ABSTRACT The term “market” can have many different meanings. One usage of the term denotes the primary market and the secondary market. These two markets distinguish between the market where securities are created and the market where they are traded among investors. Their function is the key in understanding how securities are traded. The primary market is where securities are created. It’s in this market that firms sell (float) new stocks and bonds to the public for the first time. Secondary market is where most trading occurs, the secondary market is the one in which
securities are traded after having been initially offered in the primary market. It is basically a market in which an investor purchases an asset from another investor, rather than an issuing corporation. This includes the NYSE, NASDAQ and all major exchanges around the world. The defining characteristic of the secondary market is that investor’s trade among themselves. For example, if you go to buy Microsoft stock, you are dealing only with another investor who owns shares in Microsoft. Microsoft (the company) is in no way involved with the transaction. However there was an improvement in the mechanism of
trading whereby it was seen that there was a shift from the traditional method of physical trading to the updated version of online trading. 2008. At present online brokers hold $574billion in assets but this figure is expected to grow to $4 trillion by end of 2007. The market has become saturated and very competitive. As the number of players increase, it becomes very difficult to differentiate. The volatility in US equity, market in 1999 and September 11 World Trade Center attack has hurt the online brokerage trading volumes. Established E-brokerage firms have created bearer to entry that makes it difficult for new player to
enter into the market. Dematerialization the process by which physical certificates of an investor are converted to an equivalent number of securities in electronic form and credited in the investor’s account with his (DP) Depository Party. Only those certificates that are already registered in your name and are in the list of securities are admitted for Dematerialization at NSDL/ CDSL. Demat shares are supposed to obviate all the problems of physical trading. The biggest attraction of trading in Demat shares is that the shares an investor buys comes with a clean title and immediately after the settlement on the relevant stock
exchange. Buying shares in the Demat form always guarantees the investor a good title as soon as the settlement is over and hence it is a preferred mode of trading today and will be so in the future also. STATEMENT OF PROBLEM Keywords DEMAT, MARKET, OPTIONS ONLINE-TRADING, PRIMARY MARKET, SECONDARY SWAPS AND INTRODUCTION Online brokerage has grown substantially since the introduction of Internet and now account for 40%-50% of retail trade. This change has come in because individual investors want to increase control over their finances and ? do not want someone else to manage the money. Online
trading has become very popular in last couple of years because of convenience of ease and use. Numerous companies have gone on-line to meet their customer? s demands enabling them to trade when they want and how they want to. Online trade, which now accounts for 50% of all retail trade, is forecasted to increase to 70% by Online trading and Demat are the two emerging concepts in stock market. It involves personal factors, technical factors, business factors and economic factors. The interplay of these factors on stock market requires a deep study about the pattern process and procedures and performance.
This study is intended to identify the various concepts about Demat and the online trading and its way of functioning. NEED FOR THE STUDY Physical trading has been given up by many stock exchange around the world and till India is catching up. Transparency has become an important issue with the regular series of scams over the years. At this junction, Indian investors are able to avail the facilities of Depository participants, Depositories, along with brokerage. i-Xplore International Research Journal Consortium www. irjcjournals. org 83 International Journal of Management and Social Sciences Research (IJMSSR) Volume 2, No.
4, April 2013 ? So how far this system is working in India and the investors experience with these new system of trading. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY ? ? ? ? To study the awareness level of various concepts of Demat & online trading. To identify the benefits of Demat & online trading. To study percentage of savings of online trading. To identify the market leaders in this segment METHODOLOGY Throughout the study an attempt has been made to arrive at the conclusions with help of economic reasoning, experience derived from secondary markets from the lessons of the economic history. The study is explorative
in nature as it aims in identifying the growth & benefits of DEMAT and on-line trading. The assets, which the corporation has inherited, have deep roots and justify full discussion in its historical perspective. SOURCES OF DATA Secondary data: The secondary data collected from different websites, journals, company reports and the available literature on the subject. SCOPE OF THE STUDY The study encompasses only the major Secondary market that have a substantial share in the share market. The scope of the study is limited to the performance of the industry for the limited period. Limitations of the study
? The information provided by the managers may not be the actual figures; it may be a virtual data in the sense conclusions based on the real data vary from the virtual data. ? The study is conducted in the short period of time, and hence the results vary from time to time. ? The study covers only a particular geographical region, and hence the conclusions cannot be ? considered as a whole outcome of the industry. INDIAN E-BROKING SCENARIO ? The Indian stock broking business has gone through a sea ? of changes. From that of a business dominated by few individual players to institutional members, as did trading ?
