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Database security IAM In a Federated Cloud Application Essay

Database security IAM In a Federated Cloud Application Essay.

Use the Research Databases available from the Danforth Library, not Google.  Place the words you copied (do not alter or paraphrase the words) in quotation marks and cite in-line (as all work copied from another should be handled). The quotes should be full sentences (no more, less) and should be incorporated in your discussion (they do not replace your discussion) to illustrate or emphasize your ideas.
By profession, I am a Software Engineer so I would appreciate it if you could write it from a technical standpoint of a Software Engineer.
Database security IAM In a Federated Cloud Application Essay

Grossmont College The Role of Government in Our Lives Discussion.

Assignment:What is the appropriate role of government and why might one want to study U.S. Government and Politics? Source Material: The following commentsThe Crash Course video belowWelcome to POSC 121, Introduction to U.S. Government and Politics. I hope you had a great Winter Break and are anxious to tackle your political science odyssey. We are going to go over issues that construct the very bases of our society. Politics determines how power is exercised and who wins and who loses as a result of that exercise of power. Politics essentially determines the tradeoff between order and freedom. We want and need both of these things but, at some point there has to be a tradeoff, we can’t have maximum amounts of both; where that tradeoff lies is the central issue of any political system. In order to underscore the importance of this tradeoff, one need look no further than both citizens’ and governments’ responses to the Coronavirus pandemic and the death of George Floyd. These issues, and many others including The Supreme Court’s recent rulings on DACA and LGBTQ employment rights, touch on many of things we will be examining right away in the first week of this class: Power, Freedom, Equality, Natural Rights, Capitalism, Collective Action Problems, Classical Liberalism, Positive Freedom and Negative Freedom, Democracy, Majority Rule and the Irony or Paradox of Democracy, Federalist #10, Factions, Collective Goods, Demagoguery, Civil Society, Social Capital, Limited Government, etc. You do not need to be as passionate about these issues, or this subject, as me to recognize the incredible importance of what we will be covering in this class. After all, these are the issues the make up “the essence of our life” as Michel Foucault says below”…why am I so interested in politics? If I were to answer you very simply I would say this: why shouldn’t I be interested? That is to say, what blindness, what deafness, what density of ideology would have to weigh me down to prevent me from being interested in what is probably the most crucial subject of our existence, that is to say, the society in which we live, the economic relations in which it functions, and the system of power which defines the regular forms and regular permissions and prohibitions of our conduct? The essence of our life consists, after all, of the political functioning of the society in which we find ourselves.” (Michel Foucault)We all have routines, take a few seconds and make a list what you do on a typical dayTake a second look at your list: which of the items is completely under your control and which are influenced, in some way, by government?Why is government involved in these things?Can you think of any examples?Why do we need government to help us/force us to coordinate our actions in order to provide things we can’t provide on our own (Collective Action)Could a society function without a government? Please combine your answers for these questions to the assignment question together, a examples from other students is provided below, please do not copy their work. (200 words will be fine)Introduction: Crash Course U.S. Government and Politics (Links to an external site.)Student#1After making a list of a daily routine, I have come to realize that almost everything is somewhat even a tiny bit influenced by the government. Although some tasks are not directly influenced by the government there happens to be this domino effect on things leading to completing the tasks that are influenced by the government. An example that comes to mind is driving to work in the morning, there was a freeway exit that was closed for construction for a while, this leads to a domino effect of me having to wake up earlier, eat breakfast earlier so I can leave the house earlier, which in turn caused me to be more tired at the end of the day creating a lack of motivation for hobbies and activities. Now the government didn’t directly hinder the ability to participate in my hobbies however the effect of the freeway being closed carried on to impact my hobbies. Although this can cause a minor inconvenience in my day I still believe society needs a government to function and the biggest reason being is collective action. We NEED the services that are provided by the government such as roads, military, schools, police, etc. Although some may argue that it is not enough that’s a different story. The main reason the government is so involved in our everyday lives is that the resources they provide are essential to our well being. The government is involved is not always as bad as it sounds, we are taking this course, safe in our home, using the internet which is all provided in some way by government action. Students#2After spending some time outlining my typical daily routine, and creating categories within my routine, it became quite apparent that nearly all of my daily tasks are influenced by government in some capacity. The sun rising each and every day may not influenced by government but the Standard Time Act of 1918 determines the time zone in which I live thus when I wake. I make my breakfast choices each morning but government agencies (such as the FDA) ensure the food I purchase, from my local market, is safe for consumption. I have complete control of when I choose to leave my home but government provides safe roadways that make convenient transportation possible through The Department of Transportation. Although, government does not regulate speech the FCC does have a role in regulating news & media that I, along with millions of others, consume everyday. I lock our doors every night but am keenly aware that if I should need protective services the government sponsored Police & Fire will come to my aid within minutes of a free phone call. At each turn throughout my day, the glaring theme of government involvement is public safety. Individual citizens do not have the means or the capabilities to meet the current demands of maintaining a modern western lifestyle without the assistance of government and public policy. Without government oversight, we would expect to see a change in priorities within our society. Corporate and self interests would become more prevalent, inhumane and unsafe conditions would become acceptable, the voices of minorities in our society would be muffled, civil order would be undone and chaos would ensue. It is possible that some form of society could be possible without government but I would not expect remotely similar living conditions such as the ones we have grown to depend on today.
Grossmont College The Role of Government in Our Lives Discussion

