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Deanza College Macro Should Countries Implement Trade Restrictions Essay

Deanza College Macro Should Countries Implement Trade Restrictions Essay.

Guidelines for Critical Essay (XCR opportunity) Once you find your topic of interest, raise a ‘critical thinking question’ about your topic (ex: Should the government decrease the national debt?) and start working on your research paper of about 5 pages (word count: 1200-1500 words). Your paper should include an introduction with your thesis. The main body and paragraphs should include arguments and supportive evidence in favor of your topic (ex: pros for a decrease in the national debt) and arguments and supportive evidence against that topic (ex: cons for decrease in the national debt). It should become a well-rounded argumentative essay.For the conclusion I would like YOUR critical analysis and your viewpoint on the topic, i.e. your opinion – based on and supported by evidence. You should try and support your arguments with some positive economics: find facts and data (i.e. charts, tables, graphs) and include those as well. Your paper should include scholarly sources (provide references to sources throughout your essay and the bibliography at the end of the paper).Be sure to avoid plagiarism, i.e. copy and paste from other authors. You need to re-write the information in your own words and cite the sources throughout the paper, so I can see where you found your information
Deanza College Macro Should Countries Implement Trade Restrictions Essay

Advertisement and Its Types Essay. Introduction TV advertisements are aimed at persuading viewers to purchase or attend to the advertisements. Television ads have been a common source of fund for privately owned television companies. It, therefore, adds value to the media industry as sponsors wait on potential buyers from among the viewers. Much has been researched on its viability with several theories arising on how best to analyze a television commercial. Among the theories include AIDA, which stands for Attention, Interest, Desire as well as Action. These are very important elements of a TV ad and are believed to fulfill its objectives of persuading potential buyers. This paper will explore an advert, and qualify its viability using the four elements above (AIDA) (Changing Minds 1). TV Ad TV ads (Television advertisements), also known as TV commercials, among others refers to a short (usually between a few seconds to minutes) television programmes, that conveys a message from its sponsor. It is usually used for advertising, campaigns and in conveying messages. Most sports unions usually advertise their fixtures as well as special rates in TV ads. This paper will consider a TV commercial on the super bowl which showed a countdown to Green Bay Packers match against Pittsburgh Steelers in Dallas at Cowboys Stadium (Lyons 1). Did it get your attention? Yes; mainly because Green Bay Packers are sixth seed and were drawn against the league winners. This was going to be a showdown and could be full of surprises as was seen in 2005 when Steelers themselves (then rated sixth seed) won the title. The level of tension displayed by fans around as well as team managers’ exchange of mind games trying to gain mileage and instill fear on the opponent. The air is rife in joy and confusion as to the countdown neared (Lyons 1). Why was the ad of interest to you? This ad was quite interesting considering weeks of bragging from each side. Packers were seen as underdogs, but they could make a surprise, just as Steelers did in 2005. The ad was well laid out, as it brought about critical analysis of the game. Its mode of presentation was fabulous with pictures and brief flashbacks on how both teams sailed through to February, which was quite difficult for Packers (Lyons 1). Did the ad create a desire for the product/service? Yes, the flashbacks and video footage on how those teams struggled to reach February were fascinating, and the call for their meeting was unavoidable. The desire was there, if not for the ticket sales which were quite high given the rife and its significance, especially to Green Bay Packers, at the Cowboys Stadium. Sentiments and predictions from players as well as fans made the advertisement more enticing to watch (Lyons 1). Did you take action to purchase the product? The tickets were expensive, but this was a sixth seed team trying it out with one of the best. I bought the tickets, to watch the game. It was fulfilling to watch the advert. It created more urge to watch the game (Lyons 1). Conclusion Television Adverts are very important in persuading potential buyers into purchasing the goods or services advertised. This articled tackled an advert on the game between Green Bay Packers and Pittsburgh Steelers, which was on a high note with rising tensions on both teams along with their supporters. The advert had brief footage of vital victories by each team and urged more people to pour out for the game. Tickets were quite expensive, but the intensity of the game made it worthwhile. This advert was therefore quite effective as it fulfilled all the elements of AIDA (Changing Minds 1). Works Cited Changing Minds. “AIDA”. Changingminds.org. 23.04.2011.21.05.2011. http://changingminds.org/disciplines/sales/methods/aida.htm Lyons, Andy. “Countdown to Commercial Bowl: Commercial Bowl is Here!” Spike. 21.05.2011.21.05.2011. http://www.spike.com/articles/1gghxb/commercial-bowl-is-here Advertisement and Its Types Essay
American InterContinental University Leading and Managing the HR Project Paper.

