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Cuyamaca College Role of Education in Economic Development Essay

Cuyamaca College Role of Education in Economic Development Essay.

In addition to the reading seminar, each person enrolled in the course will also
research one topic in depth, beyond assigned readings, and prepare a short research paper
addressing one key issue/topic of interest in the social context of education. Topics will be
selected by Module 8 via written proposal, and papers will be due at our final online class
meeting at the time of presentation. Each student will make an oral Screencast presentation of
her/his paper, discussing central questions, key findings, and helpful sources (5-7 minutes).
• Papers should be approximately six to eight pages in length, double spaced.
That is approximately 1600 to 2000 words, not including references.
• You should reference at least one book and a minimum of four articles from sources
outside of required course materials, and include a total of at least 6 references. Use
of primary source materials is also encouraged.
• Papers should be typed, double spaced, APA, Chicago, or MLA style
• Papers will be submitted electronically (posted via Blackboard).
• All material must be the student’s original work. • Papers and presentations will also include a one-page handout summarizing the
research project and central findings. Include the one-page summary with your paper
submission, placing it at the front of the paper. Who Rules America_ Wealth, Income, and Power (
Cuyamaca College Role of Education in Economic Development Essay

Today, it is well documented that there are many factors that could potentially harm or negatively influence the development of an unborn child during the prenatal period (1). These risk factors include a mother’s age and her nutrition during pregnancy; if there was drug, alcohol, or cigarette use or abuse; as well, potential maternal diseases, such as AIDS or rubella, and environmental hazards, including water, food, and air pollution (Kail). These risk factors are often referred to as teratogens, which are defined as any agent that causes there to be a disruption to normal prenatal development (Kail). There is much evidence to suggest that there may be consequences to prenatal development from exposure and overexposure to teratogens (Kail?). Known deleterious effects from teratogens include an infant being born with low birth weight and prematurely; retarded growth and cognitive delay; as well as, impaired motor control, memory and verbal skills (Kail). However, there is little research on the possible adverse effects maternal psychological conditions and stress may have on an unborn child (1). Therefore, this paper will examine the existing research and literature surrounding the topic of maternal stress during pregnancy. **More specifically, this paper will define stress and discuss the human body’s biological reaction to stress, then it will outline the possible impact maternal stress may have on both prenatal and postnatal development, as well it will provide suggestions for reducing stress and promoting healthy prenatal development. Stress, for the purpose of this paper, will be defined as any challenge, either physical or psychological, that has the ability to threaten the internal homeostasis of an organism (2 little 3). What an individual may experience to be as a stressor may vary (1). A stressor could range from a traumatic life event, such as a death or divorce, to simple daily hassles, such as financial problems and relationship woes (1). Although the amount of stress response differs across individuals, the body’s biological reaction to stress is the same (1). Mulder et al. (2002) describe that when an individual is exposed to a stressor, the individual’s entire stress regulation system is activated; this means that numerous hormones are released into the blood in large amounts, which then reach the developing fetus (1). In one study, observations were taken of fetal behavior using an ultrasound (1). Fetal activity was monitored in two groups of mothers: one low anxiety, one high anxiety (1). It was noted that neonatal activity was much higher for fetuses of high anxiety mothers (1). Therefore, it is evident that maternal stress is linked to increased fetal activity within the womb (*). Because of critical periods that exist during prenatal development, it is essential to examine the impact maternal stress may have on both prenatal and postnatal development. Mulder (2002) et al. note that although previous stress and prenatal research took place using and observing animals, recent evidence from well-conducted studies suggests that a direct relationship exists between maternal stress and certain pregnancy complications. There is evidence to suggest that high stress levels during pregnancy can lead to numerous pregnancy and birth complications such as miscarriage, low birth weight, pre-eclampsia, and preterm delivery (3). In regards to low birth weight, according to (1 little 25), the impact of maternal stress is similar to the magnitude of impact that smoking can have on a developing fetus. ** In addition to labour and birth complications that can arise due to maternal stress during pregnancy, the exposure to maternal stress prenatally may also contribute to lasting impacts on the infant’s health status, immune system, and neurocognitive development (2). As well, infants of women exposed to high levels of stress appear to be at risk for particular neurological and psychiatric disorders, including cerebral palsy and schizophrenia, and mental disorders affecting social, behavioural, and emotional development (4). King and Laplante (kail) performed a longitudinal study examining maternal stress during