open outcry and hidden deeds to screen best and transparency. India enters the cyber-trading era to equal ? the current market trends taking into consideration the ISSN: 2319-4421 need to facilitate inflow of funds in the capital market. The trading system will enable all categories of investors, resident and non-resident Indian, to trade online. Online brokerage in India is still in its early days. Though the trade through online broking is very miniscule compare to total trading, the signs are that it will grow to 30%-35% in next few years. EFFECT ON OFF-LINE BUSINESS With the emergence of e-broking, which offers many
benefits like, level playing filled to all investors, comfort of the house, simplicity, low brokerage and value added services it could be possible for some of the offline trade to shift to online trade. The proportion of online broking business compare to off line broking is miniscule about less than 1%. The offline player would not be affected unless the figure reaches a minimum of 8-10%. Online trade has not started to eat the volumes of, off line business till now. But at the same time it has created new set of clients for e. g. , NRI? s who were not very active in the market due to lack of transparency and information,
have moved to use this facility. Housewives are another new category. Net savvy student? s and retired persons are the next expected category. Depository services-beginning of the era of stocks at click Today it is a practical reality that one can arrange delivery of securities (shares) sold anytime, anywhere to anyone by a „click? of the mouse and it is possible to trade in securities and settlement of the accounts from the convenience of a sitting room or via a laptop. The depository is responsible to deliver and receive securities trade at the stock exchange, which are the business partners of the depository.
It does not deal with financial aspect of the settlement of the trade. Dematerialization of securities (shares) was the commencement of the era of stocks. The beginning was made in 1996, with legislation of the depository act 1996 and SEBI regulations 1996. REASONS FOR ONLINE TRADING IN INDIA Each investor has one or other reasons to go for online trading instead of offline trading. They are as follows: They are independent. They fell they have control over their account, can make their own decisions and don? t have to give reasons for their actions. They have a reason to participate in the stock market and
learn about it. They find it interesting, cheap, easy, and fast and convenience. A lot of information is online so they can keep up-to-date with what is happening in the trading world. They are sure and overconfident. i-Xplore International Research Journal Consortium www. irjcjournals. org 84 International Journal of Management and Social Sciences Research (IJMSSR) Volume 2, No. 4, April 2013 ? ? They have access to numerous tools to invest and can create their own portfolio. They feel that trading through net can hide from others. Reasons for the emergence of online trading in India
The reasons for providing online trading facility to investors by the Indian companies are various. They are as follows: ? Online trading has a very good future in India as it is not exploited properly so far. ? Consistent increase in the number of users of interest. ? Consistent increase in the number of personal computer users. ? Part of diversification. ? Less investment in technology and other areas compared to the returns. ? More awareness in investors about the stock market. RECENT DEVELOPMENTS The bumpy Bull Run in the stock markets has triggered a slowdown in the opening of new account by the depository
ISSN: 2319-4421 participants (DPs). Faced with the sudden dip in the number of new account being opened the DPs are devising ways to attracts customers. On offer is Interactive Voice Response (IVR) for the latest update on Demat accounts and services through the Internet. Most of these Demat accounts are now dormant. Several DPs are planning to launch Interactive Voice Response (IVR) units and Demat services on the Net, Through these IVR units , investor will be able to know the current value of their portfolio, current holdings, transaction list, etc. Some DPs are providing Demat services on the Net to enable customer to