OverviewContinuing from the previous assignment, it is now important to consider your approach to leading and managing your HR project. Tightly structured projects tend to restrict cross-organizational communication. As such, objectives originate at the top of the project and are subdivided as they are passed down, resulting in little opportunity for creative contributions. Effective leadership and managing of the project can greatly improve communication and team contributions.InstructionsWrite a 5–6 page paper in which you:Select two types of project management power that would be relevant to your current project, and explain your rationale.Be specific.Identify and briefly discuss a minimum of four outcomes (possible issues) resulting from managing projects, and address how you might resolve the issues. Be clear with your rationale.Discuss two increased challenges a project manager may face when leading virtual or global project teams.Recommend three strategies to deal with the challenges.Identify and explain your overall plan for communication management during the project. The plan must be comprehensive and at a minimum address structure, purpose, method, and timing.Use three sources to support your writing. Choose sources that are credible, relevant, and appropriate. Cite each source listed on your source page at least one time within your assignment. For help with research, writing, and citation, access the library or review library guides.This course requires the use of Strayer Writing Standards (SWS). For assistance and information, please refer to the Strayer Writing Standards link in the left-hand menu of your course.The specific course learning outcome associated with this assignment is:Examine types of manager power, how to resolve common management challenges, and how to manage team communication.
American InterContinental University Leading and Managing the HR Project Paper

University of Reno Mental Abilities of Disabled People Responses.

