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Debates on Race and Language: Frantz Fanon

“In no way should I dedicate myself to the revival of an unjustly unrecognised Negro civilisation” Explain and assess this statement by Fanon at the end of Black Skin, White Masks Introduction We understand the world, ourselves, and other people through language (Foucault, 1977). For Foucault everything in life is determined by what he calls discourse, that is to say what we say about a subject. Thus, the language that we use defines how we see the world and how we view other people. Foucault (1977) further maintains that language is controlled by those who hold power in society. This means that everyone else’s use of language is determined by what those I power have to say about a subject. Nowadays many writers maintain that the social and linguistic construct of race has had a powerful effect on the consciousness of both black and white people. Language is real because it is inevitable acted upon (what Bordieu describes as a speech act) the language that spoke of one race as inferior to another became a justification for enslaving those people designated as inferior. Discourses of race and inferiority were central to the success of the modernist project as black people were seen as treacherous to the central narrative of Western personhood, that is to say they were different from what was elevated as the white norm (Fanon 1986). Frantz Fanon was a French essayist and author whose main concern was decolonisation and what he, and many other thinkers have seen as the psychopathology of colonialism. He died in 1961 at the age of 36 yet his work continues to be highly influential, particularly in the fields of cultural studies and race and ethnicity. He wrote most of his work while he lived in North Africa, by contrast, Black Skin, White Masks was written while he was still living in France. For many he is seen as the intellectual thinker on decolonisation in the twentieth century. His work has had far reaching implications over the years on a number of liberationist movements which has led some people to regard him as an advocate of violence.[1] Beginning with an introduction to modernity this assignment will discuss Fanon’s work and his statement in the context of this debate about language and the debate about black experience and black identities which, Gilroy (1993) maintains can only be understood in terms of the history of slavery. Fanon (1986) would however, dispute this notion, he believes that if it were at all possible, then colonialism should be done away with and wiped from the history books, even though he recognises that this is not possible. The period of colonialism where countries were made great on the backs of slavery separated white from black as though they were two completely different civilizations. The western world became that of the oppressor and the oppressed and Fanon sees the world in terms of this almost pathological relationship. Fanon’s work in Black Skin, White Masks (Fanon, 1986 ed.) encapsulates the sense of division that is felt by both oppressed and oppressors, black and white. Such divisions are rooted in the period that sociologists and cultural theorists now speak of as modernity. Modernity The onset of what is known as Modernity can be traced back to the Enlightenment in the late 17th to early 19th century. The Enlightenment was an intellectual movement and its primary concerns were the powers of human reason, the inevitability of human progress, and the ability of science to provide humanity with answers. Philosophers of this period were also interested in how knowledge was transmitted and how we came to know what we know. This period is renowned for the immense technological and social changes that were taking place and which eventually led to a break with traditional view of the social, of society, and of a person’s place within that society. During this period there was an intense concentration on the individual, which prompted the philosopher Hegel to develop his idea of the historical subject. This is the idea that people’s actions are what have made history what it is. In recent years many theorists have argued that the subject referred only to the white, western, middle class male (see Abbott and Wallace, 1997) and that women, children and other races were excluded from the whole project. This idea of modern society, coupled with the Enlightenment notion of human progress has been problematic for a number of reasons, not least because, as we are well aware, human beings do not always act rationally, and in this sense modernity brought out the darker side of our human nature. The events of the twentieth century have done nothing to dispel this notion, in fact there are those who would argue that modern society is now at its most irrational. Modernity gave the world the nation state, the spread of capitalism and as we shall see, western cultural imperialism and colonization. Modernity produced the conditions for slavery and its success was built upon the enslavement of people who were regarded as different from, and thus inferior to, white western males. Fanon’s Concerns Western history is not just a history of colonial oppression but it is also a history of the struggles against such oppression. Western history is about the oppression of colonialism and the struggles against that oppression, which calls into question Enlightenment notions of the subject. These problems are examined by Fanon in Black Skin, White Masks (1986) where he concentrates on black subjectivity and experience and with the problematic concept of western modernity. He was also concerned with the refutation of dualism, that philosophy apparent in the Enlightenment period which separated things into binary opposites such as male/female, white/black. Binary divisions not only separate genders and races, they objectify them because that which is other is defined only by the oppressor. Fanon’s other major concern was the dislocation that occurs when people are taken from their homelands and forced into a diasporic existence.[2] Fanon (1986) contends that the biggest weapon the coloniser’s had was their representation of those who were colonised, as different. This was done in such a way that they were no longer recognisable even to themselves. For Fanon being colonised estranges human beings from themselves so that they are no longer connected to their own human nature. He is concerned with the history as it is relates to the black experience although his work is sometimes disorganised and not always easy to follow. He writes about the black/white, self/other experience, and how colonialism results in an alienation of the person. Fanon, is against ethnic and cultural absolutism, but could see no reconciliation between the races because the white colonisers will always be waiting for the black mask to slip and reveal the whiteness beneath. Syncretism Gilroy (1993) traces the mutual influence of black and white culture in both America and Britain in an attempt to challenge notions of national and cultural purity and reveal a syncretism of the cultures. Decades before this and in his earlier work The Wretched of the Earth (1963) Fanon writes about syncretism as oppression where the black