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Data Flow testing using Genetic Algorithms

Data Flow testing using Genetic Algorithms Abstract Testing a software plays a very key role in software development life cycle. There are two types of testing in software development life cycle they are – white box testing and black box testing. Data flow testing comes under white box testing technique which involves flow of control and flow of data throughout the software for testing. Evolutionary approaches in testing selects are generates test data by using optimized searching techniques. The working for data flow testing by using genetic algorithm for automatic generation of testing locations for data flow testing. This algorithm generates random initial populations of test paths for data flow testing and then based on selected testing area new paths are generated by applying genetic algorithm. A fitness function in this algorithm evaluates the fitness of a chromosomes within selected data for data flow testing. There are two techniques for data flow testing like crossover, mutation of chromosomes from the selected testing data to generate new paths and figure out test results with good fitness values. This type of approach helps us to get good results compared to random testing. 1. Introduction Software testing is the way toward executing a program with the expectation of discovering mistakes [1]. Programming testing is one of the vital periods of programming advancement life cycle. There are diverse sorts of programming testing including white box testing and discovery testing. White box testing confirms the inner rationale of the program while dark testing manages the check of the product usefulness. Programming testing can be performed at various dimensions including unit testing, joining testing and framework testing. Unit testing tests the single unit of programming including classes and techniques. Mix testing checks the interfaces utilized for correspondence between various segments and message going through these parts. Framework testing confirms the in general usefulness of the framework. White box testing is separated into two noteworthy classes, i.e., control stream testing and information stream testing. Control stream testing utilizes the control stream chart for programming testing [2] [3]. In a control stream diagram, a hub relates to a code portion; hubs are marked utilizing letters or then again numbers. An edge relates to the stream of control between code fragments; edges are spoken to as bolts. There is a passage and leave the point in a control stream diagram. Control stream testing criteria incorporate explanation inclusion, choice inclusion, condition inclusion and so forth. Information stream testing is a white box testing procedure used to check the stream of information over the product program. Information stream testing is utilized to check the definition and utilization of program factors in an exact way [2] [3]. Information stream testing is classified into static information stream testing and dynamic information stream testing. Static information stream testing doesn’t include the execution of the programming program. In this sort of information stream testing just a static examination is performed by breaking down the source code. Dynamic information stream testing really executes the programming program for the location of information irregularity. Extraordinary inclusion criteria are characterized for dynamic information stream testing to execute distinctive ways in programming program for discovery of abnormalities [2] [3]. Robotization is a vital angle for programming testing, without the computerized device, it is difficult to perform thorough programming testing. In this paper, we have actualized a robotized device for the age of test ways for information stream testing. The use of developmental calculations [4] to programming testing for an age of test information is known as transformative testing. In this paper, we have executed an instrument that utilizes the hereditary calculation for the age for test ways in information stream testing at the unit level. We have executed hereditary calculation in our apparatus for information stream testing for the age of test ways utilizing information stream inclusion criteria. The proposed explore device called ETODF is the continuation of our past work [6] on information stream testing utilizing developmental methodologies has been executed in Java dialect for approval. It explores, different avenues regarding this device, our methodology has much better results when contrasted with irregular testing. Whatever is left of the paper is composed as pursues: Segment 2 expounds the overview of various methods proposed for programming testing utilizing developmental methodologies, segment 3 portrays the proposed instrument (Genetic Algorithms) for information stream testing utilizing developmental methodologies and segment 4 is connected with analyses and testing results as in correlation with