prenatal development and infant’s later development and ability. The participants were selected based on their location in Quebec, which had been exposed to an ice storm (Kail). The researchers found that the women in the study experienced a number of stressors because of the ice storm, including a loss of electricity, a loss of or damage to shelter, physical injury, and fear and anxiety over the safety of others (Kail). The participants were contacted a total of seven times between June 1998 and the child’s sixth birthday (Kail). King and Laplante noted that moderate to high maternal exposure to stress is associated with infant cognitive, language, and play deficits at age two (Kail). It is evidenet that research exists that outlines the potential negative impact that maternal stress can have on an infant during prenatal development. In more recent years, efforts have been made to help reduce the amount of stress that a pregnant woman may have to cope with (1). The rationale behind reducing maternal stress is that “healthy mothers are more likely to have healthy pregnancies and deliver healthy babies” (McCain and Mustard, 1999). According to McCain, Mustard, and Shanker (2007) all levels of the Canadian government are beginning to invest in a variety of services, campaigns, and programs to help promote and assist women is having a healthy pregnancy, birth, and later child development. Some specific efforts to help reduce a pregnant woman’s stress include telephone calls or visits from a social worker, providing information regarding healthy pregnancy, and help to optimize support from other social environments (1). Moreover, Ruiz and Avant (2005) acknowledge the need for medical professionals to be aware of the potential adverse affects maternal stress can have on a growing child. For example, nurses should prescreen pregnant patients for excessive levels of stress (2). Although there are few reliable measures for determining prenatal stress, nurses are encouraged to ask questions and establish a good rapport with the patient in order to assess stress levels (2). Although little research exists on the topic of prenatal stress and later birth and infant development complications, there is enough evidence to suggest a link between maternal stress and prenatal development (2). Stress during pregnancy as a teratogen is a subject that is recently gaining more attention (2). Research exists that has noted the potential for birth and labour complications arising from maternal stress as well as the possibility of language, cognitive, and behavioural deficits in later years (1). More recently, research has shifted to focus on efforts to reduce or minimize stressors for women during pregnancy (2). **Researchers are advocating for the need for further research to be completed so that evidence based interventions for stress can be developed (2). Overall, research suggests that maternal stress does have an impact on the developing fetus and development in later years.
Introduction NTUC Income was founded in 1970. NTUC Income is the only insurance co-operative in Singapore. It was established to make essential insurance accessible to all Singaporeans, they are now a leader in life, health and general insurance. On June 1, 2003, Income succeeded in the migration of its information systems and business processes to a digital web based system. Following the major IT Investments, the Orange Revolution was launched in late 2011, targeting existing and potential customers. Orange aims to make insurance at NTUC Income “simple, honest and different” and to change practices in the insurance industry by “doing things differently”. Case Study Questions What types of Information Systems and business processes were used by NTUC Income before migrating to the new digital systems? What were the problems associated with the old systems? NTUC Income used the HP3000 mainframe that hosted their core insurance applications together with their accounting and management information systems. The system was unreliable and frequently broke down. NTUC Income’s in-house IT team maintained decades old COBOL programs which also regularly broke down causing disruptions. The business processes used by NTUC was a paper based system as outlined in the following diagram; Problems associated with the old systems; Income’s insurance processes had become very tedious and entirely paper based. The collection schedule of completed applications could introduce delays in processing documents of two to three days. Increased delays could cause financial and reputational damage to the business. All original documents were sent to warehouses for storage. In all, paper policies comprising 45 million documents were stored in over 16000 cartons at three warehouses. The storage system used by NTUC Income would have resulted in high financial costs in logging and storing the documents. Also, NTUC Income would have needed to invest heavily in the security of their warehouses to ensure customer information was properly protected. Retrieval of documents took two days and refiling a further two days. This was a slow process and not an efficient service for customers. HP3000 mainframe was unreliable and frequently broke down. COBOL programs regularly broke down causing disruptions. NTUC Income’s in-house IT team found it cumbersome to develop products in COBOL which extended new product launch times. Transaction processing for policy underwriting was still a batch process and information was not available in real time. When staff processed a new customer application for motor insurance, they did not know if the applicant was an existing customer and cross sale product opportunities were lost. Various departments did not have up-to-date information and had to pass physical documents among each other. Describe the digital systems capabilities at NTUC Income after migrating to the new system. How did the systems resolve their problems? In 2003 NTUC Income switched to a Java-based eBao Lifesystem from EBao Technology. As part of the eBao implementation, Income decided to replace its entire IT infrastructure with a more robust, scalable architecture. Examples include the following; Scanners for all servicing branches Monitors changed to 20 inches PC RAM size was upgraded to 128MB New hardware and software for application servers, database servers and web servers Disk storage systems were installed LAN cables were replaced with faster cables, a fiber-optic backbone and wireless capability Capability Problems Resolved eBao system integrated imaging and workflow technology. 