Most marketing executives, along with advertising practitioners, understand the intrinsic value of collecting customer-related information, but also comprehend the challenges involved in leveraging this knowledge to generate intelligent, proactive conduits that could be used to add value to the customer as well as the organization. This is where the interplay between customer relationship management and data mining comes in to facilitate a process that assists organizations to sift through stratums of ostensibly unrelated data for significant relationships, where they can proactively anticipate, rather than merely react to, customer needs and expectations (Linoff
Introduction The title selected for this paper is “Critically analyse children’s knowledge and understanding of advertising.” The aim of this paper is to look at children’s understanding of the purpose and use of advertising in the marketing world by researching relevant literature surrounding this topic. Between 1984 and 1997 advertising on children between the ages of 4-12 year olds increased from $4.2billion per annum to $23.4billion (McNeal, 1999). It is evident that children are seen by marketers as a significant market to target and a player in the purchasing decision within the family. ‘They are an influence market, directing parents’ spending towards their own wants and needs through requests, hints and outright demands. Children as an influence market are currently responsible for around $188 billion of parental spending annually’ (McNeal, 1999, p. 29). A number of debates occur surrounding the topic whether or not children are able to understand the persuasive marketing techniques of advertising. The model of consumer behaviour adopted for this paper places the child at the centre of the purchasing decision, having an influential role consuming information from TV advertising and other media broadcasts. Theoretical Framework Consumer socialisation is a theory which dates back to 1970, a time when children became a key target market for marketing campaigns (John, 1999). The theory which was first founded by Scott Ward and later developed by scholars’ outlines the development process of children’s understandings of advertising and how it develops with age. ‘Children aren’t born as consumersâ€¦but they are born to be consumers’ (McNeal, 1999, p. 37). According to Ward consumer socialisation is the ‘processes by which young people acquire skills, knowledge, and attitudes relevant to their functioning as consumers in the marketplace” (Ward, 1974, p. 2). Socialisation agents include parents, peers, school and the media who are involved in the transmission of information and values from a young age. For this report I will focus on the media and advertising as a socialisation agent and how interactions with children can ensure development. According to John (1999), ‘Age-related improvements in cognitive abilities contribute to the development of consumer knowledge and decision-making skills’ (John, 1999, p184). Deborah Roedder John believed from the time of birth to adolescents an extreme change and development in cognitive functioning takes place and children develop an ability to see the world through a number of perspectives not just their own. Her theory included three stages of how a child develops into a consumer, from how they think to how they act. The first stage of the theory is the perceptual stage, between the ages of three to seven. During this stage, children are aware of marketing concepts such as the terms ‘brands’ however they do not fully understand them. Because of this, consumer decisions are made based on limited amount of information and they only concentrate on their own perspective. The second stage, known as analytical is when the child is between the ages of seven to eleven. Children have socially matured and so their information processing increases and they begin to understand branding and marketing more. Finally in stage three, reflective stage, children who are between the ages of eleven to sixteen have a broader understanding of advertising and the persuasive techniques used by marketers.Â According to John (1999), children are growing into adult consumers and their decisions and actions depend on the context and have a dual perspective. Another theoretical framework developed by Selman (1980) which looks at how a child’s ability to understand other people’s perspectives develop as time goes on. The approach begins as the child is unaware of other individuals, solely concentrating on their own perspective. Moving on to understand that everyone has different opinions and begin to consider other people’s point of view. Finally in the later teenage years, children begin to understand other people’s perspective and can relate it to the social environment (John, 1999). Impression formation theory describes the development period from the age of six years to twelve years when a child begins to make social comparisons (Barenboim, 1981).