person assimilates the culture of the coloniser whether they like it or not. He maintains that such syncretism is the colonisers way or reducing black people and thus he speaks of the settler’s creation of the ‘native’ – a concept which is evident in the discourses of modernity and its rational subject. This subject could only exist by excluding difference and otherness. Fanon (1986) maintains that the ‘Negro’ is only acceptable on certain terms: What is often called the black soul is a white man’s artefact . . . there is a quest for the Negro, the Negro is in demand, one cannot get along without him, he is needed, but only if he is made palatable in a certain way. (Fanon 1986, p. 114) In saying this Fanon rejects both narcissistic myths of Negritude (and) the White Cultural Supremacy (Bhabha, H. 1986:ix) which is most obvious in linguistic terms. This cultural supremacy still operates today, in most countries in the world children will learn English in school, when the English go abroad many of them do not trouble to learn the language of the country they are visiting. People assume that English will be spoken because cultural hegemony has its base in language and this language signifies power. Thus the language carries with it the power and knowledge of the nation. Hall (1992) argues that nationalism and the nation state are a direct result of capitalism. When people promote these things in a multi-cultural society it can result in people having a confused sense of national identity. Hall further maintains that identity and culture are closely linked. The cultural diaspora that was brought about by slavery has resulted in what Hall (1992) terms ‘hybrid identities’- an expression which in some ways is expressed in Fanon’s idea of black skin and white masks. Fanon (1986) argues that race has been objectified through discourses of superiority and inferiority and has thus become a fixed category which he decries. What these discourses have done is to make of the black person a divided self, a person with a ‘double consciousness.’ This is a term first used by W De Bois, who defined double consciousness as a twoness-an American, a Negro, two souls, two thoughts, two unrecognised strivings, two warring ideals in one dark body, who dogged strength alone keeps it from being torn asunder (Dubois 2003 quoted in Sawyer, M 2005:86). This double consciousness is demonstrated in the relationships involved in slavery. Slavery was an integral part of this double consiousness of which Du Bois wrote because it consciousness was central to Hegel’s master/slave idea, where the slave remains a slave because they are dominated by a slave mentality. Following on from this line of thought was Richard Wright who believed that the Negro was a symbol in the psychological, social and political systems of the West. The Negro spoken of in modernist discourse was once an African, along with the experiences of slavery this led black people to experience a sense of dislocation where they experienced what the philosopher Nietzsche once described as a frog’s perspective because they looked up from beneath the chains of their oppressors (Wright, 1956). The frog’s perspective lay behind Wright’s understanding of double consciousness. Wright’s work had a strong influence on the writings of Frantz Fanon. In Fanon’s work this‘double consciousness’ or divided self is not restricted to the colonised, Fanon maintains that it is also a property of the coloniser because colonialism affects the self-understanding of both the oppressed and their oppresors. In this he demonstrates the influence that Wright (1956) had on his work because Wright thought that mental illness could result from the relationship between master and slave, between the oppressed and the oppressor. Fanon believed that racial subjectivity was determined from outside of the individual and so he sees neither a unitary black experience nor a unitary white experience. Fanon sees experience as contextual rather than historical, that is to say that the experience of the black person who remained in Africa would be very different from the black person who was made a slave – white experience is affected in a similar way. Thus Fanon says that I do not have the right to allow myself to be mired in what the past has determined. I am not the slave of the slavery that dehumanised my ancestors (Fanon, 1986:230). Conclusion When Fanon says at the end of Black Skin, White Masks that In no way should I dedicate myself to the revival of an unjustly unrecognised Negro civilisation. He is arguing against the objectification of race and the language of inferiority and superiority that are associated with the term ‘negro’. His life’s work was dedicated to decolonisation of those areas that were still part of what had been called the British Empire. The negro was a function of the coloniser’s differentiation of the slave from the white owner. Thus Fanon’s statement acts as a repudiation fo slavery and colonisation. Furthermore Fanon’s argument is important to cultural analysis and to society at large. Talking about a separate negro civilization puts us in the position of being stuck in the binary categories of a black/white cultural analysis that is the heritage of modernity and its failures. What Fanon (1986) appears to be saying is that society and its analysis needs to go beyond ideas of nationalism and ethnic absolutism – because these things paved the way for colonialism and slavery. Fanon (1986) recognises that we have to live with the inheritance of colonialism and that things are not changed overnight. If we dispense with many of its ideas as Fanon appears to suggest then this raises the question of how we analyse race, nationalism, gender and ethnicity without the use of those categories? We have to have some way of speaking about the things that trouble our society and the best ways of dealing with them. Whatever we choose to say or feel about this as individuals the fact of the matter is that these categories are part of our consciousness and so are integral to our discourses on these subjects. Having said that, things are perhaps only this way because those who are not white, western, middle class males, will always be other – because most of the power in the world is in the hands of this group their definitions of concepts still holds. Bibliography Abbott and Wallace 1997 A Feminist Introduction to Sociology London, Routledge. Bhabha, H. 1986 “Foreward” in Fanon, F. 1986 (1967) Black Skin, White Masks London, Pluto Press Bourdieu, P. 1991 .Language and Symbolic Power. Cambridge, MA : Harvard University Press. Fanon, F 1963 The Wretched of the Earth New York: Grove Press Fanon, F. 1986 (1967) Black Skin, White Masks London, Pluto Press Foucault, M. 1977 Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison London, Allen Lane Gilroy, P 1993 The Black Atlantic London, Verso Hall, S. 1992 “Our Mongrel Selves” New Statesman and Society, 19th June 1992 Sawyer, M 2005 “DuBois’ double consciousness versus Latin American exceptionalism: Joe Wright, R 1956 The Colour Curtain Dobson. London . Wright, R. 1979 Native Son Harmondsworth, Penguin 1 [1] [2] The spread of groups of people (often against their wishes, and specifically black people and Jews) across different parts of the globe.
