public goods question, economics homework help
public goods question, economics homework help.
There are two consumers in a neighborhood: Consumer 1 and Consumer 2. They consume a private good X and a public good T (trash collection). Overall level of provision of a public good (T) is the sum of consumption by both consumers: T = T1 +T2 . The price of a unit of a private good is $1. The price of a unit of T is $2. Both consumers have an income of $100. The utility function of each consumer is given by: U = log X + log(T1 +T2 )
Find socially optimal (efficient) level of production of a public good.
Find market (private) level of provision of a public good.
Compare answers to question 1 and 2. Do they differ? If the do, explain the intuition why.
Suppose the government recognizes, that there is a problem with a private provision of public goods. The government attempts to solve the problem by mandating that each consumer contributes at least $16 to the public good. The government collects $16 from each consumer and provides 8 units of the public good per consumer with this money. The total level of provision of public good in this case is T = T1 +T2 +16.
What will be the quantity of a public good provided in this case?
Compare level of provision of a public good in question 2 and 4. Does the government intervention in question 4 solve the problem of under provision of trash collection? Why?How is this related to crowding out.
public goods question, economics homework help
Education homework help
order essay cheap Education homework help. K201- Assignment 6ÿÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ1. New QuarterbackÿNarrative:Your team needs a new quarterback. You want to recruit one with a completion percentage of 60% or more AND more than 3500 yards. You would also recruit any that have 20 or more touchdowns AND less than 12 interceptions. In either case, they must be a free agent in 2016. Questions:1. Add columns as needed and create logical functions to identify prospects. (1.5 points)ÿ2. Sort so that the selected quarterbacks are listed first with a second sort by number of yards. (0.5 points)ÿ3. Add conditional formatting to identify desirable results in each column. (0.5 points)ÿÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ2. Exercise EquipmentÿNarrative: You have been working for the sales department for M&M Co. The company sells online exercise equipment. In addition to the cost of the equipment, customers are charged for shipping/delivery. M&M also provides its preferred customers some discount. You have been asked to help in determining the cost of each equipment sold to every customer. Questions:1. Modify and fix the formatting on this spreadsheet, which shows sales of exercise equipment. (0.5 points)ÿ2. Add additional info to this spreadsheet so that all other formulas can use cell references. a. Add $40 for delivery charge if applicable b. Preferred customers will get $50 off any item over $900 c. State sales tax is 7%ÿ3. Use an excel function to calculate the product cost (including delivery and preferred customer discount). (1 points)ÿ4. Use excel formulas to calculate tax (0.5 points)ÿ5. Use excel formulas to calculate total cost. (0.5 points)ÿÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ 3. Used CarsÿNarrative: Hello Motors Co. serves the community in South Bend area by buying unwanted cars, fixing them, and reselling them to the public. Hello Motors determines the selling price of a car by calculating how much money they have put into the vehicle, and then marking up the price by a certain percent. ÿThis percent is determined by the year when the car was manufactured (see the small table below the big one). Questions: 1. Create excel formulas that will calculate the markup percent and price of each car. (2 points: 1 point for each)ÿÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ4. WoodÿNarrative: Advances in science have allowed us to answer an age-old question. Studies show the amount of wood that marmota monax can chuck is dependent on its (a) sex, (b) weight and (c) mood. ? Sleepy woodchucks can throw half their body weight. ? Confused woodchucks can throw their own body weight. ? Irate Male woodchucks can throw twice their body weight. ? Irate Female woodchucks can throw 3.5 times their body weight. Based on the amount of wood thrown, scientists classify woodchucks as approachable, adorable, or deadly. ? Approachable woodchucks throw less than 4 lbs. ? Adorable woodchucks throw between 4 and 15 lbs. ? Deadly woodchucks throw over 15 lbs.ÿQuestions:1. Create IF functions which use cell references to calculate the weight of wood chucked for each of our woodchucks. (2 points)ÿ2. Create IF functions which use cell references to calculate the designation for each of our woodchucks. (1 points)Education homework help
The Importance Of Empathy In Health And Human Service Settings
Share this: Facebook Twitter Reddit LinkedIn WhatsApp This paper will analyze communication , (definition /description) and using empathy as a communication technique. The importance of empathy in health and human service settings, and how it relates to the relationships between providers and patients. How it should be used and the effects on the provider patient relationship in health and human service settings. Also how the techniques of empathy are positively or negatively used as it relates to the provider patient relationship in health and human service settings. According to Proverbs 15: 2-4 “Words are used for good or evil .” That same verse can be used to describe communication also. Communication matters. It’s not rocket science, yet it is a concept routinely ignored in the education of clinicians. Patients know that communication matters, and it is often poor communication in the face of a bad outcome that initiates legal action by the patient turned plaintiff. Numerous studies also indicate that communication between