US and compare it with the status of the disease in your community.All material that you cite should contribute to your main argument (also called a thesis or purpose statement). At least 4 references supporting your posting are needed with less than 10 years of age.
FNU HIV Infection in The US Prevention of The Disease & African Americans Essay

ECON212 Beef Prices Reach a 30-Year High Video Discussion

online homework help ECON212 Beef Prices Reach a 30-Year High Video Discussion.

George Foreman was a professional boxer who made a comeback by endorsing grills. Foreman does not own the company that makes the grills, but he became the face of the brand. At first, people were not certain whether he was an expert on grills or fat-free cooking, but Foreman soon became thought of as the expert on this product and this type of cooking. Think of the concept of utility and how Foreman’s role as a celebrity endorser affects the marginal utility of these grill products. Some individuals may use a Foreman grill to grill beef. Please review this video:KCRA News (2014, April 16). Beef prices reach a 30-year high [Video File]. Retrieved from .
How do people’s budget, income, and substitution effects fit in?
How do you think this influences the demand curve for indoor grill products?
Are these choices made rationally?
Do you expect beef prices to increase next year? Why or why not?
ECON212 Beef Prices Reach a 30-Year High Video Discussion

The Development Of Psychology Psychology Essay

The Development Of Psychology Psychology Essay. Psychology officially started 1879 by Wilhelm Wundt who founded the first laboratory which specialised in psychology at the University of Leipzig in Germany. Here Wundt used controlled experiments to investigate ‘the mind’ using a method called ‘introspection’ which is an examination of one’s own mental state to gain insight into how our mind works. This approach became known as Structuralism and Wundt is highly regarded as the founding father of Psychology. Structuralism deals with the study of elements of the conscious mind, with the idea that the conscious mind can be broken down into basic elements hat combined to formed to the structure of the human mind. Although this was major breakthrough in applied psychology and research methods critics argued that structuralism is too concerned with internal behaviour, which is not directly observable and cannot be accurately measured. Introspection, while valuable as an attempt to apply a scientific method to studies of the mind, some of its results suffered from our inability to accurately report out thoughts and feelings. The second influential approach to psychology came in 1890, Functionalism. Although there was no specific founder of this approach, William James is considered the early speaker of it. Functionalism is influenced by Darwin’s views on natural selection and sought to explain the mental processes in a more systematic and accurate manner. Instead of concentrating on the elements of consciousness, functionalists focused on the idea of consciousness and behaviour. Functionalism also accentuated individual differences, which had a profound effect on education. Darwin answered questions about physical features whilst William James answered questions about behavioural features for example why humans experience jealousy. James’ book “The principles of Psychology” was a breakthrough for psychological literature and shaped the educational system we know today, particularly with regards to John Dewey’s (1902) idea that children should learn at the level of which they are developed. Wundt said of functionalism “It is literature, it is beautiful, but it is not psychology” (Wilhelm Wundt, as in Fancher, R.E., 1996). A major breakthrough in psychology’s history was the Psychodynamic approach founded in 1900, in which Sigmund Freud formed through his range of theories. Freud was majorly influenced by the works of Charles Darwin and his ideas of biological continuity amongst species. Freud argued that we should concentrate on the ‘unconscious’ mind rather than the conscious as our behaviour is determined by processes of which we are not aware. Freud believed our personality is made up of three elements, these are: ID, Superego and ego. Freud believed that to sustain a healthy personality you have to keep these elements balanced. He also believed that our behaviour is a result of early childhood experiences and personal motivation. Although this approach is still relevant today there a many criticisms of its methods, because psychodynamic psychologists need to interpret the material they have gathered, there are usually accusations of researcher bias. The fact that two different researchers can reach completely different conclusions in an experiment indicates that the methods lack objectivity. Other critics state that that the psychodynamic approach relies heavily on theories that are difficult to prove (for example the unconscious mind). This approach led to the next approach which is completely opposite. A pivotal moment that developed after the psychodynamic approach was Behaviourism. Behaviourism is a theory based on the idea that our environment and surroundings determine our behaviour. Behaviourists such as John Watson (1930) believed that the theory of learning can be applied through two types of conditioning: classical and operant. Classical conditions is a technique used in behavioural training in which a naturally occurring stimulus is paired with a response, for example Pavlov (1927) studied the way laboratory dogs would be conditioned to salivate without food. Operant conditioning is a method of learning that arises through rewards and punishment, an association is made between behaviour and a consequence for that behaviour. For example Skinner (1948) put rats in a special cage (called a ‘Skinner box’) that had a lever that when pushed would release a food pellet, the rats would learn and associate that the lever released food and therefore would keep releasing the pellets. Behaviourists only wanted to investigate observable behaviour unlike the psychodynamic approach. They also believe that people can learn to do things “Give me a dozen healthy infants… and I’ll guarantee to take any one at random and train him to become any type of specialist. I might select – doctor, lawyer, artist… yes even beggar man or thief, regardless of his talents… vocations and of his ancestor’s race” (John Watson, Page 82, 1998) Although psychology today concentrates more on the inner thoughts and feelings of its subjects, behaviourism has had a massive impact on everything from animal testing to parenting methods. During the 1950s in the USA, psychologists had a very different view on psychology. Humanism or the ‘Third force’ adopted a less scientific view on the human mind arguing that we should be focusing on a person’s uniqueness and ‘self’. The fundamental belief of humanistic psychology is that every individual can achieve mental health, simply by getting in touch with and actualising his real self. Humanists believed that there were three core conditions for a truly healthy self: Congruence, empathetic understanding and unconditional positive regard. Humanists are very much concerned with the present, as it is more beneficial to make choices in the here and now rather than dwelling on past events or trying to guess what may happen in the future. Humanism brought about a very positive view of the human mind which was met was many critics that said the theories were untestable. And although was widely accepted, was over shadowed by the invention of computer technology and the next approach. The cognitive approach focuses on the way humans’ process information, but it was the arrival of the computer during the 1950s and early 1960s that gave cognitive psychology the terminology and metaphor it needed to investigate the human mind. It assumes that the mind operates like a computer: storing and receiving data. Another assumption made is that our behaviour is generated by a sequence of stimuli and responses. Cognitive theories are usually carried out in a controlled environment as it helps the reliability and validity of the results. Many experiments have shaped this approach including psychologist Piaget (1950) who conducted experiments into child development. Piaget concluded that cognitive development can be divided into four phases. This way of looking at the mind has been a major influential approach and is what inspired cognitive behavioural therapy which is still widely used today. To conclude there were many reasons for the development of psychology; the USA took a more scientific approach to psychology concentrating more on behaviour as they consider the ‘mind’ unobservable and untestable and Europe took a more philosophical approach concentrating more on the human mind. All the approaches I have identified have had some influence on the psychology we teach and practise today. In my opinion I feel that the turning point for psychological research was the psychodynamic approach and Behaviourism. Freud’s theories on the unconscious mind today are still so relevant and I feel that because of his ideas we are so knowledgeable about mental health issues and childhood development. Without Freud’s theories on the unconscious mind or Pavlov’s ideas of conditioning we would not be so advanced in our understanding of the amazing human mind. The Development Of Psychology Psychology Essay