MIS 480 Oakland University Management Information System Presentation.

Option #1: Business Intelligence RequirementsYou are a BI analyst tasked with implementing Tableau to analyze Big Data to determine how a cybersecurity incident occurred. You are asked to create requirements in the form of a presentation on how data can be analyzed inside the tool to determine what changes are needed. Your requirements presentation should include:Rationale for Selecting this ToolSystem, Visualization, and Interface RequirementsCosts and Schedule for ImplementationData or User ChallengesOther BI Tool OptionsYour presentation must meet the following requirements:Be four to six slides in length, in addition to the title and reference slides.2. You are a project lead assigned to a Big Data BI project. Based on the complex scope of the project, you decide to pitch a design strategy to your manager to make sure the best tool is selected prior to the project start date. Your manager requests a paper describing how design strategies can ensure business requirements are in alignment with the proposed tool to analyze data for current and future problems.Your paper should include how design strategies address the following:Current Business Problems and ChallengesUnmet Business or Client NeedsChanges in Client and Management Involvement in the ProjectNew Trends, Ideas, and Unforeseen ChangesOrganizational Benefits that Could be Leveraged in the Project
MIS 480 Oakland University Management Information System Presentation

There are many roles and uses of Special Drawing Rights which created by IMF. In 1969, it is used to maintain the constant exchange rate system that was set by the Bretton Woods. IMF’s member countries who want to participate in this system needed official reserves from government or central bank holdings of gold. Not only that, they should buy the domestic currency by using the foreign currencies in foreign exchange markets. This can maintain and sustain their exchange rates. However, the Bretton Woods system collapsed after a few years later. This had caused there was a floating exchange rate in the major currencies. Besides, SDR can be used to balance the accounts of the participants. This can achieve the requirement for supplementing to current reserve. If the IMF’s members want to achieve the requirement, the SDR can be used to obtain foreign exchange. This transaction can be done by designation by IMF of one member to another member to exchange the SDR to freely usable currency. The designation is based on the conditions of their payment’s balance and reserve positions. There is a limitation for the member to provide currency although there is an agreement to set a higher limit by the IMF and members. The holding of SDR should not more than three times. Furthermore, SDR is also used to settle financial obligations. The member countries can get the loans from SDR at the agreed maturities date and interest rates. After that, the countries should repay the loans and payment of interest with SDR. Other than the uses above, there are two ways that the SDR can perform as the protection for the financial requirements. To discuss about it, first, the participants may allocate the SDR for the time period that had promised before by recorded it in a register. Besides, the second way is the participants may have the same opinion that SDR would perform as the protection for the financial requirements and the transferor would receive back the SDR when the requirement had been achieved. Basket of Other Currencies to find Out the SDR’s Value Before that, the SDR’s value was equivalent to 0.888671 grams of fine gold (International Monetary Fund Factsheet, 2010). It was same with $1 USD. As mentioned above, the Bretton Woods system collapsed. Due to this, the SDR’s value was determined by basket of other international currencies which consist of Yen, Dollars, Pounds and Euros. At the website of IMF, there will show the value of US dollar of the SDR every day. The total value of the amounts of the four currencies which is in U.S. dollars as mentioned above is the SDR’s value. Besides, the currencies’ values are based on exchange rates quoted at each day in the market of London. Afternoon rates of the market in New York are used if the market of London had been closed. The Executive Board reviews back the basket currencies every five years. This is because he wants to emphasize significance of currencies throughout the whole world’s financial systems. The value of the exports determines the weights of the currencies in the SDR basket. It is also determined by the amount of reserves which were held by other members of the IMF. The tables below are representing the value of SDR in this recent ten years time: [1] January 2001 – December 2005 ISO Currency Weight Value USD US Dollar 44% $ 0.5770 EUR European Euros 31% € 0.4260 JPY Japanese Yen 14% ¥ 21.0 GBP British Pound 11% £ 0.0984 January 2006 – December 2010 ISO Currency Weight Value USD US Dollar 44% $ 0.6320 EUR European Euros 34% € 0.4100 JPY Japanese Yen 11% ¥ 18.4 GBP British Pound 11% £ 0.0903 The Interest Rate of SDR To determine the interest charged on IMF loans, we need to base on the interest rate of the SDR. Besides, it also calculates the payment of interest based on the percentage of the subscriptions of the quota and charges the members based on their holding and allocations of SDR. The interest rate of SDR is calculated every week. SDR’s Allocations The allocations of the SDR by the IMF to its members are based on the percentage of their quota. It receives on the excess if the member’s holding of the SDR is above the allocation. However, if it holds fewer SDR than allocated, it needs to pay interest on the loss. General allocations and special allocation (Factsheet – Special Drawing Rights, n.d.) are the two kinds of allocations. General allocations mean that it needs to set the long term requirement as the basis to complement on hand reserve. There are three times to make the decisions to allocate SDRs. The allocation will enhance the holdings of the SDR by the members and the growing of the SDR allocations. Special allocations mean that all members are enabled to join the SDR system equitably and do some correction for the truth that others countries which had joined the after 1981. It was executed on September 9, 2009 (Special Drawing Rights, 2010). It also makes the cumulative allocations of SDR of the members to increase by using a common benchmark ratio. Membership of IMF There are 187 countries currently is the members of IMF. A country must apply and then be admitted by a majority of the existing members only will successful become part of them. Every member of the IMF is distributing a quota when they joining the group that which refers to the size