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Description Of Waterfall Model Information Technology Essay

The software methodology that is probably going to be used during the development of the project is the Waterfall Model. Its strong points lie in the fact that it is sequential, so there would be no confusion on the steps and the processes are straight down–no need to worry about so many conditions while working on a project. Additionally, this type of model tends to pack up on so much documentation. Therefore, such tends to be useful for future code revisions and reference. This model assumes the requirements to remain static during the life of the project, so there is little or no chance of incorporating new changes to the software once work begins. If changes are tried to be incorporated it leads to more confusion and further delays. The waterfall model is a sequential software development process. Following are the phases of waterfall model. Conception Initiation Analysis Design Construction Testing and Maintenance Description of Waterfall model [W1] The waterfall model, as described above, offers numerous advantages for software developers. First, the staged development cycle enforces discipline: every phase has a defined start and end point, and progress can be conclusively identified (through the use of milestones) by both vendor and client. The emphasis on requirements and design before writing a single line of code ensures minimal wastage of time and effort and reduces the risk of schedule slippage, or of customer expectations not being met. Getting the requirements and design out of the way first also improves quality, so it’s much easier to catch and correct possible flaws at the design stage than at the testing stage, after all the components have been integrated and tracking down specific errors is more complex. Finally, because the first two phases end in the production of a formal specification, the waterfall model can aid efficient knowledge transfer when team members are dispersed in different locations. Selection of the appropriate methodology: – For selecting the appropriate methodology a comparative analysis was done between various kinds of models i.e. Waterfall Model, Spiral Model and RAD to determine the best model for the proposed system. Table 3.0: Comparison of different Models How waterfall model will be useful in development of “Smart Whistle blower” software? Based upon the comparison chart the developer critically evaluates the waterfall model with contrast to the development of the system “Smart Whistle Blower” First of all as the project that we will be doing is an academic project and not a highly financial project so less risk is involved. Waterfall model is suitable for such type of projects because in other models like spiral there is risk analysis in every step that will be complex and even expensive. Secondly since the waterfall model follows simple and sequential software development methodology so it will be help full for the developer to complete each step with perfection and then move on to the next step. The modular approach in waterfall model is also one of the very important factor for which it has been selected. Here the designing of the interface will be finished first and then coding will be started. So, implementation phase will only be started when the designing is completed. This will be helpful because the developer will be able to know the system well enough to how to proceed with the coding part by looking at the interface designs. Another important factor for which waterfall model is selected for this type of software development because as it is a Network Monitoring and Management Software development so there may be some modules that can be dependent on a module that has to be developed first. For example while remote access of client PC, the software must have a module to first detect the PC and only after that further functionality involving on that client PC can be performed. So Waterfall model provides a modular testing approach, like each module will undergo testing phase before it has been finished. This will further help in interoperability issues and also integration of one module with another. Finally the requirements of this project demand high- quality fully functional software. So waterfall model is most suitable for this type of short-span project of one year because it follows simple software development methodology in which Progress of system is measurable and pre-defined strict sign-off of requirements is carried out before starting of any module. 3.2 Module Wise Development Plan Gantt chart 3.3 Evaluation and Test Plan In order to deliver a fully functional, a highly acceptance error-free system, the system shall involve a tremendous amount of evaluation or testing which needs to be done by various people (such as the person that the developer is planning to interview) throughout the system development. Clearly, a good testing should follow a few important principles and it should be carefully planned. The main testing procedures which will be performed during the development of the proposed system will be based on the phases of the Waterfall Methodology. In this methodology the design phase is followed by the implementation phase. Right from this point of development the Testing procedures starts. The procedures of testing during the consecutive phases of Waterfall model are: Unit Testing As software testing process, first the testing shall commence by undergoing unit testing for each modules that will pose a difficulty in understanding the logic. Unit testing ensures each module and function works properly. Basically, the system developer itself will be tester to perform the unit testing. Following are the features under which white box test will be performed. Intrusion Detection And Alarm Notification or SMS Module. Administrator functionality module LAN wire disconnected notification Basically, the black-box testing approach treats the system as black box or close box whereby the system tester will only know the formal inputs and projected results. Therefore, the system tester does not require to having detailed functional knowledge about the system and as well as how the program actually arrives at those results. In fact, the system tester tests the system based on the functional specification those we given to him / her. Black Box testing will be performed on the following features: Intrusion Detection And Alarm Notification or SMS Module. Administrator functionality module LAN wire disconnected notification Tester: Developer Number Of testers: 1 Integration Testing Different modules which will be working together will need to be integrated and tested to check their output. A bottom up approach will be followed to organize the tests. Integration testing will be done on Intrusion Detection And Alarm Notification or SMS Module. Administrator functionality module LAN wire disconnected notification Tester: Developer, network administrator Number of testers: 2 System Testing Next testing then shall proceed towards system testing where the software will be subjected to compatibility, security and performance testing. Tester: Developer, Network Administrator Number Of testers: 2-3 COMPATIBILY TESTING: Compatibility testing will be the last step. This type of testing is necessary to check whether software is compatible with all the operating systems. This testing will help to notify compatibility issues. Core Functionality Type of Testing Intrusion Detection and Alarm module Black Box Testing, Integration Testing, Network Monitoring