A. Concluding Statement Economic growth can be defined as an increase in goods and services produced for the population over time. It is one of the most important key factors in a well running economy. Why? Because it creates profit for all the businesses available around the world, with the businesses making money, they can hire people and give jobs and to invest in other companies. When people master the art of finding that one thing people want and keep coming back, it becomes a continuous cycle. Economic growth is important to any population to measure how far they are getting and if they are not going in the right direction. There are many things that could cause the economy to crash such as inflation, environment costs, and a decline in living standards. By keeping up with the GDP is how they avoid any problems. Amadeo said the way gross domestic product can defined is “the best way to measure a country’s economy. GDP is the total value of everything produced by all the people and companies in the country. It doesn’t matter if they are citizens or foreign-owned companies. If they are located within the country’s boundaries, the government counts their production as GDP.” GDP helps us know if we are headed for a recession or if inflation is arising. It is usually measured within a time period such as yearly. It’s how we keep afloat in my opinion because if we didn’t have something that can tell us if we are doing bad or good we would be clueless. Growth domestic product is related to economic growth because it is the best way to measure economic growth. “It takes into account the country’s entire economic output.” It includes all goods and services that businesses in a country provide. Also, through the GDP, we could recognize how the economy changes, at what percent economic growth grows or falls and the progress of other nations. With countries as successful and stable as the United States, there are certain companies that give America stabilization such as Apple Inc., Wal-Mart, and Amazon. These companies in America have given the United States a strong hand in their economic health. Nowadays, there is not one country that does not know what an iPhone is or a Macintosh computer. Wal-Mart is also another company that gives American what they want and when they need it. Wal-Mart’s 24-hour business strategy has put a standard on the competition around them and has forced smaller or big companies to compete with 24-hour service. Because of this now companies in America have to work two and three times as hard and as a result America’s GDP cycle runs smoother and creates great economic health. Some of the things the Dominican Republic was known for exporting were sugar, coffee, and tobacco. But as time as progressed they saw a market for tourism and excelled at providing a vocational spot for people all around the world. Other ways they found to make money were construction and free trade zones. As found on The World Fact book “The mining sector has also played a greater role in the export market since late 2012 with the commencement of the extraction phase of the Pueblo Viejo Gold and Silver mine, one of the largest gold mines in the world.” And also “The central America-Dominican Republic Free Trade Arrangement came into force March 2007, boosting investment and manufacturing exports.” From the last recession they had in 2010-2016, they are doing pretty well for themselves also known as the “fastest growing economies in Latin America.” The Gross Domestic Product in the Dominican Republic was as stated in article Trading Economics, was worth 75.93 US dollars in 2017. They had a record low of 0.65 in USD billion in 1961. Throughout the years in the 2000’s they continued to grow even after the bad recession they had. They didn’t decline since the recession, which is a good sign that they are on the right track. The Dominican Republic has had their economic downfalls just like any other country but research shows their economy will only continue to get better. Some factors that help this happen are their agriculture, industry and services. Their agriculture helps them export their natural resources such as sugar cane, cocoa, tobacco, silver, and gold. Their services are the most popular known. Their services mainly consist of tourism. Tourism has really helped not only the Dominican Republic but also a lot of other countries because of what they have to offer the people visiting. If the hotels, activities, and food have excellent service more people will tell other people about the service. In this time of age social media also helps countries strive because of what they post, if the scenery is nice more people are going to say to themselves “I want to go there.” Everyone loves to visit the Dominican Republic and its beaches as well. The demand for all of these is so high that it has helped out this country and will help their economic growth stay strong. . The Dominican Republic has numerous amounts of problems that affect their economic. Those problems are education, poverty, population, negligence, natural disasters, and unemployment. The lack of education the Dominican Republic has, has cost so many young kids the opportunity to learn. They do not have enough resources to give to the kids. Having a classroom is a prime example. A lot of the times, they have so many kids that it gets over crowded. Having over crowded classrooms does not let them get one on one time with each of the children. They don’t have the leisure to have one on one time if they do not understand a difficult topic. A lot of the time the curriculum is outdated and not current with the problems we have going on today. Another problem is how little the teachers are paid and how some are not even well studied for the material to teach. The Dominican Republic has not had a lot of the resources to help the citizens grow as a country and or for its citizens as well. In a general sense, poverty has lead people to commit bad decisions and harm those around them. Those bad acts can be anywhere from stealing, which will hurt the country’s environment and local businesses, violence (the dispute between Haiti), which will cause an unsafe and dangerous living standard for people to grow and expand as a community and a individual, and lastly loitering, which doesn’t seem to be a bad act at first, but cause the community