in the international economy. The membership of the IMF agreed to rebalance the quota system in May 2008 in order to reflect the realities of the global economic changing. What is a Quota [2] ? Most of the IMF financial resources are generated by the quota subscriptions. Every member is giving a quota according to their relative size in the economy of world. (Boosting representation of emerging markets and low-income countries, 2010) The voting power and the maximum financial commitment has determine by the member’s quota. In addition, the protection of poorest members’ voting share is promised by the quota. The Functions of Quota Any reassessment of the quota formulas should take into account the functions of quotas. Multiple functions can be found in the Fund’s Articles of Agreement. Quotas (i) fix the maximum amount of financing a member is obligated to provide to provide to the Fund, (ii) determine voting power in the Executive Board, (iii) bear on a member’s access to Fund resources, and (iv) determine a member’s share of general SDR allocations. Traditionally, a critical role of quotas has been the provision of financial resources to the Fund since a monetary and financial institution could not function without an adequate supply of resources. This remains the case, although the financial role of quotas has been affected somewhat as alternative sources of finance have been developed, particularly the increased availability of borrowed resources to supplement quotas and the growing role of administered resources to provide concessional assistance to the Fund’s poorest members. Besides that, Quotas determine the distribution of voting power in the Fund. The Fund’s responsibilities outside of those directly related to lending have grown over the years, most recently with the various initiatives has a relationship with the reformation of the global financial architecture (e.g., the fostering of international standards). Measures have been taken in the past to seek to ensure adequate representation for all members (e.g., increases in small quotas). However, for many smaller and medium-size emerging market and developing country members, quota-based votes may not adequately reflect the role these countries play in the world economy. Then, Quotas continue to play a crucial role in determining the demand for Fund resources. Quotas serve as the basis for access to such resources in the great majority of Fund-supported programs. Over the years, however, the relationship between quotas and access has become more elastic, especially as of late when the demand for Fund resources has become more unpredictable because of the increased role of capital flows in causing balance of payments disequilibria. Waivers of the Articles’ limits on access to Fund resources have been granted where necessary to allow access in line with operational limits. Lastly, the allocation of Special Drawing Rights (SDRs) has the function of acting as an international reserve asset. Description of Fiat Money History of Fiat money: A fiat money is a medium of exchange and known as the paper money. As we all know that fiat money is money that is declared to have value even if it does not. Fiat money is valued by the people that use it so there is no any production cost to the fiat money and the supply of fiat money can never be limited. Normally, the value of fiat money is always depending on the economy of each country (History of Fiat Money). As mentioned that, fiat money no production cost and supply of a fiat money can be unlimited so that hyperinflation will be occurred if there are too much of the fiat money flow in the market and cause the purchasing power of the money is lower compare with past. As a result, issuers such as central bank should control and supervise the volume of the fiat money. The United States has prevented hyper-inflation by shifting between a fiat money and gold standard over the past 200 years. In Malaysia, the paper money we called it as ringgit Malaysia which consists of different value on each fiat money as others countries. The currency for our paper money is stable compare with foreign countries because our Central Bank manages the monetary stability well and lower down the fluctuation of currency value. Evolution of Fiat money: 910AD- China is the first country experiments with the paper money- The fiat money is nearly used around hundred years but the paper money is rejected due to the hyper-inflation as the supply of the money more than the production. 1500’S- Spain becoming the richest nation in the world after collected gold from Mexico and the new world. After that, Spain spent most of their resources to extinguish pirates and then their excessive consumption cause the shortage of gold hoard. Then, they changed to financing the war with debt, finally bankrupted. 1716- John Law persuaded France to use the paper money in the market and declared all taxes necessary paid with it gain acceptance. The paper money becomes more popular than coin and cause to no limitation in printing, excessive moneymaking and planning and fraud. Overvalues in printing the excessive paper money eventually destroyed the system as well. 1791-The French Government again tries to use the paper money as country currency. However, the French Government issued out the “assignata” which is the interest rate for every personal own properties after they confiscated the land owned by aristocrats Some land was auctioned off in order to exchange for these new interest rate, inflation increased rapidly to 13,000% by 1795. After that, the “assignate” had been replaced by gold franc due to the Napoleon ended up the revolution, which set up over a century of development for France in that period of time. In the 1930’s, Bank of France transform fully into the Government after the Socialists had brought the bank. They eliminated the gold backing of the currency as fast as possible and made the franc as the determinate of fiat money in France. The currency value had dropped 99% during the past 12 years. 1853- In Argentina, the development of gold standard is around 100 years. After that, the central bank of Argentina was formed in 1932; the downfall of the Argentina economy was started afterward. Then, Juan Peron involved in 1943 revolution and exhausted of reserves causing economy collapse in the year. Argentina continued on this line of paper money usage. As a result, the ranking of Argentina economy is falling from the eighth largest to deepest in the world, which it has no financial power to recover until today due to the serious impact to their country economic. 