access their account and get the holding and transaction statement on a daily basis. For eg: HDFC Bank. With Online trading an investor can: ? Enter orders through internet. ? Review your account balances and transaction activity. ? Obtain stock quotes in real time. ? Access company profiles and research. ? Receive the most competitive and current commission schedule. ? Direct Floor Access-Submit trades directly to the pit in real time. ? Institutional Quality Order Entry. ? Market-to-Market Dynamic Account Updates. ? Reduced Commissions – Up to 80% discounted commission rates. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Table 1: Showing usage of Online trading system continent wise. Continent N. America Asia Pacific W. Europe Rest of the world This table shows By observing the above table we can understand that 90% usage of online trading is made by the three continents that is W. Europe 44%, N. America Percentage 25% 21% 44% 10% 25%, Asia Pacific 21% and rest 10% is made by the rest of the word. Table 2: Showing ranking of major benefits of online trading system Benefit Single bank Improved Information Transparency 4 Time Saving 1 Cost Saving 6 Better Security/Audit 2 Straight through Processing 3 Quality of Research /Analytics 5
This table indicate By observing the above table we can understand that by using the online trading the bank can get so many benefits like Improved Information Transparency, Time Saving, Cost Saving, Better multi-bank 1 2 3 4 5 6 Security/Audit, Straight through Processing and Quality of Research /Analytics. These benefits are changes when observation made on single bank and multi-bank. i-Xplore International Research Journal Consortium www. irjcjournals. org 85 International Journal of Management and Social Sciences Research (IJMSSR) Volume 2, No. 4, April 2013 Table 3: Showing products that are traded online Product
Swaps and options Bonds Commercial paper Shares This table shows by observing the above table we can understand that what are the products are transacted through on-line trading and at what % the transaction will be made. Out of 100% 65% of transaction is made for shares and remaining 35% of transaction will be made as follows. Bond 13%, commercial paper 12% and remains 10% for swaps and options. Central Depository Services (CDS) The other depository is Central Depository Services (CDS). It is still in the process of linking with the stock exchanges. It has registered around 20 DPs and has signed up with 40 companies.
It had received a certificate of commencement of business from SEBI on February 8, 1999. These depositories have appointed different Depository Participants (DP) for them. An investor can open an account with any of the Depositories? Participant (DP). But transfers arising out of trades on the stock exchanges can take place only amongst account-holders with NSDL’s DPs. This is because only NSDL is linked to the stock exchanges (nine of them including the main ones-NSE and BSE). Once connected to both the depositories the stock exchanges have also to ensure that inter-depository transfers take place smoothly.
It also involves the two depositories connecting with each other. Bank ISSN: 2319-4421 Percentage 8% 13% 12% 65% The NSDL and CDS have signed an agreement for interdepository connectivity. Dematerialized Trading Dematerialization or “Demat” is a process whereby the investors securities like shares, debentures etc, are converted into electronic data and stored in computers by a Depository. Securities registered in the investors name are surrendered to depository participant (DP) and these are sent to the respective companies who will cancel them after “Dematerialization” and credit investor?