to be outside and not do anything productive with their lives which then leads the country’s economic health to not cycle properly and keep businesses and lives moving. A major factor in what causes poverty, which then causes the economic health to suffer, is the countries population. The population of the Dominican Republic has been increasing in the past years. It has risen by two million since the year 2000 and is now currently at a 10.6 million. That is the population of people whom are properly documented in the country. There are improperly documented citizens in the country which causes free loading off of the scarce resources the Dominican Republic has and only gives less to the people who rightfully deserve it. Just as with anything that goes uncared for will eventually stop working or not come in benefit when not is use. I have brought this up because of the neglectful behavior the government has given toward the agricultural side of the country, which affect the country’s economic health in many ways that one cannot ignore. As stated before since the government has ignored the agricultural aspect of the country it will put its citizens out of work because of the less demand it will be asked to work on those farms. Not only has the farms been ignored, commercialism has taken over those farms with building resorts and attractions over them for tourist to enjoy. Yes, it can be debated weather the money of the resorts counter the production of the farm, but agriculture is needed to feed the mouths of the people (including those in the resorts) and put those without jobs to work. Of course, just as with anything sometimes production or productivity has setbacks just like we have natural disasters affect our community, which then affects our employment, economic health, and hope. The Dominican Republic has faced many natural disasters such as droughts, extreme rainfall and flooding. These major setbacks cause a lot of disbelief and harm to the country’s economic health. Although there are many reasons why the Dominican Republic’s economic growth will stay strong, some issues remain unsolved. Two of the major issues that still remain are the lack of education being received and unemployment. Since there is such a high demand for their natural resources, the Dominican Republic should organize and plan better to expand this industry. They can make more jobs by employing them in agriculture so that there is more sugar, cocoa and tobacco to export. With all the money being received for these resources, they should plan to spend it appropriately in their school systems and to possibly bring in educators from outside the country. There are many ways to develop a well growing economic. As it was mentioned in the Forbes article a great way to develop a growing economic is innovation. Having too much of something doesn’t create a good economic because everyone is used to it. There is no uniqueness or creativeness. Its important to make sure that there is always something new coming out. So there is room to make for innovation. Now to get another perspective on the situation I will now put focus on how economists see what will be the outcome of the Dominican Republic economic health. According to Focus Economics, the Dominican Republic’s government is solely depending on the tourism and revenue from the resorts they are building for tourists to stay. Going back to the government neglecting the farms of the country, their counter goal is to build factories and industrialize the country to reach the maximum potential of economic growth. They have also claimed for that the “GDP growth of 4.9% in 2019, down 0.1 percentage points from last month’s forecast. For 2020, panelists see the economy expanding 4.5%”. In this light, this is good news for the country’s economic health. Also, other economic trends have boosted and lifted the economy health such as “manufacturing (9.9%), construction (9.8%), commerce (8.5%), transportation (8.2%) and tourism (7.9%)”. Just for reassurance, according to The Canadian Trade Commissioner Service they have also claimed that the Dominican Republic has had a healthy last 5 years with sustaining a 4.6 GDP in 2017. Maintaining a country’s economic health is definitely of importance and as for how the Dominican Republic will achieve that is by keeping what they have going on now and expanding it. In the event one does not know what the Dominican Republic do to maintain economic health, the Dominican Republic has a large exportation of ferronickel, sugar, gold, silver, coffee, cocoa, tobacco, and meats. With having strong exportation field there will definitely be a solid income for the country to rely on. But believe it or not the strongest aspect of the Dominican Republic is none other than the agricultural occupations and roles tourism and resorts. This leads into a small dilemma because of the country’s history and background. Yes, we have proof of the country successfully growing their economy by building resorts and industrializing a lot of the rural areas, but in a different light we are destroying history of how the Dominican farmers have raised and provided healthy and organic crops and food for their people. Of course, population takes a huge toll on what makes more sense to have. But the price will be the quality and cultural ways how the foods and crops WORKS CITED Amadeo, Kimberly. “Gross Domestic Product: Understanding What a Country Produces.” The Balance Small Business, The Balance, FocusEconomics. “Dominican Republic Economy – GDP, Inflation, CPI and Interest Rate.” FocusEconomics | Economic Forecasts from the World’s Leading Economists, FocusEconomics, Shapiro, Gary. “Six Ways to Create Economic Growth.” Forbes, Forbes Magazine, 24 Jan. 2013, Global Affairs Canada, et al. “Dominican Republic Economic Report 2018.” Government of Canada, Global Affairs Canada, Deputy Minister of International Trade, International Business Development, Investment and Innovation, Canadian Trade Commissioner Service, 4 July 2018,“The World Factbook: Dominican Republic.” Central Intelligence Agency, Central Intelligence Agency, 1 Feb. 2018, Overview.” World Bank, “The Economy in the Dominican Republic.” International Living, “The Top Causes of Poverty in the Dominican Republic.” The Borgen Project, 19 Mar. 2018,
Saudi Electronic University Ortiv Glass Corporation.

