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Are Piaget and Montessori constructivist theorists

Among other specific theories of knowledge acquisition (like empiricism, rationalism), which aim to describe how learning happens, constructivism theories are a group of theories that believe that individuals generate knowledge in result of interaction between their experiences and their thoughts. (If we speak about very first stages of child’s development, then it would be interaction between experiences and behavior patterns). Jean Piaget was basically the first to formulate ideas of constructivism. He suggested a mechanism of constructing new knowledge by individuals on basis of their experience. Piaget believed that thinking is in a way an extension of biological adaptation. The two basic processes of the mechanism are accommodation and assimilation. Accommodation is a process of changing our model of the world when our experience contradicts it, so that we learn from our or other people’s failure. Assimilation is the process of including new experience into our existing model. Piaget also suggested that intellectual development happens in stages which are related to age. On each stage certain abilities and model of reality are formed. Montessori’s theory, actually, is though to be between both constructivism and cognitivism. Anyway, Montessori’s ideas following common traits with constructivism: she also believed that knowledge constructions do not always correspond to reality, but a certain “inner teacher” leads a child, who learns from experience and a child needs not to be interrupted in his discoveries; her instructions seem to be based on ideas of Vygotsky (one of main figures in constructivism) about scaffolding and zone of proximal development, though she opened her first school when he was around 11 years old. Piaget and Montessori have common basic ideas, that children “construct” their own knowledge, but not just take it from teachers. They both suggested stages of development, but on different basis and with different timing. Piaget believed that stage of “concrete operations” is reached only at the age of seven and logical operations cannot be understood by them before, so teaching reading, writing and math should start not earlier than this age. Montessori argued that children have “sensitive periods”, meaning that at every age children are more likely to develop particular skills, but we should encourage them to develop all of these skills from the very beginning of their lives. 2. Chomsky’s “poverty of the stimulus” argument and Quine’s “problem of radical translation” have served to frame the central questions for most language researchers. Discuss the similarities and differences in the general logic of these two arguments. How might they both be seen to fail at characterizing language development? The basic idea of “poverty of the stimulus” argument in psychological context is that children are born with certain linguistic capacity. The data they receive from environment about language is obviously not enough to understand its grammar (not enough because they only hear correct example of sentence, but never the “wrong” one), but still we all know how to speak in the right way. Quine’s “problem of radical translation” raises issue of meanings of the words. He states that “straight” translation cannot exist, as all that we can know about the meaning of other person’s words is what we can learn from his behavior, but we can never get into his head and know what meaning is really hidden behind his words. But still people speak the same language and understand each other. These both theories show that language development cannot be based only on experience, though, of course, they both cannot deny significance of communication in the process of learning. Why Chomsky might be wrong? Neurologists still have not found any significant evidence of existence of inner linguistic capacity. His theory is based on the idea of common grammar for all languages, which is also questioned by many researchers. The both arguments do not explain differences in language development of kids and mechanisms of understanding each other. 3. Describe the developmental assumptions that underlie Baillergeon’s drawbridge study and the procedures that follow from them. How do these differ from Piaget’s account of children’s physical (or object) knowledge? Piaget argued that children before 8-9 months do not understand that objects have an independent existence. According to Piaget experiments, children before this age do not search for a hidden object, from which he made a conclusion, that if the object disappears from their sight, for children it doesn’t exist anymore. Baillergeon challenged his conclusion. The researcher argued that Piaget underestimated children’s abilities in understanding of object permanence and there should be other reasons for children’s failure in searching for an object out of their sight. She assumed that children do not search for the hidden object not because they do not know about its existence, but because they are limited in their physical abilities (they are not able yet to coordinate their muscular movements in order to search). To prove her assumption she used the famous “drawbridge” experiment. Children of 4-5 months were watching a drawbridge swinging back and forth. As soon as they got used to it, the researcher placed a box in the path of the drawbridge and the two following situations were demonstrated to the kids: a possible one, when the box stopped the drawbridge from moving and an impossible one, when the drawbridge seemed to pass through the box. Infant looking time was measured in both cases and it turned out that they look on a “magic trick” longer than on a possible event. The researcher believes that the reason is that the children were surprised, as their expectation did not come true, which means that kids at this age do realize basic physical facts, such as solidity and permanence of objects. This technique is called violation of expectation (VOE) paradigm. So, while Piaget’s theory states that kids learn from their experience and need 8-9 months to realize that things exist apart form them, Baillargeon showed that kids have this knowledge much earlier, though their experience is not that wide yet. How could that happen? Baillargeon had two hypothesis: innate fast learning (kids are born with ability to gain understanding of objects existence and interaction easily) and innate object learning (this understanding is given by birth). Though her studies were criticized (some researchers, for example, argued that infant looking time is longer not because the kids are surprised, but because they explore the difference between two situations), her research if repeated shows same results and her ideas are accepted by many psychologists. To conclude, we should say that Baillargeon’s study undermanned some of Piaget’s basic positions. While constructivism states that we learn only from experience, she showed that some knowledge can be present even when experience is very limited. .