There are 2 discussion questions. Please respond with correct grammar.Discussion#1Hi classmates, I chose to read and discuss the article “Learned helplessness”. I hope you find it as interesting as I did.According to the article, learned helplessness can be applied to both animals and humans, but the main focus is on humans, especially those with intellectual or developmental disorders. Learned helplessness is an effect caused by repeatedly exposing humans to situations in which they have no control and to severe aversive stimulation. For example, exposure to shock, punishment, environmental stressors. ( Demchak, M., & Grattan, J. (2018). The authors go on to say that when people are constantly exposed to the the aversive situation they tend to stop trying to escape or cope with the situation and simply give up. When they are later provided with an easy method of escape, they will not escape; this is learned helplessness. The authors use the term organisms to describe humans and animals. You will see this term used in my discussion. A study was conducted in 1967 that provides a simple illustration of the learned helplessness effect. ” In this study, dogs were repeatedly given intense shock with no way to escape. Later, the dogs were given the opportunity to escape the shock by jumping over a low barrier. The dogs did not attempt to take action to escape the shock; they had learned that the shock was unavoidable and they “gave up” (i.e., they did not try to find a way to avoid the shocks) Demchak, M., & Grattan, J. (2018). The dogs were already conditioned or learned to give up. Some individuals with intellectual or developmental disabilities tend to give up after repeated failures just like the dogs in the study. Even with a way out, they don’t figure it out, the animals were doomed for failure from the beginning. They had no reason to believe there was a way out because every time they were shocked they couldn’t escape. The same is true for the intellectual disabled student. They quit a task because they feel they can’t do it. They have to be taught that they can succeed and we have to teach them. There are many factors that contribute to the learned helplessness effect. Some include: environmental stressors, exposure to unsolvable tasks, and the unpredictability of aversive events. Environmental stressors that can contribute to learned helplessness include overcrowding, chronic noise, traffic, and pollution. In addition, the article states, “the more unpredictable the stimuli or events are, the more likely subsequent task performance will be affected. Prior experience with even brief aversive uncontrollable events hinders learning of new skills (e.g., new responses that could enable organisms to escape the aversive situation). The learned helplessness effect is thought to contribute to a number of social problems, including school failure (e.g., failure in specific classes that are stressful), school refusal, staying in an abusive environment/relationship, work burnout, poverty, depression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), feelings of loss of control, discrimination, drug addiction, and alcoholism. Demchak, M., & Grattan, J. (2018). For example, giving a student with intellectual disability a 1000 piece puzzle and expecting the individual to complete it any given amount of time is setting the person up for failure. We want to alleviant these types of tasks. We want the individual to succeed, so instead of a 1000 piece puzzle, how about a 4 piece puzzle, then 5, and so on and so forth? The tasks will get increasingly difficult as the person shows success. Next, I would like to paraphrase how learned helplessness affects individuals with disabilities (e.g., learning disabilities, intellectual disabilities, emotional-behavioral disorders, autism). Students with intellectual and developmental disorders might have experienced academic failure, they then generalize that failure into other classes. This generalization leads to decreased motivation and persistence on academic tasks, which is a characteristic of learned helplessness. In short, the more the individual experience failure, the more they expect to fail and eventually they give up when presented with any work they perceive as difficult. Demchak, M., & Grattan, J. (2018). I totally and whole heartily feel that the above quote is “right on the money”. I’ve seen students simply take a test and make random marks on it because they think they can’t do it. I see proof of it when students take the Measures of Academic Progress (MAP) test. The test lets the teacher know when random guessing occurs and automatically stops the student. The random guessing demonstrate that they don’t want to take the test and choose to fail instead of trying. Administration at my school have put incentives in place for students to show progress on the MAP test hoping it will entice students to take the test seriously and show growth.Teaching individuals how to escape or avoid an aversive event may reduce their susceptibility to the learned helplessness effect. The authors suggest “One method to change the perceptions of control is to allow individuals to have control over situations and events in the environment. For example, when planning activities, offer choices both within (e.g., choice of addition problems or subtraction problems within a math activity; which item of clothing to put on first) and between (e.g., choose play outside or watch a movie; choose doing dishes or laundry) activities. Exposing individuals to situations in which success is achieved or they experience the direct impact their behavior has on the environment (e.g., people, activities) can prevent or counter learned helplessness. Demchak, M., & Grattan, J. (2018). The authors made sure they included activities for students with intellectual and developmental disabilities. They mapped out skills that care givers can provide to ensure success and lessen the effect of learned helplessness.Another suggestion to avoid learned helplessness is to set realistic goals for the individual to experience success. Setting realistic goals help to counteract the effects of