s depository account with the DP. The securities on Dematerialization appear as balances in investors depository account. These balances are transferable like physical shares. If at a later date, the investor wishes to have these “Demat” securities converted back into paper certificates, the Depository helps them to do this. Depository functions like a securities bank, where the Dematerialized physical securities are traded and held in custody. This facilitates faster, risk free and low cost settlement. Depository is much like a bank and performs many activities that are similar to a bank. Following table
compares the two: Holds funds in accounts Depository Holds securities in account Transfers funds between accounts Transfers securities between accounts Transfers without handling money Transfers without handling securities Safekeeping of money Safekeeping of securities Benefits Of Demat Transacting the depository way has several advantages over the traditional system of transacting using share certificates. Some of the benefits are: ? Trading in Demat segment completely eliminates the risk of bad deliveries, which in turn eliminates all cost and wastage of time ? Associated with follow up for rectification. This
reduction in risk associated with bad delivery has lead to reduction in brokerage to the extent of 0. 5% by quite a few brokerage firms. In case of transfer of electronic shares, you save 0. 5% in stamp duty. ? The investor can also avoid the cost of courier/ notarization/ the need for further follow-up with your broker for shares returned for company objection i-Xplore International Research Journal Consortium ? ? ? ? In case the certificates are lost in transit or when the share certificates become mutilated or misplaced, to obtain duplicate certificates, the investor may have to spend at least Rs 500 for indemnity bond,
newspaper advertisement etc, which can be completely eliminated in the Demat form The investor can also receive his/her bonuses and rights into their depository account as a direct credit, thus eliminating risk of loss in transit. The investor can also expect a lower interest charge for loans taken against Demat shares as compared to the interest for loan against physical shares. This could result in a saving of about 0. 25% to 1. 5%. Some banks have already announced this. The exclusive demat segments follow rolling settlement cycle of T+3 i. e. the settlement of trades www. irjcjournals. org 86
International Journal of Management and Social Sciences Research (IJMSSR) Volume 2, No. 4, April 2013 ? ? ? ? ? will be on the 3rd working day from the trade day. This will enable faster turnover of stock and more liquidity with the investor. Reduction in handling of huge volumes of paper Periodic status reports to investors on their holdings and transactions, leading to better controls. RBI has increased the limit of loans against Dematerialized securities as collateral to Rs 2mn per borrower as against Rs1mn per borrower in case ? of loans against physical securities. RBI has also reduced the minimum margin to 25%
for loans against Dematerialized securities as against 50% for loans against physical securities. Demat functions not only in capital market, it also ? does in money market. Selling and Buying Of Shares ? ? ? Selling dematerialized shares in stock exchanges is similar to the procedure for selling physical shares. Instead of delivering physical shares to the broker, the investor instruct their DP to debit their account ? with the number of shares sold by them and credit their broker’s clearing account The investor can sell shares in any of the stock exchanges linked to a depository through a broker of their choice.
On the pay-in day, the broker gives instruction to his DP for delivery of the shares to clearing corporation of the relevant stock exchange. The broker receives payment from the clearing corporation. The investor receives payment from their broker for the sale in the same manner they would receive payment for a sale in the physical mode. The procedure for buying dematerialized shares in stock exchanges is similar to the procedure for buying physical shares. When the investor wants to purchase shares in electronic form, they have to instruct their broker to purchase the dematerialized shares from the stock exchanges linked to a
depository. will not charge any custody fees to the DPs for shares of that company. Future issues by such companies would require a payment of 5 basis points on the new share capital created. The valuation for new shares will be done at the issue price. Companies would not be required to pay any additional amount, if they make a bonus issue Demat Shares: Are They 100% Safe When an investor buys physical shares from the stock market, they can never be certain of the validity of the title of shares. There were many reasons- the sellers’ signature did not match, or the certificates were fake, forged or stolen, and so on.
Demat shares are supposed to obviate these problems. Buying shares in the demat form always guarantees the investor a good title as soon as the settlement is over. The biggest attraction of trading in demat shares is that the shares an investor buys comes with a clean title and immediately after the settlement on the relevant stock exchange. Rule 100 of market regulator SEBI determines whether the shares delivered in a settlement, are good or not. Under rule 100, the shares that have been transferred any number of times can still be withdrawn by the company, if a transfer is found to be invalid for any reason.
FINDINGS Charges ? ? ? ? ? ? ISSN: 2319-4421 NSDL does not charge the investor directly but charges its DPs, who are free to charge their clients. NSDL charges its DPs under the following heads: Transaction Fees: Market Trade – sale – nil; purchase – 5 basis points (i. e. 0. 05% of the value of net receipts to a clearing members account) Off Market Trade: sale – nil; purchase – 10 basis points (i. e. 0. 1% of value of securities) Custody Fees: 3. 5 basis points p. a. (i. e. 0. 035% p. a. of average value of securities) Dematerialization: Rs. 10/- per certificate One time payment scheme: NSDL has announced a new
scheme under which, if a company makes a one-time payment of 5 basis points (0. 05%) of the average market capitalization during the preceding 26 weeks, then NSDL i-Xplore International Research Journal Consortium ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? After the introduction of dematerialization the stock market has become more transparent and it attracts more investors day by day. If the volume increases continuously, DPs will be in a position to decrease the charges for opening and maintenance of demat a/c. It is observed that banks normally levy a lower service charge compared to other depository participants.