I’m working on a management case study and need support to help me study.

*Please avoid plagiarism with proper referencing.Part 1:Please read the case study entitled as “Top Management Team at Ortiv Glass Corporation.” available in your textbook “Organization Development & Change” 10th edition by Cummings, T and Worley, C and answer the following questions: • Q.1Why it is important for a group design to be congruent with the larger organization design. Support your answer using twoexamples from this case study (1.5 marks) (Words 200-300)• Q.2How the group designof Ortiv’s Glass Corporationcouldpositively or negatively impact on the diagnosis of design components at the individual level.(1.5 Marks) (Words 200-300)Part 2:Discussion questions: please refer to chapter five in your textbook and answer the following questions on the basis of your understanding:• Q.3 Discuss why ‘alignment’ is fundamental to diagnosis in OD. (1 mark) (Words 150-200)• Q.4 Discuss how the rate of change and complexity of environments could influence organizations. (1 mark) (Words 150-200)
Saudi Electronic University Ortiv Glass Corporation

Computer Science homework help

Computer Science homework help. This is a paper that is focusing on The determination of the Ethical Viewpoints of Others. The paper also provides further instructions to focus in writing the assignment paper.,The determination of the Ethical Viewpoints of Others,When approaching an event, we all have a viewpoint from which we can offer a critique. A viewpoint is personal and based on predispositions and attitudes as a result of our experiences. An ethical viewpoint is a lens by which we determine how best to interpret and potentially handle an ethical deliberation., In the readings this week, you will examine ethical theories/viewpoints as discussed by Aronson (2001). These include utilitarianism, deontology, altruism, and ethical egoism. Each of these should be further researched to support this week’s assignment., Review the resources listed in the Books and Resources area below to prepare for this week’s assignment(s).,Signature  Assignment,Assemble Various Ethical Viewpoints to Address an Ethical Dilemma,Instructions, Begin by selecting a case study of an ethical dilemma that you discovered in the research during this course. Review the case study from the lens of each ethical viewpoint (utilitarianism, deontology, altruism, and ethical egoism) explored in the assigned readings. Then, prepare a PowerPoint presentation for a group of undergraduate business students in which you provide details on how a person with each ethical viewpoint would address the ethical dilemma outlined in your case study. Provide examples from the research supporting or validating each viewpoint, and then predict possible outcomes for each. Determine how unique viewpoints may impact ,ethical communications, in an organizational setting.,Incorporate appropriate animations, transitions, and graphics as well as speaker notes for each slide. The speaker notes may be comprised of brief paragraphs or bulleted lists., Support your presentation with at least seven scholarly resources. In addition to these specified resources, other appropriate scholarly resources may be included., Length: 10 slides (with a separate reference slide) Notes Length: 200-350 words for each slide, Be sure to include citations for quotations and paraphrases with references in APA format and style where appropriate. Save the file as PPT with the correct course code information.,Attachments,Click Here To Download,Computer Science homework help

Art, Music, and Creative Writing homework help

write my term paper Art, Music, and Creative Writing homework help. This is a paper that is focusing on the Tuckman Model and Synthesizing application evaluation. The paper also provides additional guidelines and instructions to use in the assignment paper.,Tuckman Model and Synthesizing application evaluation,Option #1: Application of the Tuckman Model and Synthesizing/Evaluating Course Concepts Introduction (1-2 paragraphs) Provide an overview of your paper. Module-by-Module Analysis (3-4 pages) Share your decision logic and what supported the decisions you made in the ,Capsim experience,, as well as the learnings you gained from it. Tuckman Model (3-4 pages) The Tuckman Model was developed in 1965 and is now widely acknowledged to represent the stages of team development.,The model presents the well-known stages of: a) forming, b) storming, c) norming, d) performing, and e) adjourning. Read the article, Team Management by Objectives: Enhancing Developing Teams’ Performance (from your Module 8 required readings). Evaluate your Capsim team’s experience by applying the five stages of the model, and provide recommendations for further improvements in team performance. Career Learnings (1-2 pages) Discuss how you can take your Capsim and also course experiences forward into your career.,Tuckman Model and Synthesizing application evaluation,Conclusion (1-2 paragraphs) Provide a brief closing to your paper: Your paper should be 8-10 pages in length, excluding the title and references pages. Include a minimum of eight references to support your Portfolio Project, including four academic sources. Be sure your paper adheres to the CSU-Global Guide to Writing and APA. The CSU-Global library is a good place to find sources. (You might find it helpful to start with the course’s recommended readings.) Be sure to check out the CSU-Global Online Research and Writing Lab. Here you can find: Writing considerations and also tips Writing resources Sample papers An APA Template for writing assignments.,Note, ensure  that the paper is at least three pages exclusive of the cover and the reference pages. Also, ensure that you include all the references you use in finding research for this assignment paper. References should be at least three for the paper. All references, citation, and writing should follow the APA formatting and styling guidelines. Finally, ensure you focus on the assignment topic in detail.,Attachments,Click Here To Download,Art, Music, and Creative Writing homework help