unattainable goals. Unattainable goals cause individuals to experience repeated failures, which contribute to learned helplessness. In addition, the article states that collecting data provides evidence toward meeting a goal and achievement of the goal. Demchak, M., & Grattan, J. (2018). Goal setting is very important for students with intellectual disabilities. We write goals every year for a student to achieve, but does the student achieve the goal? We know if the student achieve the goal when we send home the progress report to the parent and we say something like, ” we need more time”, or we change the goal to a lesser percentage of achievement. For me, after having read this article, I know for a fact, I will write goals that are attainable for my students and ones that they will be able to achieve by their annual IEP date.Lastly, the quote states, “In regard to classrooms and teacher-to-student interactions, the following strategies have been suggested to alleviate learned helplessness. Provide individuals with feedback that links to a motivational component. Praise and acknowledge effort to complete the project/assignment rather than providing feedback linked to the solution or to the intellectual quality of the work; these latter types of feedback contribute to learned helplessness. Individuals tend to interpret these latter types of feedback as indicative of lack of intellectual ability. Provide frequent praise for attempts to solve problems and completion of academic work. Build student success by interspersing easier problems with difficult ones to contribute to feelings of success, which may decrease learned helplessness. Instructional prompting strategies that emphasize errorless learning can also counter learned helplessness. These strategies as well as others that allow students with disabilities to experience academic success can lessen the learned helplessness that can result from repeated school failure. Demchak, M., & Grattan, J. (2018). These strategies show various ways to unteach learned helplessness. Personally, I have a growth mindset. This means that as long as the student is trying to do well and shows improvement, I’m not teaching them learned helplessness. Instead I’m helping them overcome it by modifying tests in order for them to show success like their peers. It is important for everyone to know that they can succeed at something, a little praise can go a long ways.Discussion #2Zagaria, T., Antonucci, G., Buono, S., Recupero, M., & Zoccolotti, P. (2021). Executive functions and attention processes in adolescents and young adults with intellectual disability.Brain Sciences, 11(1), 42.Key DefinitionsExecutive Functions (EF): refers to skills such as planning, inhibitory control, decision making processes that support the selection of functional response and it’s modification to changing environment, self monitoring, , attentional control and working memory (page 1).Intellectual disability: In this study, ID is defined by the DSM-5 as mild ID page 4: (The majority of people with ID are classified as having mild intellectual disabilities. Individuals with mild ID are slower in all areas of conceptual development and social and daily living skills. These individuals can learn practical life skills, which allows them to function in ordinary life with minimal levels of support.) from DSMattentional processing: the quality of information processing active at any given time (page 1).speed of processing: the rate at which the processor selects relevant information (page 2).Key Findings/Take AwaysAll those with ID in the study were severely impaired in EF (page 12). Problem solving and changing rules or planning had greater deficits than some others but all were impacted. Attention processing was not a deficit across the board for individual with IDResponse times (RT) were not any slower for continuous performance tasks such as indicating when a letter is called, indicating a target symbol, or finding target stimuli in various arrangements (page 7).When attention was divided or interrupted, then attentional processing numbers were lower such as focusing on auditory and visual stimuli simultaneously, or shifting attention with verbal targets or visual targets. Shifting attention showed greater disparity in dataIn some assessment, students with ID are not generally slower, but present specific deficits in some attention conditions (Page 13)Students will ID seem to be able to maintain attention (intensity)Students with ID are impaired in shifting attention or when interference is presentThe attention impairments found in the study could be more like linked to EFWhat do the findings mean for students with ID?According to this study, executive functioning is impaired in everyone with ID. However, attention is not always impacted the same and can be similar to same age peers without deficits. Accommodations have to be made when attention is required for more than one task or target. Assessment will also need to clearly define if the student is impacted by attention or if it is indeed a lack of an executive functioning skill. A student can have attention deficits and not have intellectual disabilities. While attention impacts intellectual development, it is not a sole indicator. Students with ID can persevere and attend to continuous tasks with specific rules. When rules change or attention divided, executive functioning delays become apparent. Potential Implications for practice and educational programmingWhen planning for students with intellectual disabilities, it’s important to use their strengths to overcome weaknesses. It seems prudent to focus on one task at a time rather than trying to split attention. It’s important to note that some students with ID were in the normal range for some EF skills, so they can be acquired although maybe significantly slower. Differences in cognitive functioning or speed of processing may be task related and not necessarily global in nature. Focus on the student and not the presumption that they lack all EF or attention.hank you for taking the time to respond,Discussion#2
University of Reno Mental Abilities of Disabled People Responses