There are some other banks which charges less services charges for demat services than other securities companies. When the numbers of users are more on line, the speed of the transaction is affected. Since the rolling settlement is one day, people who are speculating without having full amount of money or shares with their DP, tend to face higher degree of risk. Some securities have not yet started with the Interactive Voice Response (IVR) units and demat on net. Even though online trading provides privacy to the clients, trends available from the trading room will not help most of the online traders.
Investors dealing online must possess good knowledge for analyzing the information passed on by the companies through net. www. irjcjournals. org 87 International Journal of Management and Social Sciences Research (IJMSSR) Volume 2, No. 4, April 2013 ? Online service depends highly on technology. CONCLUSION Notwithstanding many problems, Indian stock market has emerged as a significant financial intermediary, assisting efficient resource allocation, providing strong support to Indian economy and help investors to realize the benefits of stock market investing. The growing importance of the
Indian stock market place may be noted in terms of increased mobilization of funds and growing number of investors account. Indian stock market industry has remained centered around a limited product range. This has happened due to the tendency to avoid risk, inability to understand future market development and changes in investor preference. The absence of product diversification and a confused market situation has been made more by the absence of an innovative marketing network. Online is considered as one of the innovative network. The product range offered by stock broking firms needs to be
redesigned to cater the changes in the short term, medium term and long term savings and investment markets. Management is considered to be a key for the operational efficiency of any business venture. This factor becomes even more crucial for service ventures such as stock broking business venture. Stock market industry must undertake a well-designed and comprehensive program of investor education especially aimed at investors in rural and semi-urban areas. However this has been mostly neglected in India. In India most of the broking business comes from the small investors and efforts are
ISSN: 2319-4421 concentrated on serving them efficiently, and this would help them in being a good intermediary for providing various financial services due to it? s reach to the last mile. SEBI has been playing a significant role in the regulation of stock market. SEBI? s steps like dematerializing, and trading through net etc. has increased the transparency of the trading than before. In the global market place no industry can afford to be struck by inertia. But it is management which is crucial to the success of any business operation. REFERENCES i-Xplore International Research Journal Consortium
 Buckley Adrian, Multinational Finance, (15 April 2008), PHI, New Delhi  Alan C. Shapiro Multinational Finance Management  M. Karunakar & S. Saravanan (May 2008 ) “Impact of Micro-Finance, “Southern Economists” Vol. 46, page No. 37- 39.  Mrs. Archana Sinha (July 2008) “Micro –Finance” Vol. 35 – No. 7, page No. 33 (Courtesy: Decan chronicle).  N. Mukudan & M. Hilaria Sundari, “Emerging Dimensions in Online trading ; Micro Finance in India”, Dominant publishers and distributors New Delhi 110002.  Levy International Finance , (2003) TMH New Delhi.  IAN Giddy, Global Finance Market,(2007) AITBS, New Delhi
report as an Excel file. Solve each problem on a separate tab (worksheet). Organize your solutions on the Excel worksheet properly.
