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Defining Features of Elections in The United States Discussion Questions

Defining Features of Elections in The United States Discussion Questions.

Using the attached files write 1 paragraph per question. size 12 times new roman. must cite with source name and either time stamp or page number.What conflicts or sides exist in the debate over how elections are run in the United States?What are some of the defining features of elections in the United States?What were some of the problems in the administration of the 2018 elections? Can these be solved?Are we ready for a pandemic election? What are your most pressing concerns about the administration of the 2020 election? Why? (If you do not have concerns, explain why).What are some new problems that we are facing in the 2020 elections?
Defining Features of Elections in The United States Discussion Questions

FIFA World Cup Essay

Table of Contents Historical overview Summary of soccer’s influence Consumer profile Business case External growth Conclusion Works Cited Historical overview Soccer (sometimes known as football) is a sport whose earliest development was in the Middle East over three thousand years ago. Even though these early presentations had some elements that the modern-day sport can associate with, the rules then were not similar to what is currently used. ne of the earliest forms of soccer was a game called Cuju, played in ancient China, which featured anything between two and ten players a side (Helmer and Owens 1-16). The aim of the sport was to direct a ball towards a miniscule hole with players being allowed to touch the ball with any part of part of their body but the hands. Any fouls were penalized through point deduction and in the end the team with most points was announced the winner. Other regions in the world that had games similar to soccer include South America and Greece. Over time, the sport’s popularity gradually began to move towards Europe where it began to take shape and acquire the characteristics of today’s soccer. Between 1307 and 1327 AD, King Edward banned it in England due to its brutal nature and constant reports of injuries (Helmer and Owens 77). However, even with the ban it continued growing until the regime had no option but to legalize the sport again. By 1863, various soccer clubs had been established and later that year founders of the clubs sat at a meeting where official rules of the sport were drafted. The rules were gradually redrafted and gradually the sport acquired professionalism, and rose to become the world’s most popular sport. Summary of soccer’s influence Soccer’s most popular event is the world cup which is held every four years. In this event over 800 qualifying matches are played before 32 teams meet in the finals to pick out the best. With a average viewership of 26 billion in 2010, the soccer world cup is the single most watched sporting event (Michaels 1). During this period all forms of technological access were utilized to follow the event with both traditional (TV and radio) and modern (avenues) recording record-breaking numbers. For instance, ESPN registered an average of 355,000 viewers per minute during the semi-final clash pitting Germany and Spain (Chong 1). MobiTV, a company that facilitates mobile access to live television was reported to have streamed 1.8 million hours of ESPN Mobile TV of the 2011 World Cup (Chong 1). The soccer world cup is also the biggest generator of sporting earnings both for the host nation and FiFa, the organization governing the sport. For instance last year, FiFa reported over 2.5 billion sterling pounds in profits at the end of the twelve-month long event while South Africa, the host, made over 300, 000 pounds in tourism revenue alone (Michaels 1). Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Consumer profile The viewership and earning numbers are both on an upward trend. The World Cup earnings to Fifa in the year 2006 were $3.4billion and went through a 85% increase to reach $4billion (Wyludda 1). Viewership in 2006 was recorded at 14 billion and moving to 26billion in 2010 went through a 36% increase. The increase in viewership can be linked to the increase in popularity of online and mobile television (Dunmore 1-2). Based on figures from the 2010 World Cup viewers, in the United States over 49% of the audience were between the ages of 17 and 50 (Chong 1). Of these number 56% was male while 44% was female (Chong 1). Business case The soccer gear market is one of the sources of earnings for most stakeholders. Around the globe, the soccer gear business is estimated at almost three billion dollars. This section of the industry has witnessed a 67% growth from $1 billion in 1998. The major participants in the apparel market include Adidas and Nike controlling 40% and 20% of the soccer market share (Cengage 1). It is worth noting that the aspects of supply and demand are probably the most important determinant of market forces for any product. These are the two factors that would make any market be either competitive or monopolized. These elements of business as well determine the pricing of commodities and services especially in regard to how they influence each other. For the soccer market, the field of supply and demand is by far the most critical area of analysis since it is from here that one can explain situation that could arise with market trends. Aside from this, it is also interesting to realize that the supply and demand are always present alongside each other in every element of the growth of the sport because the demand cannot exist without the presence of supply and vice versa. External growth External growth means the growth of the outer components of a firm. For the case of soccer, improvements in external factors have been present in five different factors. These are political, economical, social, technological, and ecological factors. Positive changes in any of these factors have led to operational excellence for the sport. For instance, an increase in the spread of the internet and participation of broadcasts in the sector has seen the consumerism of the sport reach an unprecedented high. Favourable political climates have also contributed to the growth of soccer and its popularity. For instance, for a long time the sport had been outlawed in Middle-East on religious grounds. However, with changes in regime, some bans have been relaxed making it easy for the sport to penetrate in such regions. We will write a custom Essay on FIFA World Cup specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The target consumers of soccer are individuals between 15 and 50years and these are persons who have completed high-school all the way to early retirees. By nature a majority of individuals in this group are drawn to non-participatory sporting entertainment. Therefore, in order to capitalize on all opportunities, all key stakeholders have had to ensure that they use all available opportunities. For example, in Africa, it has been a common trend for multinationals like Coca-cola to establish World Cup viewing centers for individuals who cannot afford television, radio or the internet. From these set ups it becomes easy for them to market their products as well as adequately sell their name. Conclusion From a personal point of view the sport is estimated to grow even more. This is because with advances in technology it is becoming easy to penetrate hitherto unreachable areas, consequently leading to an increase in the number of followers of the sport. Another element that could effectively contribute to the growth of soccer is the gradual appreciation it is developing in countries such at the United States where other sports such as baseball and American football have been given prominence. This is an advantage that will see the sport gain more fans, essentially bringing in more income. Works Cited Cengage. Online Case 10.1 Addidas, Nike and Umbro. Cengage learning. n.d. Web. Chong, Kristie. Breakout Year for ESPN Digital Media in 2010. ESPN Media zone. 14 Jan 2011. Web. Dunmore, Tom. 2010. World Cup ratings: Time is on American soccer’s side. Pitchinvasion. 16 July 2010. Web. Helmer, Diana Star and Tom Owens. The history of soccer. The Rosen Publishing Group, 2000. Print Not sure if you can write a paper on FIFA World Cup by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Michaels, Steve. World cup viewing figures prove that this really is the world’s game. 29 May 2010. Web. Wyludda, Angie. The Impact of a Mega Sports Event for a Nation: Analysis of the FIFA World Cup 2006 in Germany. GRIN Verlag, 2009. Print