Acquisition Strategy: Tyco international ltd Coursework

Acquisition strategy refers to a high-level business and technical organization system designed to achieve planned goals within a particular resource limits and time. Acquisition strategy as management program can be viewed as a procurement method for the business components or services. Before an acquisition plan is initiated, the target company market performance and market situation should be analyzed to determine the best target company, and its best acquisition price. Tyco international ltd has been able to use acquisition strategy to promote its growth to very high levels of excellence, through its highly diversified world company incorporation of its three major business divisions of; security solutions, fire protection and flow control. In the early 1960s it acquired Armin plastics and the Ludlow Corporation to start packaging services. After this acquisition, the company recorded booming business and consequently high profits due to diversity of products in the market. Due to this, the company met the business threshold to be listed in the New York stock exchange in the year 1974. Soon after Tyco international joined the stock exchange, it gained competitive advantage against its competitors, as this acted as an advertisement to those who did not know it and its products. It continued to expand both in its products and services, and through acquiring other companies to a point, where it has gained an international recognition, further widening of its market share through export of its products. Through this strategy, speed of growth in terms of resources and competency of the company is higher than that of competitors, with ability to provide a wide range of new products of high quality. By the way of acquiring an already established firm with ready products for sale such as polythene and plastic pipes, after acquisition the company was able to minimize the risks and cost of developing these new products, hence making its production cost low. This is translated into low prices of its products in the market compared to those of competitors. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The acquiring company has been able to increase its market power through enhanced market presence with a wide range of products and services. Many companies feel that they have inside ability to do business, but they are unable to exhaust their available capital and capability due to insufficient size. During acquisition, a company gets a good opportunity to increase its size that is necessary to exploit its overall competences by developing and growing in terms of sizes. The major concern of increase of size is the market share of the company. For instance, Tyco has a history of expanding its market shares through acquiring various companies from both within and without the industry. Whenever a company expands its market share, the market power as well increases, hence placing it at a more competitive edge in the market. For a company to enjoy a powerful market share, it may be forced to acquire the relied supplier in the market, the most competing company, or the major distributor. To some extent, some companies like Tyco international have tried to expand their market shares through acquiring companies from a different industry, and the process has proved to be successful. Starting a new company is usually associated with many hindrances, the company enjoyed easy acquisition of Armin plastics and the Ludlow Corporation and with minimal competition effect. Through acquisition, there is a very high likelihood of the company to overcome the main entry barriers. The big companies with expanded market shares find it easier to venture even to the most competitive areas. This is facilitated by the strong financial base of that company, as most of the companies that are new and upcoming find it hard and expensive to enter the market. When it becomes challenging for small companies to venture into the market, those opportunities are left to be exploited by the big companies. When Tyco international acquired the second company it was soon listed in the New York stock exchange, this increased confidence among shareholders and other stakeholders, due to anticipated growth which was then realized. We will write a custom Coursework on Acquisition Strategy: Tyco international ltd specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More When it acquired Armin plastics and the Ludlow Corporation, the later management and workforce was also absorbed to the new program, they brought new ideas and management strength that has made the company prosper to greater heights. In addition, the company may use acquisition as a way of eradicating the behavior of depending on a single or few products in its operating market. For instance, at the beginning, the company was majoring in three types of products only within its operating market. Within a duration of less than five years Tyco international had acquired various companies dealing with different products such as fire control, security services, electronics, packaging etc. one of its target was to acquire such companies to gather the basic guidelines of venturing into such fields. In conclusion, although it has benefitted widely from acquisition strategy, there are some weaknesses that are associated with that strategy. There are some of the companies that have tried acquisition to no success due to such challenges. Most of the researches done on acquisition strategy prove that the benefits of this strategy outweigh the challenges making the process acceptable. References Birkler, J. (2004). An acquisition strategy, process, and organization for innovative systems. New York: Rand Corporation. Gamble, J.,

RES 500 SEU Wk4 Impact of Oil Production on Economy of Saudi Arabia Discussion

java assignment help RES 500 SEU Wk4 Impact of Oil Production on Economy of Saudi Arabia Discussion.