Grossmonnt College Hawai Tragic History Discussion

essay writing help Grossmonnt College Hawai Tragic History Discussion.

In terms of the content of each report, I am looking for two main points of discussion. First, you should devote the first half of the report to a summary of the main points in the article that you selected. To help you to address this issue, consider some of these questions: What is the main issue being discussed? (i.e. immigration, elections, education, environment, women’s issues, crime, etc.) Who are the main personalities mentioned in the article? (i.e. Mexican President Andrés Manuel López Obrador, President-Elect Biden, President Trump, Secretary of State Mike Pompeo, etc.) How does the issue affect the people of the country mentioned in the article? Does the issue have any connection with United States interests? What do you think could be the best solution to resolve this problem? And for the second point of discussion, please analyze the article that you selected and present your point of view on the story. For example, how do you feel about the story? How did this article contribute to your understanding about modern Latin America? And what do you think about the author’s perspective on the article? How does this topic relate to contemporary political, economic or cultural themes in the United States today?YOU SHOULD TAKE THE INFORMATION NEEDED TO COMPLETE THIS ESSAY FROM THE ATTACHED LINK AT LEAST 3-4 PAGES plus a cited page not included for the 3-4 pages.https://nacla.org/news/2019/02/12/young-duvalier-a…
Grossmonnt College Hawai Tragic History Discussion

Purdue Global University Drug Abuse Among Teens in Brooklyn NY Discussion

Purdue Global University Drug Abuse Among Teens in Brooklyn NY Discussion.

I’m working on a writing question and need support to help me learn.

Discussion OverviewWriters often face the challenge of too many ideas swirling around their heads when they sit down to draft an essay or another document. The swirling ideas can lead to writer’s block or a disorganized draft. This discussion will help you bring order to an argument for change by prewriting and developing key points that you plan to include in your essay, then drafting a body paragraph.You can use any number of prewriting strategies, including outlining, mind mapping, or a graphic organizer. Go back to the Units 4 and 6 Assignments since they will likely contain supporting points for your thesis.Begin by reviewing the Unit 8 Assignment instructions, and then respond to all of the following prompts in at least two well-developed paragraphs. Post your most recent thesis revision.Share at least four supporting ideas for your persuasive essay. Include at least one misconception or rival perspective to your argument that you will need to rebut in the essay.Use complete sentences for each of the main points.Share a draft of a body paragraph for one of the four points and make sure to integrate support from at least one source, properly cited in-text and in a reference page citation in APA style. Ask an open-ended question related to something you need help with for your argument or the ideas associated with drafting and organizing paragraphs from the Unit 7 Reading.
Purdue Global University Drug Abuse Among Teens in Brooklyn NY Discussion

Assignment 1: Analysis of the Effects of Population Growth

Assignment 1: Analysis of the Effects of Population Growth. I’m working on a Sociology exercise and need support.