Park way nursing is also a business and, like every other business, it needs good management to keep it running smoothly. .The occupation, medical and health services manager encompasses all individuals who plan, direct, coordinate, and supervise the delivery of healthcare. Medical and health services managers include specialists and generalists. Specialists are in charge of specific clinical departments or services, while generalists manage or help to manage an entire facility or system. The structure and financing of healthcare is changing rapidly. Future medical and health services managers must be prepared to deal with evolving integrated healthcare delivery systems, technological innovations, an increasingly complex regulatory environment, restructuring of work, and an increased focus on preventive care. They will be called upon to improve efficiency in healthcare facilities and the quality of the healthcare provided. Increasingly, medical and health services managers will work in organizations in which they must optimize efficiency of a variety of interrelated services. The healthcare professions all involve life and death situations. In these situations, quality is crucial and quantity is irrelevant, Health care is continually changing in the way health care professionals like individual practitioners and clinical managers organize and deliver care to the patients. For this reason, health care knowledge must continuously grow and expand to keep health care approaches relevant, current and appropriate. Without new knowledge, health care professionals cannot improve techniques for therapies and even management. 2 Survey Results: Survey results suggesting that No of patients going up but the staff member’s quantity are still the same. The staff member having plenty of problems like injuries, incidents, absences. Lots of this problem indicates that AI is not good for the company. Hospital nurse staffing is a matter of major concern because of the effects it can have on patient safety and quality of care, members are worried because management only focuses on expand the business, but they couldn’t able to balance the ratio between staff member and patients. If the management doesn’t able to manage staff properly then the problem comes. The concern is certain things can’t calculate like caring of the patients, feelings, help, and relationship etc. The management should be develops service unit goals; identifies, plans, and coordinates new programs; reviews policy and procedure manuals to assure that they are current; provides expert nursing consultation to staff, patients and public; monitors and evaluates patient care for ethical, legal, and safe conduct; ensures proper and safe functioning of unit equipment and promotes individual and environmental safety; resolves patient care problems and provides direct patient care. The Nurse Manager makes final decisions regarding operations of work unit and defers to an administrative superior regarding policy decisions with broad impact or agency-wide scope. Problems Identification: Parkway having sufficient problem with staffing injuries, patient’s satisfaction, communication, absences, incidents with patients, many staff are dissatisfied with their jobs, shifting problem, stress…etc the most common problem are follows… Staffing Parkway focuses on filling the beds. Quality and service drop Staff and patients injuries Communication No of patients are increases but no extra staff. No Increment no bonus. Physical Demand Need to recruit strong new staff who can lift the patients easily Female nurses troubling to lift male patients Able to push the Beds, gurneys, and wheelchairs Communicate face to face with individuals Read, write, speak and understand the English language Documentation: (Electronic) Government requirement Staff has to learn new things A medical record should accurately reflect Electronic health records systems can also provide additional functionality, such as interactive alerts to clinicians, interactive flow sheets, and tailored order sets, all of which can’t be done be done with paper-based systems. Training Focus on filling beds: Shortages of staff but no of patients increase Management always need big business Not enough motivation Not enough staff Change Management Strategy: Any nature of business employees is a most important assets; this is why they created the Human Resource department. Its purpose is to manage, train and look after the workers of the business. It is also their responsibility to implement health and safety legislation at work and look after the employees. There are many roles that this department manages; these ultimately help the business to achieve its objectives. These include: Manpower planning. Recruitment and selection. Induction and training. Promotion and transfers Appraisal and termination of employment Rewards and conditions of employment. Working conditions. Career development and welfare. Wage bargaining and disputes. An effective and efficient business manages their employees or human resources well. The better this is done, the more the workers will be happier, better motivated, more productive and more responsive. Forms of resistance Leadership must come from the top level. Not enough staff against increase patient staff has to work long hours. Focus in the profit never increase staff position can worse. Documentation (Electronic) old staff using manual, if you go for new electronic system the old staff do not want to use new system. Patient staff injuries Absents . Resistance in Parkway People feel unsecure with their job. People not willing to take on additional responsibilities Lack of communication with management. Nurses not willing to let go of the bond that they have