Medication for Anxiety and Depression: Citalopram

Share this: Facebook Twitter Reddit LinkedIn WhatsApp Julie Carter When it comes to depression and anxiety many drugs are prescribed by Doctors; but the most prescribed drug for this medical illness is Celexa or better known by the brand name Citalopram (Goldberg,2015). The drug Citalopram is produced by the company Cyril Pharmaceuticals, this medication belongs to a group known as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. These medications are thought to work by increasing the chemical of serotonin in the brain (“Citalopram”,2016). Serotonin is a chemical produced in the brain the creates the feeling of wellbeing and happiness, it is also found the when using an antidepressant such as Citalopram to effect the producing of serotonin many cause nausea as well as vomiting(Mclntosh,2016). When prescribed Citalopram it comes in a small round pill usually given in the adult dose of 20mg po daily without food(“Celexa”,2016). “Citalopram 20 mg and 40 mg tablets are scored, biconvex, capsule-shaped, film coated tablets containing citalopram hydrobromide in strengths equivalent to 20 mg or 40 mg citalopram base. The 20 mg and 40 mg tablets also contain the following inactive ingredients: copolyvidone, corn starch, croscarmellose sodium, lactose monohydrate, magnesium stearate, hypromellose, microcrystalline cellulose, polyethylene glycol and titanium dioxide. Iron oxide is used as coloring agent in the light pink (20 mg) tablet”(Sandoz Inc.,2007). In the beginning Citalopram was just given for acute depression but studies further showed that when the 24 of taking the medication the patients had relapsed or the case had worsened(“Celexa”,2016). When it comes to the indications for this drug it is mainly to treat severe depression that causes the patient interference with everyday functions. When taking this drug it can take up to 6 weeks to fully take effect. Usually including 5 of these 9 symptoms “depressed mood, loss of interest in usual activities, significant change in weight and/or appetite, insomnia or hypersomnia, psychomotor agitation or retardation, increased fatigue, feelings of guilt or worthlessness, slowed thinking or impaired concentration, a suicide attempt or suicidal ideation”(“Celexa”,2016). Citalopram has many drug interactions the most common are: Gabapentin, Klonopin, Lamictal, lasix, levothyroxine, lisinopril, metformin, neurontin, omeprazole, prilosec, seroquel, synthroid, tramadol,trazodone, vitamin D3, buspirone, lithium, carbamazepine, chlorpromazine, cimetidine, fentanyl, levomethadyl, methadone, omeprazole, pentamidine,pentamidine, and Xanax(“Celexa”,2016). Citalopram also has an interaction with alcohol as well as some diseases including Depression, renal dysfunction, hyponatremia, liver disease, mania, platelet function,QT prolongation, seizure disorders, siadh, and weight loss(“Celexa”,2016). Things to be aware of before taking Citalopram is do not taking the medication if your taking any