irregular testing. Area 5 closes the paper and shows what’s to come work. 2. Related Work Tonella [7] utilized transformative testing for testing of classes at the unit level for the age of experiments. Subterranean insect state streamlining was connected by McMinn and Holcombe [8] to take care of state issue in protest situated projects. Affixing the approach was reached out to take care of state issues in question situated projects by McMinn and Holcombe [8]. Watkins [9] performed diverse examinations for correlation of wellness function by various scientists. As per them, branch predicate and opposite way likelihood approaches were the best wellness function when contrasted with different methodologies. Wegener et al. [10] [11] built up a robotized testing framework utilizing transformative methodologies for testing of inserted frameworks. Baresel et al. [12] propose a few alterations in wellness function configuration to enhance transformative basic testing. A very much developed function can expand the shot of finding the arrangement and achieve a superior inclusion of the product under test and result in a superior direction of the hunt and in this way in improvements with less emphasis. McMinn [13] gives an extensive overview of developmental testing approaches and talks about the application of developmental testing. The creator examines the extraordinary approaches in which developmental testing has been connected and additionally gives future bearings in every individual zone. Developmental methodologies are for the most part connected to the programming testing for mechanized test information age [14] [15] [16] [17] [18] [19]. Cheon et al. [20] characterized a wellness work for protest situated program. Dharsana et al. [21] create test cases for Java-based projects and furthermore performed streamlining of test cases utilizing hereditary calculation. Jones et al. [22] performed programmed basic testing utilizing hereditary calculation in their approach. Bilal and Nadeem [23] proposed a state-based wellness function for protest situated projects utilizing hereditary calculation. S.A Khanand Nadeem [24, 25] proposed approaches for test information age at reconciliation level utilizing transformative approaches. There are two persuasive factors behind this examine the device. There is no or little research chip away at the dynamic information stream testing by applying developmental approaches. The second inspiration includes that there is no mechanized device for information stream testing that utilizes transformative approaches for dynamic information stream testing. 3. Using Genetic Algorithm The proposed methodology [6] has been executed in a model instrument called Genetic Algorithm (Developmental Testing of Information Stream) in Java. The model device utilizes the hereditary calculation for the age of test way with single point traverse and change. The abnormal state engineering of the apparatus appears in Figure 6. Genetic Algorithm has the accompanying parts: Graph Parser Semantic Analyzer and Preserver Test Path Generator Sorter and Validator Fitness Calculator Genetic Algorithm takes information stream diagram as information and stores the chart in the wake of breaking down and applying semantic on every hub. The info of the information stream chart is as a nearness list. Contiguousness list is the portrayal of everything being equal or bends in a chart as a rundown. The parser parses the diagram and stores it in a parser protest. The parser question peruses the diagram data from the information record in the shape contiguousness list. The parser protest contains the chart protest that stores the entire diagram as nearness list in the memory for further handling in straight away parts. The semantic analyzer and preserver is the most essential part of the Genetic Algorithm. This segment breaks down the semantic related with every hub and stores the semantic with every hub of the diagram. The semantic analyzer, what’s more, preserver peruses the information stream data from the information record furthermore, partners this data with every hub of the chart utilizing the parser question which stores the genuine chart. After semantic examination, every hub has now all data related to the definition and utilization of every factor. The hubs are currently capable to process the information stream inclusion criteria whenever connected on hubs in a way. Fig .l. High Level Architecture of Genetic Algorithm The test way generator is an imperative segment of Genetic Algorithm which initially produces the test way arbitrarily and on the second cycle, it utilizes hereditary calculation for test way age. The test way generator utilizes the hereditary calculation with one-point traverse and change for the age of new populace. The test ways are arranged by the sorter part of the Genetic Algorithm and after that, every way is approved utilizing semantics of the diagram for validness. In this progression, the invalid ways are dealt with from the test ways. The substantial ways are passed to the wellness number cruncher which ascertains the wellness of every way utilizing the information stream inclusion criteria. The wellness mini-computer takes legitimate ways from Validator segments and information stream inclusion criteria from the client as information also, compute the wellness of the way as indicated by the information stream inclusion criteria. After the assessment, the way that fulfils the inclusion criteria legitimate are included the worldwide rundown of the way while those which don’t fulfil the inclusion criteria stays in the populace and utilized in the recombination and change for straightaway cycle. 