Chemical Synthesis and Analysis of Seaweed

online homework help Chapter 1 Literature review 2015 Introduction Marine-microalgae are normally termed as seaweed belonging to the primitive family of non-flowering plant known as thallophyta (Fig 1). The sea plant lacks the leaves, stem and roots of true plants. The body of the seaweed is called the thallus named after the thallophyta. The flattened leaf portion of the microalgae is called the blade and its function is to increase the photosynthesizing surface area. Seaweeds are attached to the bottom by a root-like structure called a holdfast. Seaweeds are autotrophic which grows in the intertidal and sub-tidal region of the sea. Seaweeds grow abundantly where rocks and coral are present as substratum (Marine Fisheries information Services October-November 1998; Kaliaperumal et al., 2004). Figure 1: Shows the general structure of seaweed ( Thallophyta)( Reproduced from http://dtc.pima.edu/blc/183/03_183/03_183answers.html). Seaweed may be classified into two categories namely phaephyceae (Brown) and Rhodophyceae (Red). Seaweeds contain different types of phycolloids such as alginate, carrageenan, agarose and agar agar. Seaweed is mainly used in Asia as food, fodders, fertilizer and also as drugs in the pharmaceutical industry for its therapeutics properties (Marine Fisheries information Services, October-November, 1998). 1.1 Brown seaweed (Phaephyceae) Brown seaweed is found in the family of seaweed which is called the phaephyceae. The brown seaweed composition varies according to the species, throughout the year and between different habitats. Brown seaweed is composed mainly of carbohydrate such as alginate, laminaran, mannitol, fucoidan and small traces of cellulose as shown in Table 1. (Fasahati et al., 2012) Table1. Brown seaweed composition Component Base design dry weight (%) Used in simulation dry weight (%) Ash 23.63 25.48 Algin 27.78 27.78 Laminaran 16.67 18.52 Mannitol 14.81 14.81 Fucoidan 3.7 – Cellulose 6.6 – Protein 7.41 7.41 1.2 Alginate Alginate is a major structural biopolymer found in cell wall and intercellular matrix which provides mechanical strength in brown seaweed. Seaweeds containing alginate are called alginophyte (Yabur et al., 2006). In the natural environment, alginate exists as a mixture of potassium, calcium and sodium salt (Gomez et al., 2009). 1.2.1 Structure of alginate The structure differs from species, age and from different part of seaweed. Alginate consists of two monomers and is linked to each other alternately in a linear form. The monomers are namely β-D-Mannuronate and α-L-Guluronate in Fig 2(B) and 2(D) respectively. The acid form of mannuronate and guluronate, is mannuronic acid and guluronic acid (Fig 2(C)) respectively. Figure 2(A) depicts the structure of sodium alginate in a linear form. Alginate is the salt of alginic acid and its simplest formula is NaC6H7O6 in Fig 2(A) (Mahmood et al., 2009). . 2(A) 2(B) 2(C) 2(D) Figure 2: Repeat unit of (A) Sodium alginate (B) guluronate, (C) guluronic acid and (D) mannuronate (Falkeborg et al., 2014) The monomers are linked through carbon 1 and 4 and have sequences forming blocks of MM(Fig 3(A)), GG(Fig 3(A)) or GM blocks in Fig 3(A) (Arzate-Vázquez et al., 2012, Morais et al., 2013). Mannuronates and guluronates both have carboxylic group on the carbon 5 of their respective structures (Falkeborg et al., 2014). (A) G G M M (B) G G M M GMMMMGGGGGGGMGMGMGMGMMMMG (C) MM blocks GG blocks MG blocks MM blocks Figure 3: (A) Alginate structure with G and M repeat units, (B) showing the repeat of G and M joined together (C) block fractions of alginate polymer (Yuemei Lin et al., 2010) 1.3 Species of brown seaweeds Alginate are commercially manufactured mainly from Laminaria hyperborea, Macrocystis pyrifera, Laminaria digitata, Ascophyllumnodosum, Laminaria japonica, Eclonia maxima, Lessonia nigrescens, Durvillea Antarctica, Turbinaria conoides, Turbianria ornata and Turbinaria decurrens, Sargassum, Turbinaria ,Hormophysa, Cystoseira and Sargassum sp (Bertagnolli et al.,2014; Chennubhotla et al., 2013; Kaliaperumal et al., 1974). 