Â Below the age of six children describe people using simple, concrete terms, often physical appearances e.g. tall, boy/girl, blonde etc. (Barenboim, 1981; John, 1999). In Barenboim’s first phase (6-8), known as the behavioural comparisons, children begin to include comparisons when forming opinions and impressions. In the second phase, psychological constructs stage (8-10) Barenboim explains how children’s impressions are based on psychological attributes but do not contain any comparisons. Finally, in Barenboim’s last phase, children begin to make comparisons on psychological attributes and begin to formulate adult like views and impressions of people (Barenboim, 1981). In contrast to Selman’s (1980) theory and John’s (1999) cognitive stages, which focus on biological age, the Information Processing Theory focuses on the children’s ability to store, decode and retrieve information. In this theory, children are characterised as belonging to one of three categories based on their information processing and retrieval skills; strategic processors, cued processors, and limited processors (Roedder, 1981; John 1999). Children under the age of 8 are known as limited processors. At this young age, children find it difficult storing and retrieving the marketing message and information even when prompted. Over the next four years, up to the age of twelve, children begin to mature and enhance information storage and retrieval with the aid of cues or prompts. This age bracket is known as cued processors. Finally, as the child reaches the teenage years, he or she can store and retrieve information from memory without the help of cues. Empirical Evidence Over the years children have become a target market of advertising campaigns and some countries have even introduced regulation towards children’s advertising (McNeal 1999). Children’s ability to understand advertising and decode the marketing message behind the advertisement has remained central to debate worldwide. Generally speaking as the child gets older, they develop and equip consumer skills such as saving, purchasing and researching. As they develop into adult consumers, they pass an age threshold and become more observant to biasness and persuasiveness in advertisements. Young children are less susceptible to advertising and the persuasive techniques it entails and marketers see them as a vulnerable target (John, 1999; Livingstone and Helsper, 2006; Rozendaal et al, 2009). One of the questions which have been centre to research surrounding this topic is to what extent children can tell the difference between TV programmes and commercials. Evidence suggests that before the child can understand what advertising it, it is important they distinguish it from other forms of media for example the television programme they are watching. However, the findings suggest there is no relationship between children’s ability to differentiate between ads and programmes and understanding the purpose of advertising. In contrast however, if children are able to understand the purpose of advertising they will be able to identify the difference between programmes and commercials. Young children are oblivious to advertisements but as they age they develop an understanding of commercial breaks and the aim of advertising campaigns shown during their favourite show (Rossiter and Robertson, 1974). Research has been carried out in order to determine the age in which children begin to understand the information behind the advertisement. Findings suggest children have the ability to understand the advertising process and the aim of selling as they get older (Rossiter and Robertson, 1974; Ward, 1974; Macklin, 1984). However, after roughly 30 years of research on children’s understanding of advertising, age is still a topic of debate between scholars and the empirical evidence is still unclear. Evidence suggests children between the ages of four to five years old cannot differentiate between advertisements and TV programmes and identifies both as a form of entertainment (John, 1999; Livingstone and Helsper, 2006; Cairns et al., 2013). As the child ages, they begin to mature and develop an ability to identify the characteristics of advertisements. This ability begins to develop from the ages of four to seven years of age. Finally, from eight years the child develops the skill to decode the persuasive message and retrieve the content from the advertisement (Livingstone and Helsper, 2006). The findings suggest that children need to be able to identify between two separate techniques used in advertising- selling and persuasive techniques. It involves children being able to understand what tactics are used by marketers and why they are used. This development process emerges much later on in the child’s life as they approach teenage years (Roberts, 1983; Friestad and Wright 1994; John 1999). Moore-Shay and Lutz (1997) conducted in-depth interviews with second class students (ages 7-8) and fifth class (ages 10-11) in order to research this area. The findings suggested that younger children associated advertisements as a source of information, to advertisements primarily as a conduit of product information, appraising commercials based on their liking of the product/service on offer in the advertisement. In contrast, older children intended to focus on the creative side of the advertisement in a more logical nature. According to John (1999), ‘As they mature, children make a transition from viewers who see advertising as purely informative, entertaining, and trustworthy to ones who view advertising in a more sceptical, analytical, and discerning fashion’ (John, 1999, p.191). It is believed that if the child learns the aim of using