developed with the patients. Overcoming the resistances Improve the working environment. Train new people (if recruit new staff) and current staff too. Implement documentation (electronic) Communicate with the current employee that’s if they start new training is good for them once they know job is safe for them resistance ratio will come down. Try to reduce injury to patients as well as staff. Motivation Implementation : Our methods use several basic principles. You are always the leader – we only facilitate. When facilitating, demonstrating and teaching we use examples from our personal experience. If an exercise or workshop is needed you do not perform theoretical exercises. You will use actual live situations in your own organization. Here are some of the exercises that can be used in Leadership Implementation: Survey: You identify the areas which will get affected by change in the implementation in the first step. We conduct a survey that will reveal to you the size of challenge you face in implementation. It includes essential information for successful implementation: identification of positive/negative attitudes that will help or hinder critical tasks to make it happen, milestones that must be met and much other data for a successful plan. Breakthrough: This exercise focuses you on the one or two key elements that block the implementation. Once identified, we help you break through the blocks so that the implementation proceeds smoothly and quickly Start Event: This facilitated event is designed to communicate your message and the essential steps for a successful implementation. The audience is all the people that will implement or be affected by the process. The feeling of commitment out of this event is profound and without parallel in conventional training. Strategy Event: Strategy for implementation is required at many different levels. There is the overall master strategy. There are also mini-strategies within it. The most important are the many mini-strategies that departments, work-groups and individuals must use to adapt from their current state to the new process. The techniques used in this event make sure that they are comprehensive, pertinent to the master strategy, and truly implementable. Change Event: Most people are familiar with the Change Curve that describes the inevitable emotional reactions people experience before they finally accept and embrace a change. But how to straighten it? Or how to compress it? Whatever analogy you use, the techniques used here help people move through the Change Curve as quickly as possible. This accelerates the benefit of the implementation Communication Plan: A well executed communication plan is critical to the success of a new project. These techniques help you identify what must be communicated, how, the audience and the best methods. Executive Coaching: One of our central competencies is Executive Coaching. It covers CEO’s and all other executive levels. What sets our method apart is its focus on rapid results. Senior executives do not have time for multiple-year codependent therapy-like coaching relationships. The market environment rewards or punishes quarterly. Our method is attuned to this requirement for speed. The above examples are illustrative of some of our Leadership Implementation services. They can be used singly, such as Executive Coaching, or in combination for a full-fledged implementation of a new process, project, program or corporate culture change. Our Facilitators are experienced, trained and sensitive to the dynamics of group meetings. Their participation in your implementation will help you achieve optimum results – fast. Implement your project by contacting us at the phone, e-mail or address below. Creating a leadership strategy: Strategic leadership provides the vision, direction, the purpose for growth, and context for the success of the corporation. It also initiates “outside-the-box” thinking to generate future growth. Strategic leadership is not about micromanaging business strategies. Rather, it provides the umbrella under which businesses devise appropriate strategies and create value. Review the business strategy Leaders play a critical role during change implementation, the period from the announcement of change through the installation of the change. During this middle period the organization is the most unstable, characterized by confusion, fear, loss of direction, reduced productivity, and lack of clarity about direction and mandate. It can be a period of emotionalism, with employees grieving for what is lost, and initially unable to look to the future. In addition to forecast and amiability, the characteristics that leader must have are ability to recognize employees’ talents, the know-how to make teams work and an open mind. Leadership does vary to some extent as per the positions i.e. it may be slight different for manager and different for a union leader but the basic qualities of leadership does not change. 1. Good communication skill Communication is the key to be a great leader. The reason for this is simple: if he possesses the other nine leadership qualities but if he fails to communicate well, he will never be great leader. What he can do is communicate with others in the organization about what IT can do to move the company forward. In other words, good communication is the key for developing good business relationships. If he can’t establish a good business working communicate how IT can add long-term value to the company. The modern leaders must therefore be equipped with good communication skill and use new ways to do effective communication. 2. Honesty The most valuable asset of a leader is honesty. He must be honest with both his employees and the management committee. Another part of his features is integrity. Once a leader compromises his or her integrity, it is lost. That is perhaps the reason integrity is considered the most admirable trait. The leaders therefore must keep it “above all else.” 3. Visionary outlook Leadership qualities are different for different position. For a CIO he must be thinking for stabilizing the current business and always looking for future scope of expansion. He has to be able to look beyond where we are today, know where the business is going, and be able to use that vision to move the company forward. Being able to do this is a rare skill indeed. 4. Selectingagoodteam A good CIO although he possesses sound technical skills he assures that the team he selects is efficient enough to back up any skill he lacks. Choosing the best people for such team is a skill. A CIO after all is a human being and does not have answer for everything. But by working together he creates an atmosphere of mutual trust and respect; the team then always find the best solution. 