1.4 Extraction of alginate Gomez et al., (2009) described the pre-treatment and the extraction of alginate from brown seaweed. The seaweed was crushed and was added to water to moisten the latter. 0.1 N Hydrochloric acid was added to the sample and the solution was stirred in order to reach a pH value of 4. This process was continued for 15 min at room temperature and the supernatant was eliminated. The pre-treatment was carried out three times for each sample using 0.1 N Hydrochloric acid. The extraction was followed by the addition of the pre-treated solution to a beaker with 1 N sodium carbonate (pH of solution 10). The mixture was stirred mechanically for a period of 2 hours at a temperature of 60 oC. To the extracted solution a silicon based rock was added and was stirred for 15 minutes. The mixture was then centrifuged to obtain the sodium alginate supernatant. Sodium alginate can be purified using three different routes namely (i) Ethanol route, (ii) Hydrochloric acid route and (iii) Calcium chloride route as summarised in scheme 1. (i) Ethanol pathway The ethanol pathway was performed by the direct precipitation of sodium alginate using ethanol. The precipitate was washed then with ethanol under soxhlet condition for 100 hours to obtain the pure biopolymer which was dried under vacuum. (ii) Alginic pathway The extract alginate was mixed up with 1 N of HCl at room temperature under constant stirring for 1 hour at a pH of 1. To obtain the alginic acid, the mixture was separated by centrifugation by adding water and 1 N sodium carbonate. The mixture was left at room temperature under stirring for 1 hour in order to obtain the soluble form of sodium alginate. The polymer was precipitated by the addition of 1:1 volume ratio of ethanol by the method described in the ethanol pathway. (iii) Calcium chloride pathway To the extract of sodium alginate, 1 M calcium chloride was added and the precipitate was thoroughly washed with distilled water using a soxhlet for 64 hours. The mixture was agitated at room temperature and distilled water was then added followed by the addition of 1 N Hydrochloric acid until a pH 2 was reached. The alginic acid which is insoluble was separated from the supernatant by centrifugation and the insoluble alginic acid was washed with 0.05 N HCl and the solution were stirred at room temperature. The precipitation of alginate was obtained by the addition of Na2CO3 to obtain sodium alginate. The purified alginate was collected by the soxhlet as discussed in the ethanol pathway. Scheme1. Extraction of alginate (Gomez et al., 2009) 1.5 Yield of alginate The yield of alginate is being affected by different factors such as the species, age, period of harvest, temperature of extraction, extracted with either alkali or acid and on the content of alginate in brown seaweed also the size of alginate also affects the yield.(Fertah et al., 2014) Seaweeds that are grown in summer show a lower content of alginate in the branches and stems (15.1 %) and no trace of alginate in the receptacles (Bertagnolli et al., 2014). Sample SS size is 1mm and BS for 1mmoC (51.8 for SS and 44.01for BS) but an increase in temperature proved to have a drastic decrease in the yield shown in table 2 (Fertah et al., 2014). Table 2. Yield of alginate at different size sample and temperature Size<1mm (SS) 1mm Temperature /o C 25 40 60 25 40 60 Yield/% 38.33 51.8 43.2 35.28 44.01 40.2 There are up to 40% of alginate content in brown seaweed and the content of alginate depending species of brown algae can vary from 10 to 25% (Yabur et al., 2006). The period of collected of seaweed Sargassum