clinician and patient is the single most effective predictor of patient adherence to a treatment plan. If the clinician utilizes effective communication skills, the patient will become an educated participant in the treatment, thereby increasing the likelihood of compliance. One thing we all have in common is that we must all communicate in one form or another. Everyone communicates even if they know it or not. Both verbal and nonverbal communication is used during conversations. Using both forms helps convey and support the message you are trying to send. Up to 90% of all communication is nonverbal. The success of any relationship relies on one’s ability to communicate well. Communication is important in relationships as it allows people to share their interest, concerns, support each other; organize their lives and make decisions; and it allows people to work together. Effective communication is based on the way we talk and listen, and how we respond and our body language. We can all learn how to improve the way we communicate. It takes more than words to create a safe, exciting and secure relationship. Too often the signals we send are not those we intend to send. When this happens, both connection and trust are lost in our relationships. Communication is a process by which information is exchanged between individuals through a common system of symbols, signs, or behavior. ‘Communication is the exchange and flow of information and ideas from one person to another; it involves a sender transmitting an idea, information, or feeling to a receiver.”(Van Sellven 2010) Communication is much more than words going from one person’s mouth to another’s ear. In addition to the words, messages are transferred by the tone and quality of voice, eye contact, physical closeness, visual cues, and overall body language. Effective communication occurs only if the receiver understands the exact information or idea that the sender intended to transmit. Empathetic communication is a teachable, learnable skill that has tangible benefits for both clinician and patient. Interpersonal communication in a healthcare setting is no different from interpersonal communication in any other setting – with one significant exception. Someone’s life could depend on the ability of the health care professional to communicate effectively. When dealing with people effective empathetic communication enhances the therapeutic effectiveness of the clinician-patient relationship. Appropriate use of empathy as a communication tool facilitates the clinical interview, increases the efficiency of gathering information, and honors the patient. However, in a healthcare setting there is often a goal other than just sharing ideas. The goal may be to develop a new treatment plan or to educate a patient about the need for a particular something. “The clinician needs to be aware of the tasks involved in effective communication, which, as Mock and Seidel both explained, include engagement, empathy, education and enlistment” (Mock, 2001; Seidel, 2004) . According to them, empathy is connecting on a personal level, by asking about home or work life, before working on the patient level. (Mock, 2001; Seidel, 2004). To be perceived as an empathetic communicator, the clinician must engage in what communication experts call active listening so that he or she really hears the patient, which helps emphasize the clinician’s sincerity in wanting to help the patient. Empathy is sincere and successful when a patient acknowledges that he or she has been seen, heard, and accepted as a person. This seems like a simple concept, yet the effective use of empathy presents common dilemmas for clinicians. Once again, clinicians tend to fall back on comfortable medical language that creates a barrier to empathy. Additionally, clinicians often confuse sympathy with empathy. What’s more, although research proves it to be untrue, some clinicians may feel that empathizing with a patient will require more time than they have to give. Empathy is vitally important in good communication. Many people confuse empathy with sympathy, but empathy is much more. ” To deal effectively with those who have a different opinion to our own, empathy is an important communication technique to develop.” (Macnaughton 2009) Knowing what empathy means is key but to learn and practice the techniques will enhance the patient provider relationship. Here are several common habits that providers show they have no empathy to patients which will and can produce volatile situations: Interrupting with your own ideas and thoughts. Finishing the person’s sentence for them as if you know what they are saying or to hasten the conversation. Changing the subject to focus on a thought you had so the conversation shifts to you and away from them. Focusing on solving their problem rather than simply listening and discovering what they need from you. Thinking about something other than what the person is saying-having your mind . None of the things state below show effective communication skills. “Effective communication skills are the key to assessing, informing, and supporting patients adequately. Unfortunately, physicians do not always possess those communication skills.”(Fallowfield 1999) “Cousins found that 85% of people had changed physicians or were thinking of changing in the past 5 years.”