Assignment 1: Analysis of the Effects of Population Growth
Due Week 4 and worth 110 points
Imagine you have been hired as a consultant for the United Nations. You have been asked to write an analysis of how global population growth has caused the following problem and how it affects climate change or population growth in a developing country of your choosing:
A growing global population that consumes natural resources is partially to blame for the release of greenhouse gases since human consumption patterns lead to deforestation, soil erosion, and farming (overturned dirt releases CO2). However, the critical issue is the burning of fossil fuels (hydrocarbons) such as coal, oil, and natural gas to produce energy that is used for things such as electricity production, and vehicle, heating, and cooking fuels.
The UN has asked that you choose a developing country from this list: https://www.mrs.org/developing-countries-list.
The UN has also given you the following guidelines.
Content
The UN has asked that your paper contain three sections. It has asked that each section be one page (or approximately 300 words) in length and answer specific questions, identified in the outline below. The UN also asks that you use examples from your developing country when answering the questions.
Introduction
Provide an introduction (a half-page minimum) that addresses points a-e below.

Explains the problem the UN has asked you to address in your own words;
Identifies the three sections your paper will cover;
Identifies the developing country you will consider;
Tells the UN which causes of greenhouse gases you will explore; and
Provides a one-sentence statement of your solutions at the end of your introduction paragraph.

Section I. Background

What are greenhouse gases?
How do greenhouse gases contribute to global warming?

Section II. How Emissions Cause Problems for the Developing World

Which countries produce the most greenhouse gases?
What are the economic challenges of these emissions (include examples from your chosen country)?
What are the security challenges of these emissions (include examples from your chosen country)?
What are the political challenges of these emissions (include examples from your chosen country)?

Section III. Causes of Greenhouse Gases and Solutions to the Problems Greenhouse Gases Cause

Name two causes of greenhouse gases.
What are the potential solutions that address each of the causes you identified?
What is the relationship between population control and greenhouse gas emissions?

Conclusion

Provide a conclusion (a half-page minimum) that includes a summary of your findings that the United Nations can use to inform future policy decisions.

Success Tips

In answering each question, use examples from your developing country to illustrate your points.
The UN needs facts and objective analysis on which to base future policy decisions; avoid personal opinion and make sure your answers are based on the information you find through research.

Formatting Requirements

Make sure your paper consists of four to six pages (re: 1,200 words minimum, not including the cover page, reference page, and quoted material [if any]).
Create headings for each section of your paper as follows:

Section I. Background
Section II. How Emissions Cause Problems for the Developing World
Section III. Causes of Greenhouse Gases and Solutions to the Problems Greenhouse Gases Cause

Use and cite at least five credible sources in your research. A list of potential resources is available below.
Make sure your paper contains both in-text citations and a source list, per SWS guidelines: Refer to the Strayer Writing Standards (SWS) document for reference.
Include a cover page with your name, the country you selected, the date you submitted the paper, and your instructor’s name.

Potential Sources

George Gitlitz. June 19, 2018. Opinion: The Pernicious Climate Dictum-Don’t Mention Population https://www.berkeleyside.com/2018/06/19/opinion-the-pernicious-climate-dictum-dont-mention-population
Gemma Tarlach. July 19, 2018. Mass Extinctions. http://discovermagazine.com/2018/jul-aug/mass-extinctions
Larry LeDoux. 2018. Does Population Growth Impact Climate Change? https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/population-growth-climate-change/
Bill McKibben. November 22, 2018. A Very Grim Forecast. https://www.nybooks.com/articles/2018/11/22/global-warming-very-grim-forecast/

The specific course learning outcome associated with this assignment is as follows:

Evaluate the impacts of population growth and its negative impacts on global societies while considering multiple perspectives.

Grading for this assignment will be based on answer quality, logic/organization of the paper, and language and writing skills.
Assignment 1: Analysis of the Effects of Population Growth