1862-The 16th President of United States Abraham Lincoln succeed to pass the Legal Tender Act and then allowing the United States Government to issue out their own paper money. The decision was supported by the government without any of promises so that a tremendous inflation occurred that caused the practice fall down rapidly out of grace until year 1913 in which the Federal Reserve System was developed. 1923 – Weimar Republic was established in 1919 in Germany in order to lower down from its total loss result from the world war because Germany needs to take the responsibility to payback the war reparations which are huge amount. The huge amount of debt caused the country was devoid so found no other alternative but to simply print the money in large amounts to make the payments on the reparations. The consequence was absorbed most of the income from whole middle class in the society, total value of savings had been destroyed, and paying to fulfill the reparations in front of the angry society in whole Germany. The US dollar eliminates the gold standard in stages below: 1934-First of all, President Roosevelt was 26th President of the United States revalued gold to print out more paper money in the United States market, with the expectation to increase the GDP of the United Stated current economy so that can eliminate the depression in the society. 1944- One of the steps that US try to substitute the gold by dollar is offered out the Bretton Woods Agreement. The price of gold is around $35 per ounce of dollar so that every foreign nation is available to obtain their own paper currency if they could afford either gold or US dollar because the US dollar and gold are the determinate of the world financial instrument. For the other point of view is meant that each nation’s volume of currency was depended on the amount of gold and US dollar. 1971- President Nixon ended up the gold trading and no more ending convertibility of dollars to gold. This scenario happened because of the US World Bank was printing excessive dollars and living standard beyond its means. As a result, most of the foreign nations which led by France discovered this benefit and began to require to get the payment of gold, collapsing the system because US faced major outflow of gold. (J.Greene, 2004) Relationship between IMF and World Bank As we all know that, the International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an intergovernmental organization function in the management role of international financial system. The main purpose is achieved by controlling exchange rates and balance of payments global market in the world. Besides that, IMF also supports financial aids and technical assistance to member nations when they are facing financial crisis. For example, IMF will combine with the World Bank provide the financial support funds to the poor countries such as some of the poor Africa countries which is facing the bad economy crisis and the collapse of economy. However, the funds that loan out by IMF and World Bank are considered as the debt trap because of the high compound interest rate charge by IMF to the poor countries and cause them unable to payback their loan. In fact, the cooperation between IMF and World Bank to loan out the funds to poor countries is aimed to absorb their natural resources in that indebted countries if they are unable to cover the repayment of debt. In addition, the Fund that provided by the IMF and World Bank has the purpose of assisting the developing foreign countries to help them to achieve the stability in the economic conditions and reduce the levels of the poverty. The stability in the economic circumstances can led to the high GDP and rise up the living standard in each country so that the poverty will be lesser in the market level. The purpose of the IMF is established to speed up the development and growth of the international economy, provide the stability in the financial sector and avoid the fluctuation in the monetary market. To attain the goals, the IMF plan to: Promoting worldwide cooperation in the financial sectors. Facilitating the balanced development in the global trading and stimulating the employment rate and hence reducing the levels of poverty. Contributing to the exchange rates stability. Eliminating the restriction that block the global trade. Providing impermanent financial sources to the member nations and helping them to stabilize their payments’ balance.

Art, Music, and Creative Writing homework help

Art, Music, and Creative Writing homework help. What methods did Diaz use to stay in power for nearly 35 years? What improvements did Mexico experience under Diaz? Who benefitted? What were the negative aspects of the Diaz dictatorship? Who suffered?,What methods did Diaz use to stay in power for nearly 35 years?,“Mexico: Revolution and Rebirth” – 25 points, Directions:  Watch the film, “Mexico: Revolution and Rebirth” and answer the following questions as thoroughly as possible. Answer in complete sentences. Your responses will be handed in and graded.,1)      Firstly, What were the conditions in Mexico before Porfirio Diaz took power?,2)      Secondly, What methods did Diaz use to stay in power for nearly 35 years?,3)      Thirdly, What improvements did Mexico experience under Diaz? Who benefitted?,4)      Fourthly, What were the negative aspects of the Diaz dictatorship? Who suffered?,5)      Further, Who were the 3 leaders who started the Mexican Revolution? What do you know about each one? What was the cause each was fighting for?,6)      Moreover, Why did the Mexican Revolution continue after Diaz went into exile?,7)      Additionally, What happened to the leaders of the Mexican Revolution?,8)      Also, How was the United States involved in the Mexican Revolution?,9)      Furthermore, What became the basis of the Mexican economy after 1938? Further, What problems did this cause?,10)   Besides, Why were there protests at the 1968 Summer Olympics? What happened?,11)   Also, What were the successes of the Mexican Revolution?,12)   Finally, What problems remain in Mexico after the Revolution?, Identifications,Directions:  Firstly, Explain each of the following terms. Also, Include the date and historical significance of the term. You can also look up terms online to get additional information.,The Porfiriato, Cinco de Mayo, Rurales, Cientificos, Social Darwinism, ,Francisco Madero, Pancho Villa, Emiliano Zapata, Venustiano Carranza, Alvaro Obregon, Pershing Expedition, Columbus Raid, P.R.I., PEMEX, Tlatelolco Massacre, NAFTA, ,Attachments,Click Here To Download,Art, Music, and Creative Writing homework help


programming assignment help correction. I need an explanation for this Business Law question to help me study.

Kicks and Laces v Jack (IRAC)
ISSUE: did jack commit burglary under the laws of Greenacre?
RULE: Burglary is the breaking and entering, into the dwelling place of another at night, with intent to commit a felony there within.