500 office staff and 3400 advisors could access system anytime, anywhere. System provided single customer view of each customer across products and channels. Facilitated cross selling and improved customer service. All applications resided on two or more servers, each connected by two or more communication lines, all of which were “load balanced”. This minimised downtime. A Real time hot backup disaster recovery centre was implemented where machines were always running and fully operational. In the event of datacentre site becoming unavailable, operations could switch to disaster recovery site. Under new paperless system, all documents were scanned and stored on trusted storage devices. Secure and reliable and enabled strict compliance with stringent statutory requirements. NTUC’s life and general insurance operations now ran on one integrated platform. Provide efficient workflow, high flexibility and customer centric view. Time to process applications was cut in half (Kang). Imaging and barcode technology. Speed and accuracy of locating data and less errors. Product definition module. Supports new products and speeds up product launches. Speculate on how the new digital systems provided a basis for the “Orange” strategy. Could Orange have been possible with the old systems? Explain. The Orange Revolution was launched in late 2011 with the aim of making insurance at NTUC Income “simple, honest and different” and to identify and resolve major issues customers experience when dealing with insurance firms. The methods used to implement the “Orange” strategy include; Orange Force – fleet of motorcycles which can arrive at a traffic accident within 20 minutes and can help with first aid, help fill out insurance forms and offer advice on the scene. Orange Eye – Uses in car cameras to record and help combat fraud. Orange Speak – Fair and easy to understand terminology in insurance policies Orange Settle – A quicker and fairer way of settling claims Orange First – Transformation of the distribution channel for selling policies Orange Prime – Creation of a new sales force. The new digital systems enabled greater efficiencies and in turn enhanced customer service and provided a platform for the Orange strategy. The new systems provided the backdrop which enabled the Orange strategy to be implemented. The digital systems were immediately operational on a high availability platform. The robust architecture minimised downtime occurrence due to hardware or operating system failures. NTUC could now operate the Orange Strategy with the confidence that the new digital systems provided. The move to a paperless system cut the time and cost needed to process policies by 50%. The functionality of the new digital systems meant that staff could access information quicker as the system provided a single view of each customer. As a result, about 500 office staff and 3400 insurance advisers could access the system anytime, anywhere. The new digital systems facilitated improved customer service and cross-selling opportunities because of quicker end to end processing. Also, the new systems by providing efficient straight through processing workflow and a customer-centric view, provided a platform for the Orange strategy which involved becoming more customer focused. The “Orange” strategy would not have been possible with the old systems. The strategy is effectively based on honesty and trust and delivering first class customer service which requires quick, reliable and accurate data in real time. The old HP 3000 system took 7 -10 days to put a new policy in place. This would not suffice as good customer service and could not support the “Orange” strategy. In relation to the “Orange Force” stage in the Orange programme roll-out, an important factor is the requirement for real time information. Digital images, voice recordings and up to date information could not have happened with the old system. The new systems integrated imaging and paperless workflow technology. As a result, all office staff and insurance advisors could access the system anytime, anywhere. This was key technology for the new strategy as this information is required instantly e.g. “Orange Force” call out. The old systems had frequent failures, breakdowns and outages. This would absolutely ground the new strategy as “Orange Force” requires up to the minute data to locate and assist breakdowns. The old systems were too unreliable, a long-term breakdown would be catastrophic. The new systems provided a single view of each customer. This gave NTUC Income a better insight into the customer and facilitated cross selling and improved customer service. This was not possible with the old systems. In conclusion, the Orange Strategy would have been guaranteed to fail with the old systems which could not provide the functionality, security or reliability required to implement the Orange strategy. The new digital systems provided many new capabilities