Literature ReviewOnce the topic and the draft questions are finalized, various aspects related to the topic should be explored. For this purpose, visit Saudi Digital Library website and download at least 20 research articles (at least 10 articles must be published in last 5 years) related to the topic and draft research questions. Prepare the Literature review as per the sample format provided in the blackboard (available in Week 3 course materials). The topic must be supported by quality literature. Similarly, the individual questions (objectives), which will be converted to hypotheses, must derive support from latest and relevant literature.Regulations: This assignment is an individual assignment. Support your submission with course material concepts, principles, and theories from the textbook along with few scholarly, peer-reviewed journal articles. Use Saudi Electronic University academic writing standards and APA style guidelines, citing references as appropriate.  Submit your findings in a 3-4 page document, excluding the title page, abstract and required reference page, which are never a part of the minimum content requirements, in the Assignment Dropbox. It is strongly encouraged that you submit all assignments to the Turnitin Originality Check (available under Information folder on your Blackboard) prior to submitting them to your instructor for grading. If you are unsure how to submit an assignment to the Originality Check tool, review the TurnItIn Originality Check – Student Guide for step-by-step instructions. Using websites as a reference is not acceptable, it must be books or scientific papers
RES 500 SEU Wk4 Impact of Oil Production on Economy of Saudi Arabia Discussion

Ethical Standards and Codes Essay

Ethical standards and codes are usually the principles that are advocated for in a particular setting or discipline and when they are adhered to, they act as instruments or tools for promoting good values, for instance trust, fairness and equality and general good conduct or behavior in the process of carrying out various duties and responsibilities in an individual’s day to day life. They advocate for maintenance of morals in all practices. There exist various ethical standards and codes that govern the practices and activities of various professions for instance teaching, medicine, law and psychology among other disciplines (Bianca, 2010). This piece of work looks at the APA’s moral codes and standards examining its influence on the (professional) practice in the field of psychology. The American psychological association (APA) is an essential and well known professional organization that is formed by the people in the field of psychology in the United States of America. The APA ethical principles and code of ethics are very essential to all psychologists and should be adhered strictly in their practices. The APA’s ethical standards and codes influence the professional practice of the people involved in the various areas in the field of psychology through the outlining of the ethical principles and standards to be followed by the professionals in their work. Some of the principles stipulated in the codes of ethics include; justice in term of access to the psychology services by everyone, integrity which involves honesty and accuracy in all the activities involved, dignity which touches on aspects of treating all people in a human manner and at the same time safeguarding the co-employees and client’s privacy and confidentiality as well as their self determination bearing the fact that breaking of any of the above could lead to loss of trust that would interfere with the work of the psychologist, fidelity, and accountability which entails the responsibilities of the professionals to the society and beneficence and no malfeasance, which entails safeguarding the welfare of the clients and respect for all (Fisher, 2003). Apart from the above principles the American psychological association code of conduct also stipulates some standards that should be adhered to by the professionals in the field of psychology in their day to day work. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Some of the standards include; competence, human relation, proper record keeping including accountability for instance in terms of the fees charged to the clients for the services offered, provision of education and training services, indulging in research in the field of psychology and producing reports, provision of assessment and therapy services, maintaining privacy and confidentiality, competence, resolving ethical issues that may arise and general human relations among others (Herron, 2010).. The American psychological association standards and code of ethics influences the work of the psychologists through the above named principles and standards which help the psychologists to remain focused in their practices and avoid any deviance as they take the APA document and the contents therein as a guide towards carrying out their procedures. The American psychological association code of ethics is a document that should never be underemphasized as it has been a resource in the field of psychology. It however has not achieved much and it still has a long way to go in regard to ensuring that the ethical standards and codes are strictly maintained by all individuals in their professional practices. Reference List Bianca, A. (2010). APA Ethical Code of Conduct. Web. Fisher, B.C. (2003). Decoding the Ethics Code: A Practical Guide for Psychologists. New York: Sage publishers. Web. Herron, R. (2010). Psychology Code of Ethics. Web.