filipendula have different yield of alginate. During fall, spring and summer the yield are 17.0 ±0.1 %, 17.2±0.3 % and 15.1± 0.1 % respectively. The yield is lower in summer than spring and fall because summer algae have lower receptacle and branches which are characteristic in their reproductive period. (Bertagnolli et al., 2015). The yield of alginate is also affected to different species of Sargassum shown in table 3. The highest yield is from S.vulgare is 30.2 % and the lowest S.dentifulum is 3.3 %. Table 3: Yield % of alginate from different species of Sargassum Species of seaweed % Yield S.vulgare 30.2 S.polycystum 17.1-27.6 S.dentifilium 3.3 S.latifilium 17.7 S.asperifolium 12.4 S.oligocystum 16.3-20.5 S.fuiltans 21.1-24.5 S.filipendula 15.1-17.2 1.6 Biosynthesis of alginate The proposed biosynthesis of alginic acid in Fucus gardineri in the presence of bacteria Pseudomonas is shown in Scheme 2 (Lin and Hassid: 1966). Mannose 1-phosphate reacts with GTP/ H in the presence of mannose 1-phosphate guanyl transferase to produce GDP-α-D-mannose and the by product is diphosphate. GDP-α-D-mannose in the presence of enzyme GDP-mannose dehydrogenase react with water and NAD giving GDP-Mannuronate and finally reacting with GDP/H to give alginate. Scheme 2: Biosynthesis of alginate in brown seaweed Fucus gardineri and bacteria (Lin and Hassid; 1966) 1.7 Characterisation of alginate Extracted alginate may be characterised using a variety of techniques such as 1H-NMR, FT-IR, SEC, DSC, CHNS elemental analysis and viscosity. 1.7.1 1H-NMR 1H-NMR spectroscopy is used to determine the main structural pattern and composition of alginate. Structures of alginate are generally constituted of homopolymeric blocks i.e M and G blocks that can be separated by heteropolymeric of MG blocks. The M/G ratio has a strong effect on the physical properties of alginate. Figure 4:1H-NMR Spectra for solution of alginate form S. vulgare in D2O (a) SVLV (S.vulgare low viscosity) and (b) SVHV (S.vulgare High viscosity) (Torres et al., 2007) Figure 4 (a) and (b) show the 1H-NMR spectra of alginate extracted from SLHV and SLHV respectively. Peak I (5.06 ppm) was attributed to anomeric proton (G-1) guluronic acid, peak II (4.7 ppm) show the anomeric proton (M-1) of mannuronic acid and the C-5 alternating blocks (GM-5) which is overlapping each other at this peak and peak III (4.4 ppm) is for the anomeric peak of guluronic acid H-5 (G-5) (Torres et al., 2007). 1.7.2 FT-IR analysis FT-IR spectroscopy is used to determine the functional groups present in the structure of alginate. The FT-IR spectra of the extracted alginate from brown seaweed Turbinaria ornata is given in (figure 5). The bands which is around 800 cm-1 corresponds to the C-H which is ‘out plane’ of the aromatic ring. The peak near 1040 cm-1 is due to the stretching vibrations of C-O bond. The bands at 1230 and 1600 cm-1 corresponding to C-N stretching and N-H bending vibration respectively show the presence of aliphatic amine. The O-H alcoholic groups shows stretching vibrations band at around 3400 cm-1 and C=O stretching vibrations due to the carboxylic acids group present in the structure (Gowtham Sriram et al., 2014). Figure 5: FT-IR spectra of Turbinaria ornata seaweed (Gowtham Sriram et al., 2014) 1.7.3 CHNS elemental analysis Table 4 shows the result for elemental analysis for SVHV and SVLV and both sample proved to have similar results. The nitrogen content is due to the protein found in the seaweed. The % C are 27.7 and 28.1, %H are 5.15 and 4.4 for SVLV and SVHV respectively. The %N (nitrogen) is due to the presence of protein which contains amine groups in seaweed. % S are zero for both SVLV and SVHV (Torres at al., 2007) Table 4 : Analytical data of Sargassum Vulgare alginate Analytical parameter (m/m %) SVLV(S.Vulgare low viscosity SVHV(S.Vulgare high viscosity H 5.15 4.49 C 