of persuasive techniques, they will be able to develop a cognitive defence against advertising. John (1999) stated that there is not enough evidence to prove that children’s knowledge and understanding of advertising is sufficient enough to provoke a desire for certain foods or toys. Children of all ages as well as adults will be affected by advertising in some shape or form, but the strength of this effect will be based on the extent of their advertising literacy (Livingstone and Helsper, 2006). Bibliography Barenboim, C. (1981). The Development of Person Perception in Childhood and Adolescence: From Behavioural Comparisons to Psychological Constructs to Psychological Comparisons. Child Development, 52(1), p.129. Cairns, G., Angus, K., Hastings, G. and Caraher, M. (2013). Systematic reviews of the evidence on the nature, extent and effects of food marketing to children. A retrospective summary. Appetite, 62, pp.209-215. Friestad, M. and Wright, P. (1994). The Persuasion Knowledge Model: How People Cope with Persuasion Attempts. Journal of Consumer Research, 21(1), p.1. John, D. (1999). Consumer Socialization of Children: A Retrospective Look At Twentyâ€Five Years of Research. Journal of Consumer Research, 26(3), pp.183-213. Livingstone, S. and Helsper, E. (2006). Does Advertising Literacy Mediate the Effects of Advertising on Children? A Critical Examination of Two Linked Research Literatures in Relation to Obesity and Food Choice. Journal of Communication, 56(3), pp.560-584. Macklin, M. (1984). PSYCHOMETRIC INVESTIGATION OF ROSSITER’S SHORT TEST MEASURING CHILDREN’S ATTITUDES TOWARD TV COMMERCIALS. Psychological Reports, 54(2), pp.623-627. McNeal, J. (1999). The kids market. Ithaca: PMP, Paramount Market Publishing. Moore-Shay, Elizabeth S. and Richard J. Lutz (1997), “Kids’ Consumption: How Do Children Perceive the Relationships between Advertisements and Products?” working paper, Office of Research, College of Commerce and Business Administration, University of Illinois Roberts, D. (1983). Children and Commercials: Prevention in Human Services, 2(1-2), pp.19-35. Roedder, D. (1981). Age Differences in Children’s Responses to Television Advertising: An Information-Processing Approach. Journal of Consumer Research, 8(2), p.144. Rossiter, J. and Robertson, T. (1974). Children’s TV Commercials: Testing the Defences. Journal of Communication, 24(4), pp.137-144. Ward, S. (1974). Consumer Socialization. Journal of Consumer Research, 1(2), p.1.
Effective communication is very important when you are in the business area. Every day we encounter different people and dealing with them nicely will leave a big impact to them about us. People will remember you on how effective you are as a communicator because you catch their attention on how you speak or act in front of them. In the sector of business, the more effective you are as a spokesperson, the more your business will be successful. Teamwork, from the word itself, you need a team for it to work. Companies hire employees that know how to work as a team. Working hand in hand to achieve goals will make your life easier. Any job or work that is been accompanied by people who are willing to cooperate will be a sure success. Companies last longer if they have workers who cooperate with their leaders and show genuineness towards their work. Question 1: Analyse communication principles for effective business communication and apply strategies of business communication to prepare effective communication for managing relationships between different stakeholders in a business entity. Answer1. These days, business communication either written or verbal has become a vital part of a business and to conduct an effective and smooth flow of information within the organisation. Business can only survive if it has a transparent and effective communication within the company as well as with external parties like stakeholders. It can further be demonstrated through the example give in the case study “A nasty piece of work” where the author has expressed that if we can absorb what someone is throwing at us, it helps in defusing things. In other words, it helps in solving the problems of communication. Thus, there should be a great focus on the communication principles by a company to enhance its growth prospects. Following are some of the effective principles of communication for businesses and companies to apply and execute: Language control: for a communication to be effective the employees and the other involved people should understand the importance of the language control. They should first adhere to the limits designed by the company and see if they could use informal or formal language to communicate. Moreover, they should also use the respectful language in order to communicate effectively. Simplicity: another principle of an effective communication is to create a simple and easy message to talk to others. It is not good to use the difficult or very technical language while communicating with others. For example, if the company is communicating something to its customers then it shouldn’t use the language that isn’t clear to them. So, the message or the information should be made easy to deliver to other parties to effectively access it. Clarity: the information which needs to be communicated should be very concise and very specific to the purpose