Japanese Manga Research Paper

Table of Contents Introduction Ideas regarding Women and the Development of 2-D Love Changing Ideas Regarding Tradition Fascination of looking less Japanese Conclusion Works Cited Introduction Japanese manga is one of the most pervasive and popular forms of modern day Japanese culture and as such enjoys a reader base numbering in the millions (Raiteri, 89). What must be understood though is that its pervasiveness is not isolated to one particular age group, rather, manga’s popularity reaches ages as young as 5 and as old as 60 and above (Lent, 38). Another factor that must be taken into consideration is the fact that various studies have shown that people who read manga have a tendency to emulate ideas, concepts, practices and even attitudes based on what they have read (Lent, 41). This can be seen today in Japan’s otaku and cosplay sub-cultures which have only recently come about within the past 30 years or so as a direct result of the popularity of manga (Raiteri, 89). It must be noted though that the influence of manga on Japanese society extends beyond the obvious sub-cultures that have developed as a direct result of its influence, rather, manga has been observed as enacting change in behavioral attitudes and created the development of new cultural norms which otherwise did not previously exist in Japanese society. This takes the form of the adoption of ideas related to individualism, non-conformity, rebelliousness and other forms of behavior that are distinctly alien to the conservative Japanese society. In fact manga has been described as an art form wherein authors are able to express ideas, scenarios and various events that they wish they had done themselves if it were not for the oppressiveness of the conformist society of Japan (Ito, 456). Yet it must be noted that this method of expression has actually resulted in the development of social changes as a direct result of ideas that develop while a person is young and continues well into maturity. As mentioned earlier, manga is not isolated to a particular age group and due to its popularity the result has been a proliferation of readers starting at early ages all the way till they reach adulthood. What happens as a result is that in certain cases such individuals are inherently influenced by the ideas they see and take note of in manga which they then tend to apply in real life situations. Due to the fact that a large percentage of manga scenarios base themselves on real life this ends up resulting in people adopting behaviors, attitudes and styles which they become predisposed to as a direct result of being influenced by manga. As such it can be stated that distinct changes in the attitude and development of social ideas and concepts among the youth can actually be connected to the types of ideas they garner from manga. Ideas regarding Women and the Development of 2-D Love One of the most popular themes in manga today has been the portrayal of a protagonist as an average everyday guy who suddenly becomes popular with women through some form of plot device (Lent, 40). Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This results in situations of varying perverseness with the women involved in such events increasingly showing varying degrees of extreme sexuality or even mild to extreme eroticism. Based on current popular trends it can be seen that women in manga are increasingly being portrayed as being wild, sexually active, possessing an inherent desire to have sex and are supposedly attracted to normal guys (Ito, 470). Interestingly this has actually resulted in the development of new systems of classification for women within the country wherein they are classified under character themes evident in manga such as “tsundere”, “yandere”, “bijiin”, “loli” etc. which are relatively new methods of classification that have developed as a direct result of the proliferation of manga culture (Ito, 456 – 475). Going back to the topic at hand, while such plot devices are nothing more than the imaginative creation of the mangaka (author/artist of the manga) it has been noted by various social scientists that the proliferation of such themes in a large percentage of manga in Japan has actually brought about the social idea (notably from men) that girls are supposed to be like the characters in the manga (Ito, 471). Such an assumption though is far from the reality of Japan’s conservative society which is far removed from the imaginative world portrayed in the manga. This has actually resulted in the development of a distinct societal syndrome called “2-D Love” (the literature is vague on the exact terminology) where upon realizing that women in the real world are nothing like the characters they see in manga some men actually start to believe that 2-D characters as seen in manga and various erotic games based on manga style characters and plots are better than women in real-life (Ito, 473). Such a distinct societal syndrome is evident in varying extremes in some groups within the otaku sub-culture which has led to some social scientists stating that some of the effects of manga are actually detrimental towards society. Changing Ideas Regarding Tradition Japan has always been known as a conservative society that is well entrenched in its ideas of tradition, culture and the preservation of social institutions. We will write a custom Research