ANALYSIS: Jack wanted to buy his wife and children Christmas presents and a charismas tree but he could not afford them. He had his former workplace’s key, which he had duplicated earlier while he worked there. Jack committed burglary because of the following 3-reasons.

He broke and entered Kicks and Laces store at 10 PM (at night) because despite having worked there as a manager earlier and having spare key, he was currently not authorized to enter the store.
He intended to steal commit a felony because he did not have the financial capacity to buy his family a Christmas tree and presents, which he wanted to do.
He stole shoes worth $600 and $1000 in cash. According to Greenacre Penal Code Section 232, a person needs to steal an amount exceeding $950 to have committed grand theft (a felony). The things jack stole exceeded this amount.

CONCLUSION: jack committed burglary under Greenacre law because he broke into Kicks and Laces at night with intent to commit a felony, which he did by stealing money and goods exceeding $950.

Why Did Women Achieve The Vote?

The ideology attributed to women has shifted radically over the last 150 years, consequently increasing the demands and expectations that women have on and of themselves. One of the most well documented battles of modern women’s history is that of the campaign for women’s suffrage in Britain. With this in mind, the intention of this essay is to investigate the issues encompassing the eventual enfranchisement of British women in 1918 to determine why suffrage was granted. A conclusion will be drawn by juxtaposing the ideology of women before and after World War One and analysing the effectiveness of the suffrage campaigns and the role that women played in the Great War. In order to determine the significance of women’s suffrage organisations and to understand the importance of their campaigns we must begin by examining the reasons for their formation. The roots of women’s suffrage are steeped in the bloodied waters of female oppression, with evidence of misogyny found in the ancient texts from the Old Testament to Homer’s Iliad among others (Wojtczak, H. 2009), it is clear that women’s history is dominated by subjugation to men. This cultural constant has been challenged by pioneering female warriors, scientists, and writers who have proved that women posses intelligence and integrity in equal capacity as men; women such as Boadicea, Marie Curie, and Mary Wollstonecraft among countless others have inspired and altered the ideology of the ‘fairer sex’. The popular opinions surrounding gender roles from the mid-nineteenth century until WWI were imbued with the dogma of a patriarchal society whose goal was to control the population by means of oppression – of the poor, the weak and the women. The gender ideology of this period has been named ‘separate spheres’ – a term which implies that men and women live in antithetic worlds; men occupied the public sphere, while women inhabited the domestic. This separation of the sexes led to gender norms and stereotypes that both men and women have fought to overcome. By extension of this ideology, from 1834 qualified women could vote in local elections on domestic policy as women were seen as the nurturing sex, they had influence over schools, poor relief and hospitals which were seen as extensions of the home and therefore within the limits of female competency. Women were seen as instinctively submissive; their fate was marriage and their only function was to bear children, consequently women were domestic prisoners. This period saw the traditional idea of natural male supremacy challenged by that of gender equality. Consequently, the ‘separate spheres’ ideology lost power to ‘The Representation of the People Act’ in 1918 which gave the vote to women over thirty, and was eventually shattered ten years later when men and women were granted equal rights to suffrage. As education became more accessible in the late 19th century, the unfolding capabilities of women produced uncertainty around their traditional roles in the home and in wider society, ordinary women began to realise that they did not have to ‘accept their lot’, and that through empowerment of the female population they could control the direction of their lives. In 1832 the first petition on women’s suffrage was presented to Parliament and was, according to The Times, ‘…more jocular than serious in its tone’ (Wojtczak, H. 2009). From the reaction of the media if is clear that women’s suffrage was seen as a joke – something that only weak-willed women would treat with importance, and something that would go away if ignored. In addition to this, anti-women’s suffrage groups and supporters were mostly female (Bush, J. 2012); this gave suffragists the challenge to prove that they wanted and deserved the right to vote. This atmosphere of political, social, and economic inequality became the amniotic sac in which women’s suffrage societies throughout Britain developed. Women for whom the road to liberation was in sight began to discuss the political issues surrounding their lives and set up groups to begin this awareness to others. The women’s suffrage movement consisted of two seemingly contrasting groups, the National Union of Women’s Suffrage Societies and the Women’s Social and Political Union. The tactics employed by these groups were radically different in purpose and approach. While the NUWSS sought to educate the population through lawful activities, the WSPU took a militant approach, preferring to provoke the government and anyone who opposed them through violence and criminal damage. The National Union of Women’s Suffrage Societies was founded in 1897 by Millicent Fawcett through an alliance of suffrage organisations throughout Britain. The NUWSS (suffragists) were an inherently peaceful organisation whose primary goal was to educate, they sought to achieve this by producing, publishing and distributing free literature and accessible newspapers such as ‘The Common Cause’ which addressed the concerns of working class women of the time. Although the NUWSS was an organisation comprised of the least politically powerful people, their work was effective in the moulding of public opinion; this is evident in the growth of the organisation from fifteen branches in 1897 to five hundred in 1914. This moderate suffragist organisation was crucial in constructing a platform for the suffragettes to yell from (Parliament. n.d.). In dramatic