of the communication. It will save the time and efforts of both the parties involved in the process of communication; the sender as well as the receiver. Planning: these days planning is the first stage of each and every small or big execution in a business. Similarly, communication in an organisation is a big and important process to carry out day to day business activities. Thus planning is extremely important for communication as well. Sometimes there’s only one chance for the companies to communicate something to stakeholders like (advertisement to customers, offer to other companies or competitors, applications to banks, offer of investments to shareholders etc.) so it is important to plan before the communication to get it successful. (business consi, 2011-2016) Accuracy: the sender of the information or the communicators should always make sure that the information he/she is transferring is accurate, or the source of information is available or not. Because the companies should have proper logic or base evidence for what they are communicating to others. Inaccurate information might lead to loss or destruction of business relations. Attentiveness: here attentiveness refers to the knowledge of other parties involved in the communication. The message or information that is being communicated should have covered all the aspects of controversies or criticism. Companies should apply a way that one person should know how will another be going to react after the information is transferred. Relevancy: this is always important to talk relevant; otherwise it is complete waste of time if the communication is not on track. For an example if a company is offering a deal to another company then communication should have executed around the code of conduct, responsibilities and profits and not about the culture and other stuff. Brief: sometimes it is very irritating to read long messages or to listen to long speeches on something. Moreover people don’t have enough time so it is important for a company to understand the value of short and brief messages and how to explain more in short or brief messages. Confidential: another principle for an effective communication is that the information or a communication should be between those who are authorised to that. It should be publicised until authorised. (III, 2016) A business can have two different types of stakeholders and two different types of communication processes. External and internal; external stakeholders are like competitors, suppliers etc. and internal stakeholders are like employees and shareholders etc. Both are important and plays vital role in the success of the company. Thus the company should apply some strategies to build stronger relations with these stakeholders through effective communication. Strategies to build good relations with the stakeholders via effective communication:- Written communication like marketing advertisements, direct mails, budget and publications, social media, surveys and feedback etc. These are some of the written communication tools that can be used to communicate with the stakeholders. So the companies should apply the above mentioned principles to make the information effective. Verbal communication like telephonic, seminars and speeches, television add etc. The verbal communication is more intensive then the written communication. Both techniques are quite common to use these days. The company should apply the principles of effective communication like conciseness, accuracy, language etc to communicate freely and smoothly. (Boundless, 2016) Budget analysis and audit reports are the best way to authentic and accurate communication with the external stakeholders. This is the way in which the company can follow the principle of transparency. The competitors and the government can communicate with company through this way (through the website or online publications) and give feedback as well. Stakeholders can also get information about the growth strategies, market value or positioning of the company, products and services, corporate social responsibility and lot more through this way of communication. By following the mentioned technique (all the businesses and companies do use online media to communicate these days) the companies can keep its stakeholders updated with what is happening in the company. Question 2: After reading the case critically evaluate communication for effective team work and engagement within organizations to promote a positive workplace culture. Answer 2. Employee engagement plays prominent role in developing the team and positive workplace culture within a company. Small or large teams can only achieve their set goals or targets if they communicate as well as engage properly.