HW Problems: 1. In a completely randomized design, 10 experimental units were used for the first treatment, 12 for the second treatment, and 19 for the third treatment. Sum of Squares due to Treatments and Sum of Squares Total is computed as 1100 and 1700 respectively. Prepare the ANOVA table and complete the same (fill out all the cells). State the Hypotheses. At a .05 level of significance, is there a significant difference between the treatments? Use both p-Value and Critical-Value approaches. 2. To study the effect of temperature on yield in a chemical process, four batches were produced at each of three temperature levels. The results follow. Construct an analysis of variance table. State the Hypotheses. Use a .05 level of significance to test whether the temperature level has an effect on the mean yield of the process. Use both p-Value and Critical-Value approaches. 3. The following data are from an experiment designed to investigate the perception of corporate ethical values among individuals specializing in marketing (higher scores indicate higher ethical values). State the Hypotheses. a. Use α = .10 to test for significant differences in perception among the three groups. Use both p-Value and Critical-Value approaches. b. Can we conclude that there are differences in the perceptions for marketing managers, marketing research specialists, and advertising specialists. Are the conclusions any different between p-Value and Critical-Value approaches? c. Use Fisher’s LSD approach to determine where the differences occur if they do. 4. A study reported in the Journal of the American Medical Association investigated the cardiac demands of heavy snow shoveling. Eight healthy men underwent exercise testing with a treadmill and a cycle ergometer modified for arm cranking. The men then cleared two tracts of heavy, wet snow by using a lightweight plastic snow shovel and an electric snow thrower. Each subject’s heart rate, blood pressure, oxygen uptake, and perceived exertion during snow removal were compared with the values obtained during treadmill and arm- crank ergometer testing. Suppose the following table gives the heart rates in beats per minute for each of the eight subjects. At the .05 level of significance, test for any significant differences. Use both p-Value and Critical-Value approaches. 5. 6. An amusement park studied methods for decreasing the waiting time (minutes) for rides by loading and unloading riders more efficiently. Two alternative loading/ unloading methods have been proposed. To account for potential differences due to the type of ride and the possible interaction between the method of loading and unloading and the type of ride, a factorial experiment was designed. Use the following data to test for any significant effect due to the loading and unloading method, the type of ride, and interaction. Use α = .05. Use both p-Value and Critical-Value approaches. 7. Type of Ride Roller Coaster Screaming Demon Log Flume Method 1 41 52 50 43 44 46 49 46 48 Method 2 49 50 48 51 46 44 47 48 46 8. A research firm tests the miles-per-gallon characteristics of three brands of gasoline. Automobiles were randomly subjected to treatments and the results of the experiment (in miles per gallon) are presented below. Please note that in this problem raw data is not provided – you would not need it as partial results are already provided. You will be able to use the partial results to solve the problem and answer the questions. The five automobile types are suspected to introduce “Heterogeneity” as gasoline brands are expected to performance differently in different automobile types. The experimenter would prefer to remove any corruptive effect of heterogeneity to get clean results on Gasoline Brands. Hence the analysis is performed in two phases. Gasoline Brands Average X Y Z Automobile Type A … … … 23.67 B … … … 20.33 C … … … 25.00 D … … … 27.00 E … … … 32.33 Average 24.40 26.80 25.80 In Phase I of the analysis on the above data, the following partial ANOVA results were obtained. Source DF SS MS F Gasoline Brand 14.5 Error Total 14 267.3 a) Complete the above ANOVA Table. b) What experimental design was considered for the analysis under Phase I? c) State the Null and Alternate Hypotheses. Customize your hypothesis to the business problem context (do not use generic terms). d) Determine Critical value. Conduct a Critical-value based Hypothesis test (at α = 0.10). What is your decision on the Hypothesis test? e) State your conclusion (what meaning the decision under part ‘d’ carries in the problem context) In phase II of the analysis of the test data, the following partial ANOVA results were obtained. Source DF SS MS F Automobile Type Gasoline Brand 14.5 Error 15.5 Total 14 267.3 f) Complete the above ANOVA Table. g) What experimental design was considered for the analysis under Phase II? h) Is a Hypothesis Test on the factor “Automobile Type” needed? Why or why not? i) Is Hypothesis Test under Phase II (based on what the user is set out to find in the first place) any different from the one considered for Phase I? j) Determine Critical value. Conduct a Critical-Value based Hypothesis Test (at α = 0.10). k) Is there a significant difference in the mean miles- per- gallon characteristics of the three brands of gasoline based on the Hypothesis test? l) If so, which brand(s) are different from the rest? m) You own all five vehicle types in your fleet use them equally. You are interested in maximizing mpg for your vehicles. Which brand/s of Gasoline would you use and why? n) Comparing analyses under Phase I and Phase II, what advantage Phase II provides if any over Phase I of analysis? o) Which method among Phase I and Phase II provides the correct method of analysis in the problem context? Why or why not? 4
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