5. Action speaks louder than words Managers must be able to put aside their concerns to listen to (and appear to listen to) those around them. As a result, they come know what is going on, and know what is both said, and said between the lines. They have the knack of appearing to know what people need even if those needs are not expressed directly. However, knowing what is going on, and identifying the needs of those around them is not sufficient. The responsive manager also acts upon that knowledge, attempting to help fulfill the needs of employees, superiors, etc. Responsive managers wield influence to solve problems for those around them, often before even being asked. 6. Ability to motivate people around a good leader must always keep motivating his team mates for good work and should maintain healthy environment. He must give first priority to safety of workers and see that they are not exploited by superiors. 7. Consistency Leadership effectiveness is impossible without consistency. Every leader has an approach that is unique to them. Don’t change your personal style radically after all; it got you in a leadership position. Modify the rough spots but take care not to confound your staff by displaying inconsistency. Your expectations, though subject to modification based on ever-changing business needs, should remain as constant as possible. The business world is confusing enough without you adding unwelcome surprises into the mix. Keep things simple and consistent. 8. Ability to stand against critics as the success rate increases your critics multiply and become louder. Come to peace with the fact that you will always have a camp of people who critique every decision you make. They are generally the ones who are excellent problem-identifiers rather than problem-solvers. Develop your skills of repelling such critics so that they do not diminish your confidence or enthusiasm. It takes focus and confidence not to be adversely affected by criticism. Strong leaders learn the art of listening to critics, but ultimately making decisions for the good of the department, not to simply please the critics. Identify the driver of strategy Management should introduce different types of elements. Focuses on customer. More opportunity Improvement Assess current leadership situation
Table of Contents Introduction Goals and Intended Effects Economic Risks Recommendations Conclusion References Introduction The control of inflation and circulation of money within a nation must be handled with due diligence and care to prevent deterioration of the economy. In such dwellings, the European Central Bank (ECB) is evaluating the benefits and failures that may arise prior to the launch of quantitative easing. Quantitative easing is a strategic creation of electronic money through unconventional policies in a bid to purchase assets (Krishnamurthy
Strategies for Confessions and Interrogations. Interrogation refers to a method of questioning that is usually used by investigating officers such as police, detectives, or military to obtain information from a suspect (Michael, 2007). Interrogation is a process that is allowed in law as defined by the constitution, but not all forms of interrogation are legal or even ethical from a moral point of view. In United States for instance the form in which interrogation must be undertaken in order to obtain a confession from a suspect are governed by the Fifth Amendment of the Constitution (Michael, 2007). The techniques of carrying out interrogation are not strictly defined by law but guidelines exist that define the limits by which procedures of interrogations must be done. Indeed the type of interrogations that exists and the form it can take are as varied as they are unethical. Generally interrogation techniques can be described in two ways, those that are legal and the ones that are carried out using illegal methods (Michael, 2007). Legal interrogations are defined by each countries law on the subject. However illegal interrogations are not specifically defined per se, but only categorized due to their nature, depth and breadth. The shapes in which illegal interrogation can take are many and cannot be exhaustively defined or even accounted. They are the most common types of interrogation that are usually subjected to suspects regardless of the countries legislation pertaining to the subject, including United States which is seen as the model of constitutional law. These forms of illegal interrogation are generally referred as torture (Michael, 2007). This is because they almost always involve inflicting of physical pain or deprivation of a vital necessity that directly contribute to normal body function such as sleep deprivation, alternating temperatures. However interrogation is not only limited to suspects but is also commonly done to witnesses and crime victims as well. Let us briefly analyze the nature of interrogations most commonly used both legal and illegal. In order to ascertain the level of significance of truth that exists for a person writing a confession under these circumstances. Legally there are four forms of interrogations that are routinely applied by law enforcement worldwide. One technique is use of suggestive words or statements that imply through conversation a notion of promise or threat to the person being interrogated (Kassin, Appleby and Perillo, 2010).. An interrogator therefore suggests to the suspect in no conditional or uncertain terms the possibility of the suspect being given lenient sentence if they were to cooperate. Or makes known availability of discriminating evidence that a witness to the crime has already recorded. This technique is also sometimes referred as deception since most of the time it involves downright lies (Kassin et al, 2010). Whichever the approach that an interrogator will choose it will have an impact to the suspect confessing to the crime. This is because under the circumstances of interrogation his rights will have been compromised. This method is not in any way defined as illegal in many countries, including United States. Another method of interrogations used is Suggestibility. It is built no two important assumptions, that the suspect will believe and accept the implied statements and two that they will act by confessing (Kassin et al, 2010). This method usually involves techniques’ such as sleep deprivation and sometimes use of drugs that inhibit the ability of mental functions to resist or think logically. The techniques used in this method seem to border on torture and are allowed in some countries as interrogation