( Mock 2001) Many of those who changed did so because of their physician’s poor communication skills. One of the qualities of effective communication is the use of empathy. Because some physicians have not learned to use empathy in their training as medical students and residents, they may be ineffective in the care of patients.” (Bellet 1991) According to Corey 2004, empathy is sensing someone’s pain in an objective way, versus taking someone’s pain into yourself, is an important and dangerous boundary. What we need to learn is how to notice that boundary (even if you have already crossed it) and how to step back into a observer role, more like you are watching a movie versus actually living the part. But it is a double – edged gift. The gift is that you can use the empathy to get insights into your client. The pain is that sometimes you sense things from people that are dumped on you. If you are not shielded, you can get overloaded and drained: emotionally, physically, and spiritually. Empathy and trust are a platforms for effective understanding, communication and relationships. Empathy and trust are essential to develop good interpersonal relationships between providers and patients. Without empathy, people tend to go about life without considering how other people feel or what they may be thinking. Each of us have differing perspectives. We all experience moods, pain and hurt, joy and sadness. But for a provider to be limited to only see their own perspective, without taking a moment to assess another, it is easy for them to make assumptions and jump to conclusions. This often leads to misunderstandings, bad feelings, conflict, poor morale and even death of the patient. When reading the article written by Candi Feller 2003 she states a good point about empathy in the healthcare setting which was “The concept of empathy in health care fields is diverse, but most likened to ideas of compassion, thoughtfulness, attentiveness, and caring, all of which culminate in a desirable type of “bed side manner” that generates understanding and produces positive rapport with patients.” (Corey 2004) This is very essential to the notion of patient-centered care: to what degree can a patient’s best interests be served if the caregivers know relatively little about the patient’s world, values, or interests? When empathy is used properly it can be our tool to help others. Showing empathy at the right moments can also let others see that we understand. People appreciate this emotion. The concept of effective clinician-patient communication is a necessity, not an option. Because communication is both a science and an art that can be learned and mastered, there are many resulting benefits for those who work diligently to improve their technique, not the least of which is increased clinician satisfaction. According to the Bayer Institute for Health Care Communication, “a clinician’s role in communicating effectively with patients can be broken down into a process that includes the following communication tasks: engagement, empathy, education and enlistment.” “Empathy is a supposedly neutral term: in principle, the affective tone of empathic concern may be either negative (insofar as the relevant experience is that of apprehending and sharing in another’s aversive state) or positive (i.e., apprehending and sharing in another’s joy).” (Parvis 2002) Yet, contrary to this standard conception of empathy as a potentially , generalized disposition towards emotional perspective-taking, in actuality, negative empathic responses, as a rule. (a) are more common, (b) are more differentiated, and (c) span a broader range of human relationships than their positive counterparts. Furthermore, barring certain types of privileged relationships for example the provider patient relationship, and the failure of the provider to be empathetic will cause social disapproval from the client .Although patient communication is the most common and easiest-to-improve medical procedure, its significance is often overlooked. Effective communication is key to adopting a patient-centric approach to providing medical care, and to the reduction of adversarial clinician-patient relationships. By incorporating effective communication techniques into daily patient interactions, clinicians can decrease their malpractice risk. More importantly, clinicians can positively and effectively impact patient health outcomes without increasing the length of visit a win-win situation for both parties, and indeed the goal of health care. This paper has just analyzed communication , (definition /description) and using empathy as a communication technique. The importance of empathy in health and human service settings, and how it relates to the relationships between providers and patients. How it should be used and the effects on the provider patient relationship in health and human service settings. Also how the techniques of empathy are positively or negatively used as it relates to the provider patient relationship in health. In reading this paper your light bulb hopefully came on and you saw how communication and empathy work hand and hand in the world not just the health care setting. Empathy in communication can bridge most of the gap between all communication errors. Share this: Facebook Twitter Reddit LinkedIn WhatsApp
The Economic Development of Indonesia Research Paper
Executive Summary In the recent past, Indonesia has been experiencing an improving gross domestic growth rate and purchasing parity despite the global financial crisis of 2007. However, the economic growth rate is hampered by unfavorable economic, political and social parameters like inflation, corruption, nepotism, and racism. In the 1960s, the country suffered an economic crisis which was believed to have been caused by corruption and inflation in the country. Governments, nongovernmental organization, and civil groups have joined efforts to alleviate corruption; however it still is persistent. Indonesia is among world’s most inflated countries with inflation of more than 10% since the 1960s; with such a record in inflation, the country has continued to suffer a reducing purchasing power parity (PPP) (Fane, 2003). Corruption can be found among political leaders, public institutions, individuals, and private institutions; the “culture” hinders rapid growth in the oil rich country. Statement of issue The main issue affecting the country is to determine when corruption will be completely alleviated and who should be held responsible