contrast to the peaceful actions of the NUWSS, the WSPU used militancy to publicise their cause and to recruit like-minded women to their group. Led by Emmeline Pankhurst from 1903-1914, the Women’s Social and Political Union were determined to gain suffrage for women on an equal basis to men. Although the NUWSS built the foundations of the suffrage movement, the WSPU were frustrated by the stilted pace of the their campaign. In response to this, they staged dramatic demonstrations to gain attention to their cause. The WSPU also challenged gender norms by attending meetings and protests dressed in clothing that emphasised their femininity while they performed ‘unfeminine’ actions such as shouting, smashing windows, setting fires. This political theatre ensured the WSPU the front page of the daily newspapers and it soon became clear that their shocking tactics were far more powerful in raising public awareness than those of the peaceful but purposeful NUWSS. However, as a consequence of their criminal actions, members of the WSPU were frequently arrested and imprisoned on failure to pay fines. Once within the confines of a cell the women would commit to hunger strikes which led them to be force fed. When the public grew aware of this, their was an outcry of sympathy and outrage at the government’s actions. Accordingly, the government came up with an alternative which wiped their hands of suffragette blood; they passed the ‘Prisoners (Temporary Discharge for Ill Health) Act’ (dubbed ‘The Cat and Mouse Act’) in 1913 which said that once the women who refused to eat became weak they were to be sent home under watch until they were well again. This meant that any deaths that occurred as a result of hunger strikes and force feeding would no longer be on the government’s conscience as they would happen outside of their control. From 1905, when the WSPU formed, until 1914 at the beginning of the First World War approximately one-thousand women were imprisoned as a result of militant action against the government; the majority of these female prisoners were members of the WSPU (Purvis, J. 1995). In her book ‘My Own Story’, Emmeline Pankhurst stated: ‘It was rapidly becoming clear to my mind that men regarded women as a servant class in the community, and that women were going to remain in the servant class until they lifted themselves out of it.’ (Pankhurst, E. 1914). This statement reflects the atmosphere within the WSPU at the start of the first world war – they felt they had to prove that women were capable of being committed to the responsibilities usually entrusted to men. At the outbreak of World War One, Emmeline Pankhurst called an end to militancy (Purvis, J. 1995) and the WSPU threw their energy behind the government by supporting the war effort. In contrast to this, the NUWSS continued campaigning throughout the war, choosing to use the war as a means of empowerment. From the beginning of World War One it was clear that the production of the paraphernalia of war on the home front would be of equal importance to fighting on the front line; Britain needed workers and women needed to prove themselves capable of filling typically male roles within the home and the workforce. To begin with, there was opposition against the formation of a female workforce – one argument against this was from the trade unions who feared that men would be replaced by women as a cheaper alternative for employers. However, this was not the case as at the end of the war the government passed the ‘Restoration of Pre-War Practices Bill (1919)’ which took employment from many working-class women. The aim of this bill was to ‘… ensure the right of restoration of certain customs and practices to pre-war conditions.’ In ‘Votes for Women 1860-1928’, Paula Bartley states that ‘… women may well not have been granted the vote if the suffragists and suffragettes had not campaigned so effectively before the war.’ As an historian and author of many books on the subject of women’s history, Bartley is qualified to make such a claim. She also states that rather than propelling the emancipation of women to the forefront of discussion, the war delayed it by four years; further hindering the chance that women would be enfranchised (Bartley, P. 1998). One argument in favour of the NUWSS as being influential in gaining women’s suffrage is that without them the WSPU may never have formed (Hunnam, J. N.D.). Although the WSPU were criticised for their militant tactics, their work is recognised as an integral element in achieving women’s suffrage as the membership of NUWSS increased to 55,000 by 1914. Therefore, militancy has to take credit for publicising in movement. In opposition to this is the view that the unlawful tactics employed by the WSPU alienated the support of ordinary women who wanted to be emancipated but also valued their reputations – this is supported by the loss of WSPU members during peaks in violent activity. In conclusion, I believe that an analogy for the women’s suffrage movement is that of a fire. The NUWSS acted as kindling to establish a base on which the movement could rest, the WSPU represented fuel poured over the unyielding wood – a means through which the fervent passion of a nation could flow – and World War One was the spark necessary for the fire to become tangible. The commitment of women to the war effort was the heat that enabled the suffrage movement to rise to the top of the government’s priorities. Therefore, without each element of the fire, women would not have achieved the right to vote in 1918. References Wojtczak, H. (2009). ‘Votes for Women – Excerpts from the House of Commons debate on 20 May 1867’. [Available online at:] Accessed 21st February 2013. Bush, J. (2012). National League for Opposing Woman Suffrage – Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. [Available online at:]. Accessed 20th Feb 2013] (n.d.)Start of the suffragette movement – UK Parliament. [Available at:] Accessed: 25 Feb 2013. Purvis, J. (1995). Women’s History – Britain 1850-1945. UCL Press. London. Pankhurst, E.S. (1911). The Suffragette: The History of the Women’s Militant Suffrage Movement, 1905-1910. [Available online at:].Accessed 20th Feb 2013 Restoration of Pre-War Practices (No. 3) Bill. [Available at:]. Accessed on 24th February 2013. Bartley, P. (1998).’Votes for Women 1860-1928′. Hodder and Stoughton. Hunnam, J. (n.d.) ‘The Campaign for Women’s Suffrage’. Available at: Accessed on 25 February 2013.