method. Another method is Goodcop/Badcop (Kassin et al, 2010). A technique used by an investigator that strives to alienate the suspect with the particular detective. The bad cop undertaking the interrogation intentionally exhibiting rough methods such as manhandling. Consequently, the idea is to make a suspect hate the cop and in the process be able to cultivate another relationship with another investigator brought in intermittently and who projects empathy, understanding and consolation. This is a notion that most researchers believe is part of the criminology theory. It elaborates on the main cause of crime, although this shall not be considered in depth. Finally there is the Reid technique, an interrogation process that focuses on a suspect body language to analyze the behavior of the suspect in order to tell if they are lying (Kassin et al, 2010). It is a technique that requires an investigator to have specific interrogation skills and high level of knowledge in behavior analysis. It is usually used by senior detective who have conducted numerous interrogation procedures. Body language analysis is an art that is taught to all FBI officers, that they apply in routine investigation tasks as Standard Operating Procedures (SOP). It is a legal form of interrogation allowed by almost every other country but it is not without it criticism. This criticism pertains to the conduct of the parties involved in the deed. Another method that is very much related to this is one that applies polygraph tests to suspects in order to tell if they are lying. Polygraph is a scientific device that analyzes brain structure activity and heart beat levels to ascertain the truthfulness of answers to statements (Kassin et al, 2010). The other forms of interrogations are the ones whose confessions are not admissible in court and usually involve torture. United Conventions Against Torture defines this type of interrogations as torture (Michael, 2007). But torture is not used to define illegal interrogation alone. It defines torture as “..any act by which severe pain or suffering, whether physical or mental. Is intentionally inflicted on a person for such purposes as obtaining from him, or a third person, information or a confession? It goes on to define torture as acts such as punishments without necessarily intention for information or confession (Michael, 2007). It also defines and includes discrimination and coercion as torture. This form of interrogation and torture in general is illegal according to the International Law. The Third and Fourth Geneva Conventions have ratified torture to be illegal even when directed to prisoners of war (Michael, 2007). UN Universal Declaration of Human Rights prohibits use of any form of interrogation which it considers to be Human Right Violations. The forms that illegal interrogations can take are many and sometimes the techniques themselves cannot be clearly explained to belong to one category or another. What is clear though is that interrogations in whichever form are an effective form of obtaining confessions, and certainly one of the methods that contributes to the success of criminal convictions in courtrooms. The Fifth Amendment of the United States Constitution, states”..No person shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself” (Michael, 2007), a clear reference to a confession. And if such evidence was presented in a court of law then the law is required to view it with suspect and observe discretion (Michael, 2007). Indeed the regulatory mechanisms that have been put in place to guard against coerced confession are numerous and are informs of legislative laws and court rulings. United States for instance provides that Miranda warnings be read to a suspect at the time of arrest (Inbau, 2008). The Miranda statement serves to make the suspect aware of their right under the circumstances. All this procedure indeed proves that the nature of confessions given by suspects through all forms of interrogations in general is usually highly doubtful. But since confession is a product of the interrogation procedure, the method of the interrogation is a huge determinant to the nature of confession that a suspect is likely to make (Inbau, 2008). For instance interrogation through torture can be said to be effective in one way. Since a suspect is more likely to divulge valuable information at times of unbearable physical pain than it is possible for them under any other circumstance. Sometimes the notion of threat is alone can achieve this. What is important to note in this case is that this method is probably only effective when the goal is information and not a confession. On the other hand using torture to obtain a confession cannot be said to present a high probability of the confession statement being truthful. For the simple reason that a person under dire physical pain or strived of vital physical necessities would almost do anything that would ease the pain at all cost. The priority in that case is to deal with the present condition regardless of the consequences associated with the confession. Perhaps the reason why most law enforcement agencies worldwide resorts to torture interrogation mostly when what they is require is information (Inbau, 2008). Torture is against human rights. Although in certain cases, torture will be recommended and opposed to other forms of interrogation. Torture should only be used when information that is critical to saving lives is required from a terrorism suspect. The torture employed should be a matter of personal preference until the suspect surrenders the pertinent information. However the likely hood of obtaining a truthful confession is seen to be high when legal interrogations procedures are used which plays on the suspects fear such as deny of freedom. And which also uses the components of promises, threats and deception appropriately. These are interrogation techniques allowed and the confession obtained is admissible in a court of law. However the interrogator should only be in pursuit for the truth since false confessions cannot be upheld by a court of law. Ultimately the nature of a confession that is obtained whether truthful or not through interrogation method does not matter so much. Since it is provided by law that confessions can be retracted at any point by the suspects if they just so much like mention their confession was not obtained in proper method. In any case conviction of a suspect does not so much depend on the confession by itself but is based on the outcome of a full trial. Hence I would say interrogation certainly results in truthful confessions, but it depends with the independent variable which is the