medications for heart rhythm problems, pain or arthritis, migraines, blood thinners,or water pills. Always tell your Physician immediately if your breastfeeding have glaucoma, heart problems, seizure disorder, or a family history of bipolar and suicide attempts(“Citalopram”,2016). When taking Citalopram the most common side effects include nausea, dry mouth, loss of appetite, tiredness, drowsiness,sweating,blurred vision, and yawning. Serious side effects are as listed tremors, decreased interest in sex, easy, bruising or bleeding.Very serious side effects that you should notify your doctor as soon as possible include fainting, fast heart rate, black stools, vomit resembling coffee grounds, seizures, and any eye pain(“Citalopram”,2016). In the case of taking to much or overdosing on Citalopram you need to notify someone immediately and go to a hospital even if you’re not experiencing any changes. But in the case that you’re experiencing changes they will be more or less Changes in heartbeat, nausea, seizure, sweating, feeling sleepy, passing out, trembling or dizziness, change in blood pressure, feeling agitated, pupils dilating, skin color changing to blue, fingers and toes feeling cold, and quick breathing. A rare side effect if overdosed on citalopram is serotonin syndrome this is when you’re experiencing a high fever, agitation, confusion, and trembling(Neal,2012). If in the case you want to seize taking citalopram you need to contact your doctor, because when stopping suddenly this may cause withdraws and or worsening the depression. It is important when taking this medication to not miss doses because in doing so you may cause a relapse in your depression. If you do miss a dose never double up on a dose this may cause a drug overdose. Research shows that the most important thing to look out for when taking citalopram as Citalopram at doses greater than 40 mg per day could potentially cause a dangerous abnormality in the electrical activity of the heart. Citalopram use is discouraged in patients with congenital long QT syndrome. Patients with low levels of potassium and magnesium in the blood are also at increased risk. If you are currently taking citalopram at a dose greater than 40 mg per days, talk to your healthcare professional. Seek immediate care if you experience an irregular heartbeat, shortness of breath, dizziness, or fainting while taking citalopram. If you are taking citalopram, your healthcare professional may occasionally order an electrocardiogram to monitor your heart rate and rhythm. Your healthcare provider may also order tests to check levels of potassium and magnesium in your blood(“Citalopram” n.d.). References Celexa:overview.(n.d.).,celexa.html McIntosh, J. (2016, April 29). “Serotonin: Facts, What Does Serotonin Do?.” Medical News Today. Retrieved from National Alliance on Mental Illness:Citalopram(celexa).(n.d.). 4. U.S. National Library of Medicine:Citalopram(by mouth),(2016,December1). Share this: Facebook Twitter Reddit LinkedIn WhatsApp