Paper on Japanese Manga specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It must be noted though that within the past 15 or 20 years a distinct shift has been noted within Japanese society wherein the youth has been less oriented towards tradition, conservatism and the value of the group but rather new concepts such as individualism, progression, liberal ideas and mannerisms have started to take root with manga supposedly to blame for this sudden shift (Allen and Ingulsrud, 674). An examination of various manga themes and concepts dating back 15 years has revealed a certain shift in plot line and ideas wherein authors increasingly made the main characters less inclined towards tradition and more inclined towards the adoption of distinctly western ideas and concepts. This came in the form of the main characters in mangas openly fighting against concepts related to tradition, preservation and societal institutions (Allen and Ingulsrud, 674). While such themes did not directly espouse going against the current societal culture evident in Japanese society they instead espoused such ideas indirectly by creating imaginative situations, events and ideas that made people question the validity of current social institutions (Adams and Hill, 99 – 105). In fact social scientists agree that the distinct shift in the ideas of the Japanese youth today is a direct result of both distinctly western influences in Japanese society as well as the ideas evident in manga. This plotline trend of going against tradition is still distinctly evident in a majority of manga today which shows how far reaching and effective manga has been in changing the face of Japanese society. Fascination of looking less Japanese One of the most curious influences manga has had on Japanese society has been the development of a strange fascination of looking less Japanese. When examining the character designs of manga for the past 10 to 15 years and their subsequent anime adaptations it becomes easily recognizable that few of the characters actually look Japanese (Welker, 841). Aside from the fact that the eyes of most manga characters are far larger and western looking than that of the Japanese, the hair color, skin tone and overall look of the characters themselves are far from what could be considered even remotely Japanese. While such a characterization can be justified as primarily being the result of fantasy rather than reality what must be understood is that a rather large percentage of manga actually use themes such as school life, normal life, or everyday situations as the basis for the entire plot of the manga (Adams and Hill, 99 – 105). Despite portraying the everyday life of people the characters themselves don’t look Japanese and in fact could be mistaken for western characterizations (Welker, 841). Due to the influence of manga this has actually resulted in the development of a widespread societal trend in Japan wherein people are actually trying to look less Japanese. Normally this takes the form of either dyed hair (brown being a popular color), colored contact lenses and a variety of western style clothing and accessories however some individuals take this one step farther which has actually led to the development of even more sub-cultures in Japan (Welker, 841 – 844). Not sure if you can write a paper on Japanese Manga by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More One such sub-cultures is the gyaru (patterned after the English word “gal”) where Japanese women tan themselves until they’re golden brown, put on excessive amounts of makeup and try to look as western as possible. This is similar to the yankii (patterened after the English word “Yankee”) sub-culture where people dye their hair orange or yellow and wear distinctly Americanized clothing styles and adopt distinct anti-conformist attitudes. The connection between the development of these two sub-cultures and manga is believed to be the result of irrational exuberance wherein individuals tend to base their actions on the behavior of other people, in this case it is the looks and behavior of people in manga. The creation of such sub-cultures is for various social scientists the result of irrational exuberance in action wherein people take on a form of emulation resulting in the development of these rather unique if not weird sub-cultures. Conclusion Based on what has been presented in this paper it can be seen that manga has had a definite impact on Japanese society and has affected it in a variety of different ways resulting in the development of new social ideas, behaviors and sub-cultures. It is due to this that the ability of manga to enact social change should not be underestimated and as such this literary/artistic device should be thought of as not being the equivalent of the ordinary comics you see in the entertainment section of newspapers but rather as a literary/artistic instrument which creates social and cultural change based on its inherent ideas and themes. Works Cited Adams, Kenneth Alan, and Lester Hill Jr. “Protest and Rebellion: Fantasy Themes in Japanese Comics.” Journal of Popular Culture 25.1 (1991): 99-127. Literary Reference Center. EBSCO. Web. Allen, Kate, and John E. Ingulsrud. “Manga literacy: Popular culture and the reading habits of Japanese college students.” Journal of Adolescent

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