nature of interrogation. Therefore interrogation method can be said to be the independent variable and the truthfulness of the confession as the dependent variable, since it outcomes is influenced by the method of interrogation. The ethical implications posed by the interrogation methods that are used are one that depends on the definition of ethics, since ethics is a relative term. If the saying that the end justifies the means were to hold true then indeed ethics must be found their place in the issues that surround interrogation. Ethics are defined as value, belief, principle and convictions that a groups of people hold to be noble in their life and which they strive to practice in their everyday life. It is the highest moral perception and ideals that a community works to promote and which they have desire to be associated with the larger community. Interrogation by itself is in no way an ethical process and the attempt to introduce ethics in interrogation methods would perhaps require that the purpose of interrogation be redefined. In interrogation a suspect is meant to divulge information that is usually self incriminating so to speak, through confessing probably to crimes committed. Interrogation aids in the preservation of human rights. Indeed, all suspects have equal rights as those who are free and have not been arrested. Hence, using this method ensures that the criminal justice agents do not go against the human rights as required by international law. Therefore, the suspects are required to be truthful and perhaps remorseful as well. In doing so an interrogator is supposed to achieve this according to defined ethical procedures that have been put in place. But ethics have no place in interrogation and one is therefore forced to choose between the two whether to choose undertaking the interrogation process using certain ethics that would probably not yield any confession. Or whether to use every technique in order to obtain the end results which is the confession. If ethics in interrogation existed then they would certainly not be found in coercion. Because coercion involves use of methods on a suspect that are meant to pressurize and presents a level of discomfort and lack of peace mentally that make a suspect yield to the demands of the interrogator. They involve such methods as bullying, harassment, physical force, intimidation including cruelty. It is certainly among the most degrading interrogation methods which are in no way ethical or humane. Therefore, interrogation is an effective method that is aimed at ensuring that the suspects release pertinent information. Although this has its own challenges, it should be the first method that the criminal agencies should employ. If this fails, then they should seek alternative methods which are normally more thorough and involve the use of force or inflicting pain. References Inbau, E. (2008). Law and Police Practice: Restrictions in the Law of Interrogation and Confessions. Criminal Law and Criminology. 89, 87-98. Kassin L. (2009). The Psychology of Confessions. Annual Review of Law and Social Science. 45, 22-35. Kassin, Appleby,Strategies for Confessions and Interrogations

STA 2023 Miami Dade College Statistics of Income Tax Worksheet

STA 2023 Miami Dade College Statistics of Income Tax Worksheet.

PROCEDURE:Topic:Average taxable income of Americans during the last 50 years.undefined Data Collection: The data that you have to work is in the file below.undefinedCollect meaningful raw data, according to the principles explained in Chapter 1 in two – three quantitative variables and two –three qualitative variables, related to the theme. Sample Size must be according to guidelines, given and following further principles in chapter 7, about necessary sample size. Use data from the office of the Census website, Wolfram Alpha search engine, Google, MDC Fl state databases, the Department of Labor Statistics, the Department of Health, the CIA World Fact book websites, the lib guides for math and stat at MDC Learning Resources and the corresponding organizations that poll the population of different countries. Produce real data collection, using sampling techniques as per Chapter 1 principles in your domain. Imperative the input of collected data in software worksheets, and the mastery of the main procedures as explained in class. If the project is developed in reference to the comparison of two populations with respect to a specific variable, collect the corresponding evolution of the structure of the population in each group (gender and ethnicity) and the average family income, for example, to declare the circumstances where the comparison takes place.Complete written report to discuss, using EDA for the five characteristics of data described in Chapters 2 and 3: full descriptors panel in MINITAB, Stem and leaf plots, Box plots, Normality test as in 6.5, Chi – Sq test of Goodness of fit and Chi- Sq test of Independence using MINITAB as in 11.1, 11.2) Correlation -Regression between two variables as 2.4 in MINITAB. Use Control charts for incorporate the analysis of outliers together the fences and Z-scores tools undefined(THE PREVIOUS POINTS ARE THE MAIN COURSE FOR PROJECT CHECK 1, IN EARLY WEEK VIII Submission by FEB 24, 2021, 11:59 PM via attachment to email)
STA 2023 Miami Dade College Statistics of Income Tax Worksheet

Grand Canyon University The Mental Health Equity Act of 2020 PPT

research paper help Grand Canyon University The Mental Health Equity Act of 2020 PPT.

Select a current or proposed health care policy that is designed to provide equitable health care for a diverse population. Create a 12-15-slide PowerPoint presentation discussing the health care policy and how it improves a specific population’s access to quality, cost-effective health care. Create speaker notes of 100-250 words for each slide. Include additional slides for the title and references.
Include the following in your presentation:

Describe the policy selected.
Discuss the diverse population that will be affected by this policy.
Explain how the policy is designed to improve cost-effectiveness and health care equity for the diverse population.
Discuss why the policy is financially sound and explain how the policy incorporates the nursing perspective and relevant ethical, legal, and political factors. Provide rationale to support your explanation.
Describe what state, federal, global health policies, or goals the policy is related to and explain the degree to which each helps achieve equitable health care for the diverse population.
Discuss advocacy strategies for improving access, quality, and cost-effective health care for the diverse population selected.