19th Century Colonialism and Racism

Colonialism and Racism in the 19th Century Throughout much of the 19th century, European powers used their financial wealth and technological advancements to colonize much of Asia and almost the entire continent of Africa. Oftentimes the motivations were national pride and the acquisition of natural resources, but there was another very potent impetus behind Western imperialism in the 19th century: racism. At a time when Charles Darwin had just recently revealed his theory of evolution, and much of the previously unchartered territory of the world was becoming known, the European powers felt themselves to be the superior race, because they believed they were the most civilized, or because they had the most advanced technology. This idea, known as social Darwinism, takes the natural theory of evolution and applies it to human races, positing that the societies and races that are “superior” than others are more “fit” to exist and survive, and therefore they make take advantage of and exploit the other, inferior peoples who are not as “fit” to survive. With this idea in mind, many Western powers sent troops and resources around to globe to set up colonies and imperialize other nations, often with no regard for the indigenous people. Although this massive wave of colonialism in the 19th century was driven by desire for material wealth and national pride, racism also played a significant role. In George Orwell’s Burmese Days, he chronicles the daily life of a British gentleman’s club in upcountry Burma, part of the British colony of India. His account gives a very telling indication of how the British citizens viewed the local citizens of Burma, and it reveals the racism that was at the heart of the imperial system. When the club is discussing the suggestion to allow a Burmese man to join, the Secretary of the club says, “He’s asking us to break all our rules and take a dear little nigger-boy into this Club…That would be a treat wouldn’t it? Little pot-bellied niggers breathing garlic in your face over the bridge-table. Christ, to think of it!” (Reilly, 285). The use of a derogatory racial slur clearly demonstrates the way the British gentlemen thought of the locals, clearly as inferior people. The use of the term “nigger” has long been associated with people of African descent, but here the British Club secretary uses it to refer to the local Burmese citizens, an obvious indication of racial hate and insult. Their hatred and racism go so far that one member of the club, a local company manager, says “I’ll die in a ditch before I’ll see a nigger in here” (Reilly, 286). The continuous use of racial slurs and insulting remarks indicate that the British members of the club were all highly racist towards the local people, a factor which definitely influenced the British colonization of India, and the treatment of the indigenous peoples. In a similar portrayal of life inside an imperialized nation, Joseph Conrad’s Heart of Darkness takes a close look at a steamboat journey deep into the heart of the Congo, the captain of which was a white man. The first signs of racism come out when he refers to the African people on his boat as “cannibals”, implying that they were savage and uncivilized, although there is no other evidence that these people were in fact cannibals. These basic false assumptions are often seen in stories of imperial racism; White colonists are always quick to judge the local people as brutal savages without actually taking the time to understand their culture. However, the ship captain’s racism goes far deeper than that, when he comments “the men were…No they were no inhuman. Well, you know that was the worst of it—this suspicion of their not being inhuman. It would come slowly to one. They howled and leaped and spun and made horrid faces, but what thrilled you was just the thought of their humanity—like yours” (Reilly, 296). His pain at realizing that he was connected to these people, through a common humanity, hurts him because they appear so wild and savage to him that he would prefer to believe they were not human, but rather animals or beasts. His European heritage makes him regard himself as superior than the local Africans, and in turn he sees them through racist eyes, another important factor in the Western colonization of Africa. Both these excerpts of colonial life in the 19th century demonstrate that the Westerners almost always considered themselves superior to the local citizens. The European powers had convinced themselves that because they had the power and resources to create global empires, they were somehow inherently better than the people they were conquering, and this all too often lead to the exploitation and degradation of indigenous peoples around the globe. Another example of the conflict between two cultures is shown in the case of Ida Pruitt, in the book China’s American Daughter by Marjorie King. Growing up in an American family working as missionaries in a small town in China, Ida experiences both the local Chinese culture around her and the American ways of her Christian missionary