4. Genetic Algorithm implementation The significant bundles executed in the apparatus have appeared in bundle chart in figure 2. The GraphParser class peruses the input chart and store it in parser question. The Node Information class peruses the information stream data and it contains the information stream data of every hub. The DataflowCriteria class characterizes the testing criteria for dynamic information stream of testing. The FitnessCalculator class computes the wellness of every chromosome and it likewise figures the wellness of populace. The Centralized server is the section point for Genetic Algorithm instrument, this class is in charge of producing GUI of the device, what’s more, this is the principle controller class that calls different classes. The rest of the classes are partner classes for various functionalities in the Genetic Algorithm. 5. Case Study Trial results have been gotten utilizing proposed technique by applying apparatus Genetic Algorithm on the procedural code at the unit level. We have utilized All definitions, all uses, All-c-uses, and All p-utilizes criteria for our tests also, contrast the outcomes and irregular testing. We utilized the following code for our trials with Genetic Algorithm. In tests with this model, our methodology has much better results when contrasted with arbitrary testing. Table .1. Source Code used for Evaluation of Genetic Algorithm In this precedent, there are distinctive factors characterized and utilized. We have connected the Genetic Algorithm on these factors and thought about the outcomes with irregular testing. The example ways for All definitions, All-c-uses and All-p-utilizes for variables, it is given beneath in table 2. The information stream diagram for the source code appears in figure 2. Table .2. Sample Path for Variable ‘tv’ and ‘ti’ Fig .2. Data Flow Graph Figure 3 shows the generated values from a Genetic Algorithm. Fig .3. The Generated Values using a Genetic Algorithm We have performed explores different avenues regarding our proposed apparatus for information stream testing criteria i.e. All definitions, All C-Uses, and All Purses and so on. We have performed hundred emphasizes with Genetic Algorithm for an age of test ways that fulfil information stream testing criteria as chosen by the client from Genetic Algorithm UI. For the age of five experiments for All definitions, arbitrary testing had taken forty-three cycles while ETODF takes just twelve emphasizes. Correspondingly for ten experiments, irregular testing took eighty-seven cycles while ETODF took as it were twenty-one cycles for All definitions testing criteria. For the age of five experiments for All C-Uses, irregular testing had taken fifty-six cycles while ETODF takes just eleven emphases. Essentially, for ten experiments irregular testing took a hundred cycles and it can’t create hundred per cent results while Genetic Algorithm took just twenty-seven cycles for All C-Uses testing criteria. For All P-Uses/Some C-Uses what not P-Uses results outlined in Table 3. For the test results, it has been presumed that our proposed instrument has much better outcomes when contrasted with irregular testing. We contend that our methodology will perform shockingly better for vast and complex programs too. Table 3 concludes the results obtained from different approaches, our proposed genetic algorithm and random testing. Table .3. Comparison of Random Testing and Genetic Algorithm Values From table 3, it has been reasoned that just Genetic Algorithm produces hundred per cent results in all cases and in all testing criteria while irregular testing performs better in the little arrangement of prerequisites and it isn’t creating hundred per cent results where prerequisites are higher regarding quantities of test cases (ways). Based on these outcomes, we contend that the approach will perform far better for substantial and complex programs too 6. Experimental Measurements I have cross verified the efficiency of proposed values with random test values on two verifications: Number of Iterations Coverage Fig .4. Genetic Algorithm and Random Iterations Number of emphases shows that what number of cycles are required for the age of test way as per the inclusion criteria. As per the outcomes, we got from analyses Genetic Algorithm out performs arbitrary testing and has much better outcomes when contrasted