of the situation in the country. When will there be corrupt free institutions in Indonesia? Corruption is the main cause of all the problems in Indonesia; then the big question is, is there an effective policy that can completely eradicate this big problem? Has Indonesia been using the wrong development strategy? Introduction In the 1960s Indonesia suffered political instability that did not spare the economic situation; it was during this time that the country’s then president, Suharto was classified among the most corrupt leaders by transparency international. It was in 1990s while Suharto was still the president, that corruption gained momentum to a point that the government was not able to clear its debts or collect outstanding debts from its debtors. There was a high level of bankruptcy and the government was not able to bail out those who were bankrupt. Moreover, the legal system was very weak to control any economic activities of the country. Businesses were carried out normally although the economy did not grow as expected because of corruption. Trade was carried out devoid of payment of tax and banks were also involved in corruption and their processes were unrefined. Lending was security based and lending regulations were not followed keenly. There were many barriers to domestic trade and export trade (Fane, 2003). This led to low activities in businesses which contributed to increased poverty. Despite the high level of inflation during this time, there were no domestic subsidies and this led to hunger and poverty (Fane, 2003). Many people, about 70%, were living below the poverty line during this period; these problems distorted the economy of Indonesia greatly (see the appendix). In 1998 Indonesia was in real economic crisis as inflation reached 80% and it was expected to reach 100% by the end of the year. Many people in Indonesia were faced with food security problems; people were hungry and poor. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This triggered students in Indonesia to start demonstrations demanding the President to put an end to corruption, favoritism and conspiracy. The students pointed out that corruption; favoritism and conspiracy were the main causes of economic crisis in Indonesia. They demanded for good governance which would liberate Indonesia from economic crisis (World Bank, 2008). There were also problems in healthcare systems because the money allocated to them was not enough. Public health facilities did not have enough drugs. Further, health promotion and prevention programs were not in function due to lack of funds. In addition, natural resources were depleted as a result of poverty because people relied on natural resources, such as fishing and agriculture for their survival. The population increased and this led to deforestation leading to low agricultural yield. There was food insecurity in the whole country. All this problems were as a result of corruption (Pettis, 2001). Policy applied to recover Indonesia economy. The policy of open economy was applied which was not as effective as expected. People termed it as premature because there was crisis in financial sector. Other countries have responded positively to an open economy policy but this was not the case for Indonesia. The question has always been, is Indonesia using the wrong development strategy? All the blame has been put on corruption and conspiracy. This has prevented Indonesia from globalization. Emphasis has been put on good governance and good development strategy. The Policy of liberalization has been put in place to ensure that Indonesia is able to maintain an open economy. The country has also attempted to raise domestic interest rates and tightened its monetary policy as way of controlling corruption. International monetary fund came into an agreement with Indonesia to stabilize macroeconomic activities and eliminate programs that were affecting the economy. The government of President Suharto then weakened and he was removed from office (Pettis, 2001). Abdurrahman took the office of presidency in 1999. He signed an agreement with international monetary fund for an extended fund facility. The economy was then at a poor state, but president Abdurrahman managed to put new administration and as a result inflation reduced by 2% by the end of 1999 (Muchhala, 2007). Policy critique In 2000 president Abdulahiman signed another agreement with international monetary fund for extended fund facility. This program targeted economic reform, structural reform and governance reforms. With the new administration the economy has been accelerating and recovery has been on the positive. We will write a custom Research Paper on The Economic Development of Indonesia specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Poverty reduced from 17.8 to 16.6 percent in 2008 (Muchhala, 2007). The rate of unemployment has also been reducing. With oil contributing the biggest percentage of export, Indonesia is now one of the fast growing economies in the G20 developing countries. It has also industrialized and its economy has expanded. The international monetary fund increased its focus on the country by raising it to 3.4 from 2.5 percent. The country has been able to implement its financial reforms by reducing public and external debt. Banking facilities have also been reformed and its vulnerability has reduced. Businesses have been strengthened and this has had great impact on individual development. Banks have been capitalized and supervision strengthened to make sure that there is no corruption (Miller, 1997). Before the new administration was introduced, the use of open economy had failed because it was implemented by corrupt leaders. Presently, Indonesia has a market economy where the government is actively involved and owns many enterprises. The government has also been controlling prices of products such as oil and other basic products (Kaufman, Krueger,