27.7 28.1 N 0.178 0.164 S 0 0 1.7.4. Viscosity Intrinsic viscosity is the measurement of hydrodynamic volume occupied by complex molecule at unlimited dilution in specific solvents at a given temperature. The intrinsic viscosity depends on the molar mass (Mv), composition and the sequences of M and G residues. Intrinsic viscosity is represented as equation 1 [Æž] = sp/C —–Equation (1) Where Æžsp is specific viscosity and Æžsp/C is reduced viscosity Another equation of reduced viscosity is defined as Æžred = ——– Equation (2) the intrinsic viscosity was found by the classical method of a plotting straight line graph according to the Huggin’s Equation (3) to which [Æž] y-intercept is obtained. Æžred = [Æž] kH[Æž]2 C —— Equation (3) Graph of reduced viscosity versus alginate concentration for SVLV and SVHV sample shown in figure 6 (Torres et al., 2007). Figure 6: Specific viscosity of SVLV (S.Vulgare low viscosity) and SVHV(S.vulgare high viscosity) The viscosities were performed in 0.1 N NaCl at 25 oC for both SVLV and SVHV. Intrinsic viscosites are 6.9 and 4.14 g/dL for SVLV and SVHV respectively (Torres et al., 2007). Table 5 shows different [Æž] for different species of brown seaweed. High vis The intrinsic viscosities of S.Vulgare algiante ranges from (2.5-15.4) g/dL cosity was found SVLV due to high content of MM blocks. Table 5 :Intrinsic viscosity and average molar masses of alginates from different sources(Torres et al., 2007) Alginate source [Æž] (dL/g) Mwa 10–5 (g/mol) L. hyperborean 6.4 3.05 F. vesiculosus 2.5 1.17 A. nodosum 2.8 1.32 L. japonica 15.4 7.44 S. fluitans 6.30 3.00 S. dentifolium 12.6 6.06 S. asperifolium 15.2 7.34 S. latifolium 8.7 4.16 S. vulgare This study 4.1 1.94 LV (low viscosity ) HV (high viscosity) 6.9 3.30 1.7.4.1. Molar mass Molar mass (Mv) is determined by using the Mark-Houwink equation (4), [Æž] = k Mva —- Equation (4) where k and a are empirical coefficients that are dependent on the polymer and the solvent-temperature system used. As for alginate, a value ranges from 0.73 to 1.31 can be acquired depending on the composition of alginate and ionic strength. G-rich alginate has higher a values while lower a values are observed in M-rich alginate which is flexible in nature Proposed empirical relations for [Å‹] and the weight-average molar mass (Mw) for SVHV and SVLV was computed using equation 4 and the result shown in table 3 [Æž] = 0.023 Mw 0.984 ——- Equation 4 where [Æž] is given in dL/g and M in kDaltons. The a value used is 0.984 which is different on at specific solvent used. Average molar mass for SVHV was higher than SVLV and similar values to S.fluitans. SVLV has a lower value than other Sargassum species reported in table 5 (Torres et al., 2007). 1.8 Uses of alginate Alginate has many areas of application. For example in food industry and is use to stabilise mixture dispersion and emulsion which increase the viscosity of the gel and forms gel such as jam and jellies. Alginate gel films are also utilized in the food industry as edible films on fruits and vegetables and as coatings designed to improve stored meat quality, industrial and pharmaceutics because the water in alginate has the ability to hold and form gel, to form and stabilise emulsion, textile industry, rubber adhesive paper products, cosmetics and in dental mould (Chennubhotla et al., 2013; Crossingham et al., 2014). Alginate also protects against carcinogenic substances, it clears the digestive system and protects the membrane of the stomach and intestine. Alginate is used in the manufacturing of soft capsules and is consumed as beverage for lowering blood sugar level. Alginate is used in the textile industry as an additive for textile and has also been investigated recently in the composition in vaginal film dosage in pharmaceutical industries and alginate is also used in wound dressings (Paul et al., 2004).