with arbitrary testing as appeared in figure. The thing that matters is higher when quantities of way are more. Fig .5. Genetic Algorithm and Random Coverage Coverage demonstrates that how much coverage is accomplished in getting number of test ways as per the coverage criteria. Coverage = (Generated Paths/Required Paths) *100 According to the results, we got from experimental values of Genetic Algorithm out performs random test values and has much better optimized results as compared to random test values as shown in figure 5. Genetic Algorithm has achieved 100% percent results in all the areas of testing. The difference when cross verified is much more than the greatest paths are used. 7. Conclusion and Future Work This theory shows the usage of genetic algorithm for the automatic generation of test paths using data flow calculation. The usage of genetic algorithm is implemented and seen in Java. In experiments with this algorithm, my approach has much optimized results as compared to random test value results. I will extend this type of testing to all the other levels of testing i.e., system testing, unit testing and integration testing. Currently I compared the output of experimental testing to the random testing values only. In future, I will also carry out complete wide investigations on large case studies for the verification and clarification of this proposed approach using all data flow coverage criteria’s. 8. References [1] Boris Beizer, “Software Testing Techniques”, International Thomson Computer Press, 1990. [2] Lee Copeland, “A Practitioner’s Guide to Software Test Design”, STQE Publishing, 2004. [3] Khan, M. “Different Approaches to White Box Testing Technique for Finding Errors”, International Journal of Software Engineering and Its Applications, Vol.5, No.3, July, (2011). [4] Rao, V. and Madiraju, S. “Genetic Algorithms and Programming -An Evolutionary Methodology”, International Journal of Hybrid Information Technology, Vol.3, No.4, October, (2010). [5] Srivastaval, P. and Kim, T.”Application of Genetic Algorithm in Software Testing”, International Journal of Software Engineering and Its Applications, Vol.3, No.4, October, (2009). [6] Khan, S. and Nadeem, A., “Applying Evolutionary Approaches to Data Flow Testing at Unit Level”. Software Engineering, Business Continuity, and Education Communications in Computer and Information Science, 2011. [7] Tonella, P., (2004 July) “Evolutionary Testing of Classes”, In Proceedings of the ACM SIGSOFT International Symposium of Software Testing and Analysis, Boston, MA, pp. 119-128. [8] McMinn, P., Holcombe, M., (2003 July) “The state problem for evolutionary testing.” In Proceedings of the Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference (GECCO), Lecture Notes in Computer Science vol. 2724, pages 2488-2497, Chicago, USA. Springer-Verlag. [9] Watkins, A., (1995 July) “The automatic generation of test data using genetic algorithms.” In Proceedings of the Fourth Software Quality Conference, pages 300-309. ACM, 1995. [10] Wegener, J., Baresel, A., Sthamer, H., (2001) “Evolutionary test environment for automatic structural testing.” Information and Software Technology Special Issue on Software Engineering using Metaheuristic Innovative Algorithms, 43 pp.841-854. [11] Wegener, J., Buhr, K., Pohlheim, H., (2002 July) “Automatic test data generation for structural testing of embedded software systems by evolutionary testing”, In Proceedings of the Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference (GECCO 2002), pages 1233-1240, New York, USA. Morgan Kaufinann. [12] Baresel, A., Sthamer, H., Schmidt, M., (2002 July) “Fitness Function Design to improve Evolutionary Structural Testing”, Proceedings of the Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference (GECCO 02), New York (NY), USA. [13] McMinn, P., (2004) “Search-based Software Test Data Generation: A Survey”, Journal of Software Testing, Verifications, and Reliability, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 105-156, June. [14] McGraw, G., Michael, C., Schatz, M., (2001) “Generating software test data by evolution.” IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, 27(12): 1085 1110. [15] Pargas, R., Harrold, M., Peck, R., (1999) “Test-data generation using genetic algorithms. Software Testing”, Verification and Reliability, 9(4):263-282. [16] Roper, M., (1997 May) “Computer aided software testing using genetic algorithms.” In 10th International Software Quality Week, San Francisco, USA. [17] Tracey, N., Clark, J., Mander, K., McDermid, J., (2000) “Automated test-data generation for exception conditions”, SOFTWARE—PRACTICE AND EXPERIENCE, vol., Pages 61-79, January. [18] Sthamer, H., (1996) “The automatic generation of software test data using genetic algorithms”, PhD Thesis, University of Ghamorgan, Pontyprid, Wales, Great Britain. [19] Seesing, A., Gross, H., (2006) “A Genetic Programming Approach to Automated Test Generation for Object-Oriented Software”, International Transactions on Systems Science and Applications, vol. l,no. 