mother, who resents many things about China. As her mother constantly tried to convert Chinese people into Christians, Ida witnessed the harmful effects of such colonial interactions. King writes that “As Ida became aware of the differences between the Chinese and the Christian missionary cultures, she resented Christianity’s intrusion in the Chinese culture” (King, 17). Even as a young girl, Ida is able to understand that the Western forces (her mother) are attempting to insert their own ways of life, religion, and culture into the Chinese culture because she regards them as inferior. The religious component of this is especially powerful, as many forms of Christianity believe that it is their responsibility and duty to spread their religion and convert as many people as possible, regardless of changing their previous way of life and destroying the original culture. The focus for the Westerners in colonial China was on taking advantage of the local people in order to convert them and insert western culture as a replacement for their own. Ida recognizes this, and “Ida admired her father’s adaptation to Chinese ways in order to help build genuine friendships between the Chinese and Westerners” (King, 19). Her father acts as a model for a better, more mutual exchange of culture and ideas between the Chinese and the Westerners, which is an equal interaction between the two, not the domination of one over the other as Ida’s Christian mother attempts to instigate. Ida Pruitt’s experience as an American in colonial China greatly differ from those of the Westerners in both Heart of Darkness and Burmese Days, as she actually identifies more closely with Chinese culture than she does with her original ethnic culture. Instead of approaching the local citizens as being inherently inferior or below her, Ida embraces their traditions and culture, and in many ways finds the Chinese way of life better than the American one that her mother works so hard to encourage. Especially because she lived in China at such a young age, “Growing up in the halls and courtyards of the haunted house of Song Family Village, Ida felt herself to be part of Chinese life stretching back thousands of years” (King, 6). As opposed to the British club officer who uses racial slurs to insult the Burmese people, or the steamboat captain who observes the “wild” and “inhuman” people of the Congo, Ida grows up surrounded by the Chinese culture, and she is able to compare and contrast it with the Western tradition promoted by her mother. The racist characters in the other accounts experienced life as a Westerner, and therefore never were able to appreciate or respect any other culture. This stubborn obsession with one’s own culture resulted in their imperial racism towards the local peoples. With Ida, she was able to form her own cultural and racial identity while experiencing both Western and Chinese lifestyles, and this allowed her to really respect and understand both, and in doing so she was able to remain connected to both cultures without having to racially reject or degrade one or the other. Racism is unfortunately an inherent part of human society, and it can be especially devastating when it is used to guide political and military decisions, such as during the colonization of Africa and Asia in the 19th century. Many people were killed, exploited, or left in poverty solely because of the racial hate of others. The European imperialism of the world, although based on many motivations, was in part based on racism, as demonstrated in the excerpts from Joseph Conrad and George Orwell. However, not all interactions between cultures were negative, such as the case of Ida Pruitt in China. She was able to ignore her mother’s blind bias and learn to value and appreciate Chinese culture, something that indicates the importance of being open minded and experiencing other cultures for oneself before judging. Perhaps if the British officers didn’t think so lowly of the locals, they would have provided better things such as schools and libraries, which in turn would result in a better educated country and an improved society. If the steamboat captain hadn’t viewed the Africans as savages, maybe he wouldn’t have been so focused on the material wealth and financial gain that was possible in Africa, but in setting up stable governments and creating better infrastructure for all people. Although things didn’t turn out this way, we can learn from this past and apply that knowledge to create a better future. Ida Pruitt is a great example for overcoming racism, by experiencing a different culture for oneself and criticizing your own heritage, rather than stubbornly purporting your way as the best and only way, and hating all other cultures and societies that are different. Always racism may never go away, we can make a difference by understanding the past and learning to appreciate the value of all human societies and races. King, Marjorie.China’s American Daughter: Ida Pruitt (1888-1985). Hong Kong: Chinese UP, 2006. Reilly, Kevin.Worlds of History: a Comparative Reader. Boston: Bedford/St. Martins, 2007.