Islamic Art in the Western World | Essay

Islamic Art in the Western World | Essay. Is there a place for Islamic Art in the western Domicile? Introduction: What is Islamic Art? Islamic art does not copy nature but conveys what it represents. Islamic art is a mirror of a culture and its world view. Islamic art is a vibrant and distinctive form of Art. Unlike Christian art, Islamic art is not constrained to religious work, but includes artistic traditions in the Muslim culture. Because of the strict ruling against drawings of human or animals which might result in idol worship, Islamic art developed a distinctive character makes use of primary forms, geometric arabesque, floral and calligraphic. Muslim art has reflected this balanced, harmonious world view. Through its brilliant use of colour and balance, Islamic art creates an immediate visual impact. In Islamic art, painting and sculpture are not thought of as the finest forms of art. Crafts and decorative arts are regarded as having full art status. Books, on the other hand are a major art form and Writing has a high status in Islam as writing is considered significant decoration for objects and buildings. Islamic Art seeks to illustrate the meaning and essence of things, rather than just their physical form. It focuses on the spiritual representation of objects and beings and not their physical qualities. How is geometry seen to be spiritual? Because circles have no end they are infinite and so they remind Muslims that Allah is infinite. Complex geometric designs create the feeling of un-ending repetition; this helps the person get an idea of the infinite nature of Allah. Repeating patterns also indicate that in the small you can find the infinite, a single element of the pattern implies the infinite total. The use of patterns is part of the way Islamic art represents nature and objects. Repeated geometric pattern often use plant motifs, there are called Arabesque. Arabic lettering is also common. Art: It is one of the purest and most significant forms of human communication. Where language often fails us, art can cross divide what we sometimes erect due to differences in race, ethnicity, religion and culture. Specifically, Islamic art, perhaps more than any other, presents a beautiful mirror of a culture and its world view. More than being just representative of a singular religion (as is often the case with Christian art), Islamic art deepens understanding about Muslim culture, at large. It is for this reason that Islamic art should not only be tolerated when found in a western domicile, it should be encouraged and celebrated as a mechanism for the west to build a new respectful, productive and healing relationship with the East. On September 11, 2001, the west was devastated by a series of coordinated suicide terrorist’s attacks organized by an Islamist fundamentalist group called Al- Qaida. After getting over the initial shock, pain and horror of this incalculable loss, the west was left with one profound sentiment – absolute confusion. We, in the West, simply had little understanding, not only of the motivation for the terrorist attack, but also of Islamic beliefs systems and principles, in general. And it is not a criticism, but simply an observation to note that the profoundly individualist mindset of the West, particularly America, had left us very isolated and without much understanding of global, philosophical, religious and cultural principles which differed from ours. It is now almost a decade after the horror of September 11, 2001, and although the West is still much insulated and lacks the full understanding of Islam which is so critical to secure a more peaceful global environment, we have made significant strides. The attack was not only a source of great suffering in the West, but also a wake up call to remind us of our insularity and the fact that there is a huge global community out there of which we are only a small part. And, Islamic artists have made huge contributions to furthering the understanding of Islamic culture and religion. Some may view bringing Islamic art into one’s home as inviting argument and conflict. Narrow minded people may view Islam as the enemy of the West. However more and more Westerners are coming to the understanding that Islam is not the enemy of the West, but rather a potential partner and friend. Art has been a powerful tool in aiding the West to come to this conclusion. Through art of all varieties, Westerners are able to learn about not only the Islamic which may differ from many of ours, but also about the areas where we have something in common. There are so many contemporary Islamic arts and ways to incorporate it in to a Western home. Of course, the immediate thought one has when the word ‘art’ is mentioned, is probably visual art. Painters like Ali Omar Ermes, an Islamic artist based in the United Kingdom, introduce Western eyes to the beauty of Arabic lettering. Ermes work is significant in it’s exploration of the beauty of the written word or symbol. Writing, in the Islamic tradition, is highly regarded for its’ aesthetic beauty, and often utilized in architecture for its’ decorative effects, in addition to its’ simple meaning. Noura Sadaka, a Dubai-based talent, paints, draws and creates unique wooden and metal sculptures through which she tries to communicate the many ambiguities and struggles of being a woman caught between both Western and Islamic identities. Noura is typical of many contemporary Arabic artists in this way. So many Islamic creators have shed new understanding about the ways in which many of the Islamic community feel great ties, love and respect for their peers in the West. Contrary to initial beliefs about Islam being the West’s enemy, such artists bring to light a much more complex and subtle truth about the relationship between Islamic peoples and their Western counterparts. Visual art is definitely not the only way to bring Islamic creativity into one’s abode. We may not normally think of magazines, television and the internet as sources of fine art – so often it is full of mindless content that could not be qualified as creative, by any stretch of the imagination. However, television shows like PBS’s ART: 21, magazines like Brown Book and a variety of modern websites are exposing the West to Islamic artists whose work not only delights the senses; it also educates and helps expound understanding. Even the HBO series, Def Poetry Jam, did much to change stereotypes of Islam, by showcasing young, Islamic slam poets, especially in the early years which followed the terrorist attacks. It is clear that Islamic art has an essential function in furthering human understanding and connection. It is a bridge to create a dialogue when the traditional means are inadequate to express the subtle complexity of thoughts, emotions and ideas which drive us. By exploring the meaning an essence of things beyond their physical form, Islamic artists communicate sometimes unique, sometimes universal ideas about the spiritual questions with which all human beings grapple, regardless of their particular faith. For these reasons and more, Islamic art can hold a vital place in the context of a Western home – expanding dialogue and understanding and, ultimately, promoting more peace and tolerance. Islamic Art in the Western World | Essay