2, pp. 127-134. [20] Cheon, Y., Kim, M., (2006 July) “A specification-based fitness function for evolutionary testing of object-oriented programs”, Proceedings of the 8th annual conference on Genetic and evolutionary computation, Washington, USA. [21] Dharsana, C.S.S., Askarunisha, A., (2007 December) “Java based Test Case Generation and Optimization Using Evolutionary Testing”. International Conference on Computational Intelligence and Multimedia Applications, Sivakasi, India. [22] Jones, B., Sthamer, H., Eyres, D., (1996) “Automatic structural testing using genetic algorithms”, Software Engineering Journal, vol. 11, no. 5, pp. 299-306. [23] Bilal, M., Nadeem, A., (2009 April) “A State based Fitness Function for Evolutionary Testing of Object-Oriented Programs”. Studies in Computational Intelligence, 2009, Volume 253/2009, 83-94, DOI: 10.1007/978-3-642-05441-9. Software Engineering Research, Management and Applications 2009. [24] SA Khan, A Nadeem, “Automated Test Data Generation for Coupling Based Integration Testing of Object Oriented Programs Using Evolutionary Approaches”, Proceedings of the 2013 10th International Conference on Information Technology: New Generations (ITNG 2013), Pages 369-374, LAS Vegas, Nevada, USA. [25] S.A Khan, A. Nadeem, “Automated Test Data Generation for Coupling Based Integration Testing of Object Oriented Programs Using Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO)”, Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Genetic and Evolutionary Computing, ICGEC 2013, August 25 – 27,2013 Prague, Czech Republic.
Two Main Types Of Cells In Nervous System Biology Essay. There are two main types of cells in the nervous system. These two types are neurons and neuroglia. A neuron is a nerve cell that transmits impulses of the nervous system. Three main parts make up a neuron: cell body, axon, and dendrite. The cell body of a neuron contains the nucleus and cytoplasm. The axon conducts impulses away from the cell body and is away from the cell body a single slender projection from the cell body. A dendrite sticks out off the cell body. It is shaped somewhat like a tree branch. Neuroglia is a type of connective tissue that supports the neurons. Neuroglia protects the nervous system instead of conducting impulses. Neuroglia use a process called phagocytosis to get rid of any unwanted substances. Neuroglia come in three types; astrocytes, microglia, and oligodendrocytes. Astrocytes are cells that possess many processes for attachment. Astrocytes are more plentiful than any other neuroglia, and are only present in the central nervous system. Astrocytes combined with the walls of a blood capillary, prevent harmful substances from passing from the blood to the brain. Microglia have branch like processes protruding from their bodies. The purpose of microglia is to remove debris, waste products, and pathogens from nervous tissue. Microglia increase in number when there is an injury or infection of the tissue. Oligodendrocytes have processes that protrude from their body and coil around axons. Oligodendrocytes main purpose is to be an electrical insulator and help speed the conduction of nerve impulses. #2 The peripheral nervous system contains twelve pairs of cranial nerves and thirty-one pairs of spinal nerves. The peripheral nervous system transmits sensory and motor impulses to and from the central nervous system and other parts of the body. The peripheral nervous system (PNS) is made of nerves. According to Comprehensive medical Terminology 3rd Edition by Betty Davis Jones, “A nerve is a cord like bundle of nerve fibers that transmits impulses to and from the brain and spinal cords to other parts of the body. A nerve is macroscopic (i.e., able to be seen without the aid of a microscope). A ganglion is a knot like mass of nerve cell bodies located outside the CNS.” The peripheral nervous system also has afferent and efferent nerves. Afferent nerves are sensory nerves that carry impulses from the body to the central nervous system. Efferent nerves are motor nerves that carry impulses from the central nervous system to the muscles and glands. Efferent nerves make the organs respond to a command by completing an action. There are two smaller nervous systems within the PNS called the somatic nervous system and the autonomic nervous system. The main difference between the somatic and autonomic nervous system is that the somatic nervous system is under voluntary control of the skeletal muscle contractions and the autonomic nervous system operates under involuntary control of the smooth and cardiac muscle as well as glandular activities and secretions. #3 The two main components of the central nervous system are the spinal cord and the brain. There is a protective membrane that surrounds the contents of the central nervous system. The membrane is made up of connective tissue called meninges as well as cerebrospinal fluid. The meninges are made up of three layers of membranes. The first layer is the dura mater. The dura mater is a tough white