Â A team leader has the duty to make every employee or a member of the team to feel that they all are equally important and contributing to the success of the organisation. Effective communication within the team is extremely necessary for the so many reasons and they are as follows: – To have no conflicts: – it is important to communicate accurately so that there should not arise any kind of individual conflicts in the team. Because those conflicts might lead to big issues later and decrease the strengths of the workforce. (ROGERS) To achieve goals: – working in a team refers to working for a common goal and not for individual goals. Thus it is important to have a sense of co-operation and co-ordination for each other in a team and in a company to achieve the set or desired goals. Effective communication plays the fundamental role in developing the sense of cooperation and coordination in teams. To manage time: – if the manager and the team leader communicates the day to day job roles effectively and timely then there will be no problems in terms of confusions and delays. Every task can be conducted and achieved in time with good results. Thus, time managements and resource managements are some of the positive outcomes of effective communication. (Stark, 2012) To reduce risks and competition: – it is great to say that just by having a good communication the teams might be able to reduce the amount of risk and competition from outside the company (from competitors and market trends). To promote positive workplace culture: – co-operation and co-ordination, support, trust are all the components of good and healthy communication. Furthermore, these components are helpful in building positive environments within the company where employees are positively energetic towards working hard for their goals. To build relations: – finally a team manager could also be successful in achieving healthy relations of the team members by conducting and applying the principles of effective communication in a team. This will not only help teams to build up but also help the companies and businesses to build up as strong and sustainable entities. (Custom Insights, 2014) If a person wants to be a good communicator, he or she must be an extrovert which means that you have to be outgoing or socially confident person. No matter what the people say about you or what words they throw towards you, never let it bother you. Just keep going on in your life because we all have problems and it is up to us on how we will handle it. We just have to be good to people even though they don’t show the same attitude towards us because it reflects on our personality. Companies don’t succeed if employees lack teamwork. In working with same project but with another group of people, it is important that leaders should talk well on what to do first and discuss about the result.Â Listening to the people that surrounds you and who knows the job well will make your work easy and fast. Asking help also from your superiors if you are having a hard time with your project can also give a positive outcome. In Task A, it gives us message that we must be positive in a negative world. An extrovert person will go a long way because of their driven personality NE whatever problems they have, it is not a hindrance to accomplish their dreams and not to ruin their day. Some will not treat you nicely but always be positive with your life. An introvert person were the shy one and they sometimes avoid large group of people. In Task B, if both parties, the BP and Transocean communicated well and listen to each other then there will be no oil spill, no lives taken and no negative effect on the environment. The oil spill that happened was the worst disaster that America has encountered. It has a lot of bad effects to human, reputation, economics and environmental. This document will include the principles of effective communication leading to the strategies that can be used or that are generally being used by the companies these days in order to establish strong relations within and outside the company through the explanation of external and internal stakeholders to a company. Additionally, it will also throw light on some of the important aspects of a communication towards building teams in an organisation. Putting along the communication as a fundamental need for all organisations to growth and success this assignment will focus on business communication and its importance. References III, G. N. (2016). Chron-small business “7Cs of effective business communication. Retrieved from smallbusiness.chron.com: http://smallbusiness.chron.com/7-cs-effective-business-communication-114.html business consi. (2011-2016) principles of effective communication in business. Retrieved from bconsi.blogspot.co.nz: http://bconsi.blogspot.co.nz/2012/12/principles-of-effective-communication-in-business.html Boundless (2016). Boundless Marketing. Retrieved from https://www.boundless.com/marketing/textbooks/boundless-marketing-textbook/introduction-to-marketing-1/introduction-to-marketing-18/relationship-building-with-various-stakeholders-111-3496/ Custom Insights. (2014, july 29)improve employee engagement with team work in your organistaion Retrieved from www.custominsight.com: http://www.custominsight.com/blog/employee-engagement-teamwork.asp Stark, P. B. (2012, march 27). Enhancing Workplace Performance-10 steps to increase cross-departmental communication. Retrieved from www.employeeopinionsurveys.co: http://www.employeeopinionsurveys.com/760/increase-cross-department-communication ROGERS, M. (n.d.). Teamwork leadership-five important tips for effective team communication. Retrieved from www.teamworkandleadership.co: http://www.teamworkandleadership.com/2012/02/five-important-tips-for-effective-team-communication-1.html
here is more wk 5
here is more wk 5. I’m trying to study for my Computer Science course and I need some help to understand this question.