Discuss the professional and moral obligation of master’s prepared nurses to respect human dignity and advance the common good through working to promote health and prevent disease among diverse populations from a Christian perspective.

You are required to cite eight peer-reviewed sources to complete this assignment. Sources must be published within the last 5 years and appropriate for the assignment criteria and nursing content.
Refer to the resource, “Creating Effective PowerPoint Presentations,” located in the Student Success Center, for additional guidance on completing this assignment in the appropriate style.
Grand Canyon University The Mental Health Equity Act of 2020 PPT

Corporative Giving Backgroung Purpose Essay

Corporative Giving Backgroung Purpose Essay.

Do you believe that trends in corporate giving are simply marketing in disguise? Do you think this is a good or bad thing? i.e. can we argue that as long as the end result is positive, it does not matter what the corporation’s intentions were?Please make sure to:- use full and grammatically correct sentences- use correct spelling throughout your assignment- avoid making sweeping or generic statements (these add no value to an argument)- avoid deviating from the specific topic by incorporating other concepts, which while may be presented correctly, are not relevantWord count: 300-400
Corporative Giving Backgroung Purpose Essay

Life without computers

Nowadays, we cannot imagine our life without computers and the fact is that they have become so important that nothing can replace them. They seem to be everywhere today. Since 1948 when the first real computer has been invented our life has changed so much that we can call it real digital revolution. First computers differed from today’s ones. They were so huge that they occupied whole rooms or buildings being relatively slow. They were not faster than modern simple watches or calculators. Nowadays they are also used by scientist and they may also be as huge as the old ones but they are millions times faster. They can perform many complex operations simultaneously and scientist practically can’t do without them. Thanks to them people has access to enormous amount of information. Gathering data has never been more simple than now. They are not only used in laboratories but also in factories to control production. Sometimes it is computers who manufacture other computers. But not only in science and industry computers are being used. Thanks to them modern medicine can diagnose diseases faster and more thoroughly. Also in banking system computers have become irreplaceable. They control ATMs, all data is stored on special hard disks and paper isn’t used in accountancy any more. Furthermore, architects, designers and engineers can’t imagine their work without computers. This machines are really everywhere and we depend on them also in such fields as criminology. They help police to solve crimes and collect evidence. Moreover, computers are wide-spread in education. Except their classic tasks such as administration and accountancy they are used in process of learning. Firstly, they store enormous amount of data which helps students to gain an information. Secondly, thanks to special teaching techniques and programs they improve ours skills of concentration and assimilation of knowledge. They have become so popular that not knowing how to use them means to be illiterate. Of course except this superb features there is also dark side of computer technology because every invention brigs us not only benefits but also threats. HARDWARE Our PC (Personal Computer) is a system, consisting of many components. Some of those components, like Windows and all your other programs, are software. The stuff you can actually see and touch, and would likely break if you threw it out a fifth-story window, is hardware. The system unit is the actual computer; everything else is called a peripheral device. Your computer’s system unit probably has at least one floppy disk drive, and one CD or DVD drive, into which you can insert floppy disks and CDs. There’s another disk drive, called the hard disk inside the system unit. You can’t remove that disk, or even see it. But it’s there. And everything that’s currently “in your computer” is actually stored on that hard disk. (We know this because there is no place else inside the computer where you can store information). The floppy drive and CD drive are often referred to as drives with removable media or removable drives for short, because you can remove whatever disk is currently in the drive, and replace it with another. Your computer’s hard disk can store as much information as tens of thousands of floppy disks, so don’t worry about running out of space on your hard disk any time soon. As a rule, you want to store everything you create or download on your hard disk. Use the floppy disks and CDs to send copies of files through the mail, or to make backup copies of important items. RANDOM ACCESS MEMORY (RAM) There’s too much “stuff” on your computer’s hard disk to use it all at the same time. During the average session sitting at the computer, you’ll probably use only a small amount of all that’s available. The stuff you’re working with at any given moment is stored in random access memory (often abbreviated RAM, and often called simply “memory”). The advantage using RAM to store whatever you’re working on at the moment is that RAM is very fast. Much faster than any disk. For you, “fast” translates to less time waiting and more time being productive. So if RAM is so fast, why not put everything in it? Why have a hard disk at all? The answer to that lies in the fact that RAM is volatile. As soon as the computer is shut off, whether intentionally or by an accidental power outage, every thing in RAM disappears, just as quickly as a light bulb goes out when the plug is pulled. So you don’t want to rely on RAM to hold everything. A disk, on the other hand, holds its information whether the power is on or off. THE HARD DISC All of the information that’s “in your computer”, so to speak, is stored on your computer’s hard disk. You never see that actual hard disk because it’s sealed inside a special housing and needs to stay that way. Unlike RAM, which is volatile, the hard disk can hold information forever — with or without electricity. Most modern hard disks have tens of billions of bytes of storage space