connective tissue. The second layer of the meninges is the arachnoid membrane. The arachnoid membrane is a thin layer of strands that connect to the innermost layer of meninges. The third layer is the pia meter. The pia meter is bound tightly to the surface of the CNS contents. #4 The brain, one of the organs found in the central nervous system can be divided into four sections. The first section is the cerebrum. The cerebrum controls consciousness, memory, sensations, emotions, and voluntary movements. The second section is the cerebellum. The cerebellum maintains muscle tone and coordinates normal movement as balance. The third section of the brain is the diencephalon which contains the thalamus, and the hypothalamus. The thalamus receives sensory stimuli and relays them to the cerebral cortex. The hypothalamus activates, controls, and integrates the peripheral autonomic nervous system, processes, and some sensory functions like body temperature, sleep, and appetite. The fourth and final section of the brain is the brain stem. “The brain stem serves as a pathway for conduction of impulses between the brain and spinal cord. It controls such vital functions as respiration, blood pressure, and hear rate. (Davis Jones, 2008)” #5 There are many pathological conditions that one may come across. Following will be a list of the just a few along with a description and treatment options for each. Anencephaly is where a child is born without a brain and spinal cord. It is a congenital disorder. A child born with this disorder cannot live. Anencephaly can be detected during pregnancy by the use of amniocentesis or ultrasonography. Carpal Tunnel Syndrome is pain caused by pinching or compressing of the median nerve. Inflammation and swelling of the tendons is what causes the pinching or compression. The pain of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome is the worst during the night. The inflammation associated with Carpal Tunnel Syndrome is caused by repetitious overuse of the fingers, hands, or wrists. There is a treatment for Carpal Tunnel Syndrome which includes taking anti-inflammatory medication, applying splints, attending physical therapy, and stopping the overuse. If these actions do not fix the problem, surgery may be necessary to relieve the pressure. A cerebral contusion is a “bruise” of the brain tissue that appears when the brain strikes the inner skull. Cerebral contusions cause swelling of the brain. Symptoms consistent with a cerebral contusion are combativeness, increased intracranial pressure, and altered levels of consciousness. Treatments for cerebral contusions are close observation, hospitalization, maintain cerebral perfusion, and administer corticosteroids, and osmotic diuretics. A headache or cephalagia is another pathological condition. Cephalagia is chronic to acute pain in the cranial cavity. A headache may be the result of a disease or other condition, but may also be benign. Treatment for headaches includes taking a mild analgesic. Petit mal seizures are a type of seizure where there is a sudden short time of unconsciousness. Unconsciousness associated with petit mal seizures last only a few seconds. Signs of a petit mal seizure are blank facial expression or repeated blinking for a short time. Most people suffering from petit mal seizures are small children prior to puberty. Peripheral neuritis is inflammation of one or more peripheral nerves. Other disorders are associated with peripheral neuritis such as trigeminal neuritis, Bell’s palsy, and carpal tunnel syndrome. Each disorder produces unique symptoms and has different treatments. Neuroblastoma is a malignant tumor in the sympathetic nervous system. Neuroblastoma occurs in the adrenal medulla and usually spreads to the liver, lungs, lymph nodes, and bone. Parkinson’s disease is a slow deterioration of the nerves in the brain stem’s motor system. Signs and symptoms associated with Parkinson’s disease are stooped posture, bowed head, shuffling gait, expressionless face, muffled speech, and difficulty swallowing. Treatment for Parkinson’s disease is drug therapy, controlling the symptoms, and physical therapy. A surgical technique called a pallidotomy is sometimes used, but is not always successful. Shingles is a viral infection in adults who have had chicken pox. Shingles causes inflammation of the spinal or cranial nerve pathway. Symptoms commonly associated with shingles are server pain, fever, itching, GI disturbances, headache, general tiredness, and increased skin sensitivity. Treatment for shingles includes antiviral medications, analgesics, and corticosteroids. Spinal bifida cystic is a disorder in which the back part of one or more vertebrae is not normally closed. In this opening, cysts come through the fifth lumbar. There are tons of other pathological conditions a person may develop all of which have different symptoms, effects, and treatments. Two Main Types Of Cells In Nervous System Biology Essay
MN 504 PGU Conflict Resolution Strategies Management Principles Essay.