For this assignment, you will be exploring your topic/question from the Research Proposal and Preliminary Bibliography (Module 3). You will also start reading and thinking about the sources you found in that project. Your purposes for the presentation are primarily to explore and to question. Above all, resist closure and avoid making an argument or taking a final stance on your issue. (You will get to do that in the final project of the semester.) You still can–and should–have opinions and reactions to your sources, but you shouldn’t settle your entire research question yet.
This assignment will not result in a single, polished opinion on your topic, as that is what your portfolio project is intended to be. Rather, you will create one of the following options to present to your peers as an evolving presentation:
Video Blog with presentation and voiceover
Part 1: Initial Post
This is a small-group discussion forum. Continue working in your assigned group based on the theme you chose. Post your PowerPoint, Prezi, or video blog to the discussion forum. Address the following in your presentation:
Reintroduce your topic and research questions: reuse elements of your Research Proposal here, but keep it brief, i.e. one paragraph. Be sure to note your thesis.
Summarize and respond to two of your research sources.
Provide a direct hyperlink when you first introduce the source and an APA citation at the end of your post.
Use APA in-text citations for any quotations, or paraphrases. It is best to start paraphrasing your sources here.
Pose exploratory questions about your source.
Keep your own perspective open-ended and exploratory. Don’t commit to a “side” or a stance yet; consider the issue from multiple angles.
If you choose the video blog, post reference information directly in the forum.
here is more wk 5
professional essay writers Credentialing Providers.
Provide an executive summary to your team on how to credential providers. You will need to consider the following:Type of provider being credentialedSteps they will go thru to be credentialedEducational background neededDoes this provider have an NPI number?State the provider will work inIs there a standard application?Is an onsite visit needed; why or why notWho gets credentialed (list at least 5 specialties)Are all facilities credentialed?Gather your research from at least 2 sources, other than your textbook. Cite your sources using APA guidelines. All submitted work should be free of grammatical errors.
summary of the project or incident, health and medicine homework help (400 Word)
summary of the project or incident, health and medicine homework help (400 Word).
For this assignment, write about a hazardous materials incident or an environmental health and safety (EHS) project that involves a material(s) with a hazard(s) that falls under the hazard classification that we have studied so far (water/air reactive, corrosive, or toxic). The incident or project could be one that you have researched or been involved with. Your essay must include the following:
summary of the project or incident,
identification of the hazardous material(s) involved and hazardous classification,
discussion of chemical properties and interactions relevant to the incident/project,
BOS 3640, Interactions of Hazardous Materials 3
any short or long-term mitigation implemented, and
conclusion (your professional opinion on the project/incident).
Your response must be at least 400 words in length. You are required to use at least two references, including your textbook for your response. All sources used, including the textbook, must be referenced. Paraphrased and/or quoted materials must have accompanying citations in APA format
summary of the project or incident, health and medicine homework help (400 Word)
MATU 203 Brandman University Generating Summary Statistics Data Table Worksheet
MATU 203 Brandman University Generating Summary Statistics Data Table Worksheet.
Info from last week The graph above was derived from people who live on a military base. The sample comes from 30 people that I work in the same building with. Each person was given a piece of paper that asked how many pets they own per household. They had the option to check a box from one to five or greater. The level of measurement is nominal. The distribution shape of my chart is skewed to the right, this can be because the higher the amount of pets in the household, the less people with that amount. This data is important because it shows the average amount of pets that are living on base in each household. This can be important because of pet supplies stock at the base store and staffing at the base vet. What I find interesting at the data is that their are barley any people that own more than 5 pets. The article that I found explains how important household pet census data is when it comes to community resources. We must know the amount of pets for a vet to anticipate patient load or for veterinarian schools to set enrollment numbers.Referencehttps://www.washingtonpost.com/science/2019/01/31/how-many-americans-have-pets-an-investigation-into-fuzzy-statistics/
MATU 203 Brandman University Generating Summary Statistics Data Table Worksheet