Troy University Othello by William Shakespeare Drama Analysis Essay

Troy University Othello by William Shakespeare Drama Analysis Essay.

After reading Shakespeare’s Othello, review the questions at the end of the text and the checklist for Writing Effectively in your text.Under the Topics for Writing on Shakespeare on p. 892, choose one of the first four questions as the topic for your paper (you may not write about #5 because we did not read the other play).Regardless of which topic you choose, you must include detailed evidence from the text to support your points. Remember that you must have a strong thesis and provide analysis, not simply summary, as you respond to the question you have chosen. Here are some additional resources to assist you: About Shakespeare:www.absoluteshakespeare.com (Links to an external site.)On Writing about Drama:http://www.chsbs.cmich.edu/Kristen_McDermott/writing.drama.htm (Links to an external site.)Your paper must be a minimum of 3 full pages presented in MLA format.Your work must be submitted as a Microsoft Word compatible file attachment in the dropbox.
Troy University Othello by William Shakespeare Drama Analysis Essay

CHM 205 CCCMXC Organic Chemistry the Experimental Use of Polarimetry Lab Report

CHM 205 CCCMXC Organic Chemistry the Experimental Use of Polarimetry Lab Report.

I’m working on a chemistry report and need a sample draft to help me study.

Hello, I need assistance with a lab report for organic chemistry. The results, procedure, and videos are all provided.What is required:1.Title, purpose of the experiment.2. Balanced chemical equations/mechanism (if any).3. Physical constants such as molecular weight, density, and grams, moles, boiling point, etc. of reagents and products if any in tabular form. (Table of Reagents)4. Outline of the experimental procedure in a bullet form5. Data tables, results6. Calculations (theoretical yield, percent yield), graphs7. Conclusions and questionsAttached are the lab and the lab results. Thank you!
CHM 205 CCCMXC Organic Chemistry the Experimental Use of Polarimetry Lab Report