I’m working on a nursing presentation and need guidance to help me learn.

Purpose:Explore conflict management principles and professional integrity through review of healthcare personnel conflict management review.This conflict management assignment gives you the opportunity to review common conflict scenarios in clinical practice, and reflect on appropriate resolution strategies. This gives you a review of an evidence based approach to a training conflict management in healthcare settings.Critically access conflict management as it relates to team building in clinical practicePlease retrieve and read the following Journal article from the Library.Forbat, L., Simons, J., Sayer, C., Davies, M., Barclay, S (2017). Training pediatric healthcare staff in recognizing, understanding and managing conflict with patients and families: findings from a survey on immediate 6-month impact. Archives of Disease in Childhood, 102 (3): 250.Directions:Create 1 slide PowerPoint presentation slide addressing the following:Highlight how conflict resolution strategies were applied in the case study linking other reference;Reference a minimum of one academically credible sources in addition to the source provided;APA 7 format
MN 504 PGU Conflict Resolution Strategies Management Principles Essay

John James and Mary Ann Sainsbury established Sainsbury’s in 1869 which grew rapidly and become the largest grocery retailer in 1922 and also become the first self-service retailing in the UK and had its most successful time during the 1980s. Its Britain’s longest standing major food retailing chain. The founder’s principles and values guide us strongly today as they did at the outset – to be the customer’s first choice for food shopping by providing high quality products, value for money and excellent service. As a business we are determined to achieve our goal, which is: “At Sainsbury’s we will bring an ever improving quality shopping knowledge for our customers with great product at fair prices. We will exceed customer opportunity for healthy, safe, fresh and tasty food making their lives easier every day” (www.jsainsbury.co.uk ) This means we are firm on quality and customer happiness in a way that brings this to life in a present and very different world.To support us in achieving our goal we have six colleagues’ values and we have five company values which are the ways of working that we look forward to all colleagues and managers while working in Sainsbury’s to live by. The values are listed below: Sainsbury’s Colleague Values:- Getting better every day Great service drives sales Individual responsibility – team delivery Keep it simple Respect for the individual Treat every £ as your own Company Values: – Best for food and health Sourcing with integrity Respect for our environment Making a positive difference to our community A great place to work (www.jsainsbury.co.uk ) Size:- J Sainsbury Plc consists of a chain of 872 stores comprising in which 537 supermarkets and 335 convenience stores – and Sainsbury’s Bank. At present, Sainsbury’s serve over 19 million customers a week. The large store of Sainsbury’s offers around 30,000 products – 40% of these are Sainsbury’s own brand. Many stores offer complementary non-food products and services. Nearly 60% of our stores are in the town centre or edge of centre locations, many of these built on previously in ruins sites. We employ 150,000 colleagues of these, 70% are part-time and 30% are full time. It is the UK’s third largest grocery stores with 16% market share behind international behemoth Tesco (31% share) and ASDA (17%), which is owned by Wal-Mart. ( www.Hemscott.com ) An internet based delivery shopping service is also available to nearly 90 per cent of UK households. Structure:- In order to meet our customer’s needs the Sainsbury’s retail area is divided into different customer-led formats. This acknowledge the face that Sainsbury’s should be a customer led business and supports our strategy to delivering great service and quality at a competitive cost. There are 2 main format categories: Supermarkets:- These stores have a comprehensive full food offer with some having extended ranges of general merchandise. These make up the bulk of our estate. Convenience:- Sainsbury’s local – these stores are located within the high street, urban and suburban areas. They are specifically designed and operated to cater for the “grab and go”, meal solutions, top up, distress and convenience customer. These stores are typically the smallest in estate. SWOT Analysis: (S)trengths They may be innovative products, the way you serve your customer or highly skilled colleagues. World largest retailer for Fair-trade goods by value. Strong reputation, brand name and high consistency Sainsbury’s won more Quality Food Awards than any other retailer this year including seven wins from 15 categories for Value products. ( www.investegate.co.uk ) Sainsbury own manufacture brand TU is one of the top 10 clothing brand in UK. (W)eaknesses Average return on invested capital over the past five years was just 5%. None of the Sainsbury’s is 24hours. Sainsbury’s is only covering just UK market and not going global like their rivals Tesco and Asda (O)pportunity Expanding focus on non-food assistance such as outfits, electronics and home products. UK is a tough market for new store development -controlled by space and planning permission Sainsbury’s has strong visibility on its’ store pipeline allowing greater security for growth. ( www.Hemscott.com ) Olympics 2012 and Commonwealth 2014 at Glasgow which will be the forth coming opportunities for Sainsbury. The ownership of property assets provides operational flexibility and the exploitation of potential development opportunity will maximise value. (www.investegate.co.uk ) (T)hreats Grocery retailing is a highly competitive industry. For years, Sainsbury’s struggled to compete with the major players in the industry. Fierce completion with Tesco and ASDA to keep/increase market share. At present, Sainsbury’s is the UK’s third largest grocer with 16% market share behind international behemoth Tesco (31% share) and ASDA (17%), which is owned by Wal-Mart. (www.Hemscott.com ). Deep recession has prompted consumers to be price sensitive During fiscal 2010, Sainsbury’s opened 38 new stores, extended and refurbished 54 stores. Increased capacity growth in 2010 could put additional pressure on prices and completion. ( www.Hemscott.com ) (P)olitical Impact: Since Sainsbury’s started providing banking services any government changes would reflect the change in taxation policies. Sainsbury recognised as the world’s largest fair-trade retailer more than 7.5 million people- farmers, workers, and their families, across 59 developing countries – benefit from the international fair-trade system. (E)conomic Environment: Sainsbury have an ambitious new stores development programs for 2010 which will provide lots of job opportunities also new opportunities for the local businesses which will make significant contribution to UK economy. Trainee partnership scheme works in conjunction with 60 of Sainsbury stock construction , engineering , facilities management and retail suppliers to provide training and employment