Essay 2: Rhetorical Analysis of Tompkins’ Argument

Essay 2: Rhetorical Analysis of Tompkins’ Argument.

Write a 4-6 page rhetorical analysis of Jane Tompkins’ “Indians’: Textualism, Morality, and the Problem of History,” using correct MLA Format & Style (Links to an external site.). Your essay should address each of the following REQUIREMENTS (though you may alter the order): fully introduce and articulate Tompkins’ major claim (use the Academic Meaty Sentence to make sure your introduction to her is complete) and summarize her argument, including her major claim and how she establishes kairos and exigence. Be sure to include your own thesis with regards to how persuasive her argument is for her intended audience;describe and explain Tompkins’ use of inductive reasoning and how it affects the organization and effectiveness of her argument as a whole;identify, analyze, and evaluate her appeals to reasoning (logos), credibility (ethos), and emotions (pathos) and the strategies she uses to make them. Discuss all three appeals and at least two strategies per appeal–it is expected that you quote directly from the text to support your analysis, using correct MLA in-text citation and Literary Present Tense. evaluate how persuasive Tompkins’ argument is as a whole for her intended, resistant audience, academic poststructuralist peers who read Critical Inquiry. Be sure to demonstrate mastery of MLA Format and Style, including the Works Cited page.
Essay 2: Rhetorical Analysis of Tompkins’ Argument

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