on them. Which, in English, means that you can create, save, and download files for months or years without using up all the storage space it provides. In the unlikely event that you do manage to fill up your hard disk, Windows will start showing a little message on the screen that reads “You are running low on disk space” well in advance of any problems. In fact, if that message appears, it won’t until you’re down to about 800 MB of free space. And 800 MB of empty space is equal to about 600 blank floppy disks. That’s still plenty of room. SCSI SCSI is a type of interface used for computer components such as hard drives, optical drives, scanners and tape drives . It is a competing technology to standard IDE (Integrated Drive Electronics). While the less expensive IDE technology is built into motherboards, SCSI is a technology that must be added by purchasing a SCSI controller. The SCSI card fits into an internal PCI slot. SCSI devices are then connected to this card. SCSI devices, particularly hard drives, are designed to be used 24/7 in addressing the needs of the server market. For this reason, SCSI drives are usually made to higher standards and carry longer warranties than IDE drives of comparable capacity. However, the added speed and quality come at a price. SCSI components are significantly more expensive than their IDE cousins. THE MOUSE Obviously you know how to use your mouse, since you must have used it to get here. But let’s take a look at the facts and buzzwords anyway. Your mouse probably has at least two buttons on it. The button on the left is called the primary mouse button, the button on the right is called the secondary mouse button or just the right mouse button. I’ll just refer to them as the left and right mouse buttons. Many mice have a small wheel between the two mouse buttons. THE KEYBOARD Like the mouse, the keyboard is a means of interacting with your computer. You really only need to use the keyboard when you’re typing text. Most of the keys on the keyboard are laid out like the keys on a typewriter. But there are some special keys like Esc (Escape), Ctrl (Control), and Alt (Alternate). There are also some keys across the top of the keyboard labeled F1, F2, F3, and so forth. Those are called the function keys, and the exact role they play depends on which program you happen to be using at the moment. Most keyboards also have a numeric keypad with the keys laid out like the keys on a typical adding machine. If you’re accustomed to using an adding machine, you might want to use the numeric keypad, rather than the numbers across the top of the keyboard, to type numbers. It doesn’t really matter which keys you use. The numeric keypad is just there as a convenience to people who are accustomed to adding machines. Most keyboards also contain a set of navigation keys. You can use the navigation keys to move around around through text on the screen. The navigation keys won’t move the mouse pointer. Only the mouse moves the mouse pointer. On smaller keyboards where space is limited, such as on a notebook computer, the navigation keys and numeric keypad might be one in the same. There will be a Num Lock key on the keypad. When the Num Lock key is “on”, the numeric keypad keys type numbers. When the Num Lock key is “off”, the navigation keys come into play. The Num Lock key acts as a toggle. Which is to say, when you tap it, it switches to the opposite state. For example, if Num Lock is on, tapping that key turns it off. If Num Lock is off, tapping that key turns Num Lock on. INTERFACE CONTROLLERS Interface controllers (parallel, serial, USB, Firewire) to connect the computer to external peripheral devices such as printers or scanners. GRAFICS Graphics controller that produces the output for the monitor. The term computer graphics includes almost everything on computers that is not text or sound. Today almost every computer can do some graphics, and people have even come to expect to control their computer through icons and pictures rather than just by typing. Computer graphics as drawing pictures on computers, also called rendering. The pictures can be photographs, drawings, movies or simulations — pictures of things which do not yet exist and maybe could never exist. Or they may be pictures from places we cannot see directly, such as medical images from inside your body. SOFTWARE Software is a generic term for organized collections of computer data and instructions, often broken into two major categories: system software that provides the basic non-task-specific functions of the computer and application software which is used by users to accomplish specific tasks. System software is responsible for controlling, integrating and managing the individual hardware components of a computer system so that other software and the users of the system see it as a functional unit without having to be concerned with the low-level details such as transferring data from memory to disk, or rendering text onto a display. Generally, system software consists of an operating system and some fundamental utilities such as disk formatters, file managers, display managers, text editors, user authentication (login) and management tools, and networking and device control software. Application software, on the other hand, is used to accomplish specific tasks other than just running the computer system. Application software may consist of a single program, such as an image viewer; a small collection of programs (often called a software package) that work closely together to accomplish a task, such as a spreadsheet or text processing system; a larger collection (often called a software suite) of related but independent programs and packages that have a common user interface or shared data format, such as Microsoft Office, which consists of closely integrated word processor, spreadsheet, database, etc.; or a software system, such as a database management system, which is a collection of fundamental programs that may provide some service to a variety of other independent applications. Software is created with programming languages and related utilities, which may come in several of the above forms: single programs like script interpreters, packages containing a compiler, linker, and other tools; and large suites (often called Integrated Development Environments) that include editors, debuggers, and other tools for multiple languages.