NCU Social Workers & Legal Justices System Interprofessional Collaboration Paper

NCU Social Workers & Legal Justices System Interprofessional Collaboration Paper.

Instructions
Based on the topic you selected in Week 1, prepare a paper that identifies two legal or justice system professionals you learned about this week that you might form an IC with to serve your clients. Be sure to address the following in your response:

Explain what values or codes inform their conduct. (Hint: Search the Internet to determine if these professions have a code of conduct similar to the NASW Code of Ethics.)
Assess their perspective on the problem and determine how their perspective might be similar to or different from that of a social worker.
Explore the situations when you might come into contact with them or work collaboratively with them.
Analyze any potential areas of conflict, or opposing perspectives, and where the conflicts stem from. Explain how you would overcome these possibly opposing perspectives?
Confirm how you will use your social work knowledge, values, and skills to work effectively with them to deliver effective services for your clients. Provide examples to support your thoughts.

NCU Social Workers & Legal Justices System Interprofessional Collaboration Paper

Finance ( 1 page )

help me with my homework Finance ( 1 page ). I’m working on a Business exercise and need support.

The textbook mentions the agency problem wherein managers do not act in the best interest of their principals. Discuss what the agency problem means for firms in Saudi Arabia, especially in the context of Saudi Vision 2030, and whether you have experienced any examples of the agency problem.
Search the Internet for an academic or industry-related article regarding this thesis, as well as its implications for Saudi Arabia and Saudi Vision 2030.
For your discussion post, your first step is to summarize the article in two paragraphs, describing what you think are the most important points made by the authors (remember to use citations where appropriate). For the second step, include the reference listing with a hyperlink to the article. Do not copy the article into your post and limit your summary to two paragraphs. Let your instructor know if you have any questions and enjoy your search.

Finance ( 1 page )

ENC 1101 University of Central Florida Writing Process and Writing Skills Essay

ENC 1101 University of Central Florida Writing Process and Writing Skills Essay.

This prompt asks you to contemplate how you compose in terms of the hinderances and helpful strategies you have learned and developed over your writing career. Targeted Learning OutcomesOutcome 1: Students will be able to read and use scholarly texts to support their writing goals.Outcome 2: Students will be able to describe and analyze writing processes in order to flexibly adapt them to support their goals.Outcome 3: Students will learn how to adapt to different writing contexts they need to address.Outcome 4: Students will consider how social, rhetorical, and technological contexts shape writing conceptions, processes, rules, and learning.AssignmentRead the PDF of Anne La Mott’s “Shitty First Drafts”. Consider how she discusses the writing process. Using her text as a frame, reflect on what you know allows you to be successful in the writing process and what challenges your ability to compose. How might you move forward with strategies to help you as a writer in the future? Do not make grandiose claims about idealistic future plans. Instead think of this as a place to realistically formulate processes and solutions that make good habits stronger and overcome current obstacles. As this is a short paper, be specific and to the point. You may use an additional text to support your strategies on how to overcome challenges if desired. SubmissionTwo full pages minimum, two and 1/2 pages maximum.12 point font, Times New Roman, double spaced.Heading, running header, title, and Works Cited.MLA formatting throughout.
ENC 1101 University of Central Florida Writing Process and Writing Skills Essay

Miami Regional University Cultural Health Promotion Project Presentation

Miami Regional University Cultural Health Promotion Project Presentation.

First assessment of Latin as a cultural group of study or assessment following all steps. Then based on results of assessment design a Cultural Health Promotion Plan following or developing points 9, 10 and 11 (see attached files) and for strategies go to www. Healthy people.govThis paper has only 10 pages counting the title and references page. Apa 6 edition , font 12, double space. This paper we should take it to power point too. We are 8 in the group. 2 per each one. One for title and one for references. References, he did not specified but I would use 5 updated from the last 5 years y text book
Miami Regional University Cultural Health Promotion Project Presentation

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