which facilitated the successful implementation of the Orange Strategy. Set out three important lessons for Irish retail banking which can be drawn from the NTUC Case Study. What are the implications of these lessons for your bank? Three important lessons for Irish retail banking which can be drawn from the NTUC case study are the following; Investment in IT Irish retail banking must continue to invest heavily in IT to ensure that customer data is accurate, secure and always available. Customers want new services based upon 21st century technologies. Technology helps banks to service their customers through their various banking channels. NTUC Income’s investment in technology represents their commitment to identify and resolve major issues customers experience when dealing with insurance firms. Ulster Bank was fined €3.5m by the Central Bank for disruption to its technologies when IT failures affected 600,000 customers in the summer of 2012. The financial authority also reprimanded the bank over the issue and said it had failed to have adequate governance and control measures to deal with problems within its technology systems. The IT issues occurred over a month-long period between June and July 2012 and affected customers’ ATM withdrawals, card purchases and the processing of payments including salaries. The Central Bank said that financial firms were required to maintain robust governance arrangements and appropriate controls across all of their systems, including IT. The Central Bank said the fine reflected the seriousness with which it viewed the failings of Ulster Bank and its determination to ensure that customers have access to core banking services without disruption. This case demonstrates the importance of the requirement for continuous investment in technology and system upgrades as the consequences are outages, failures, negative publicity and ultimately a loss of business and reduction in profits. Importance of the customer and culture Branches and traditional products and services still are desired by many customers but people want more than this and financial institutions are trying to improve the customer experience and deliver the products and services demanded by digital consumers. Banks can now interact with customers through a variety of channels e.g. call centres, retail branches, online channels, apps, which are all enabled by a digital service infrastructure. NTUC Income’s culture had to be altered slightly so that their organisation could become more active, energetic and contemporary, essential attributes for cooperatives to compete and succeed. This shift in culture made NTUC Income more innovative, they listened and engaged with their customers and responded to their feedback. The importance of responding to customers concerns and needs should be prioritised by Irish retail banking and banks need to be prepared to adjust their culture accordingly. Ulster Bank is in the process of attempting to transform the bank because of customer changing requirements. Ulster Bank recently announced it is to close 22 of its branches across the country. Ulster Bank stated that the announcement follows a customer shift away from traditional in-branch banking towards digital channels. Last year 62% of Ulster Bank’s customer interactions were digital, compared with 10% in branches. This case demonstrates Ulster Bank’s commitment to respond to their customers changing needs. Innovation There is a requirement for Irish retail banking to be innovative and keep up to date with customer needs, technology and changing environments. The relationship between Irish retail banking and consumers is rapidly changing, with interactions increasingly occurring on mobile devices, in real time with contextual benefits. In 2013, 968 million smartphones were sold globally. Digital banking trends cannot be ignored by Irish retail banking and need to be central to Irish retail banking strategy as we approach 2020. Ulster Bank like NTUC Income with its Orange Force strategy must continue to meet customers ever changing needs with innovative new ideas. In this regard, Ulster Bank have recently demonstrated that customer-centric innovation is important to the bank, when they announced their partnership with Apple in bringing mobile payments to the everyday lives of Irish people. Apple Pay will make mobile payments easier for Ulster Bank customers. They will be able to pay for goods and services anywhere contactless payments are accepted, using their iPhone or Apple Watch. Like NTUC Income, Ulster Bank is responding to their customers changing needs and putting “people before profits”. Conclusion NTUC Income changed its culture from the top down. NTUC Income put their entire business on the line in changing their business systems and processes. They moved from systems with many limitations to implementing new technologies. It was a change which proved very successful. It allowed NTUC Income to go back to basics, putting their customers first, caring for customers, understanding their needs and responding to those needs. They instilled this culture whereby they placed “people before profits” throughout the organisation which lead to them gaining customers trust and increasing profitability. Bibliography Laudon, Kenneth C., and Jane P. Laudon. “Management Information Systems: Managing the Digital Firm” (Fourteenth Edition) Reference to Course Notes (Workshop 1), 1st March 2017

Group Decision-Making and Related Challenges Essay

The difference of opinions and various cultural backgrounds of individuals can often act as barriers to an effective decision-making process. Collaborative decision-making can be called a process that is inextricably connected with a wide range of potential challenges as it involves bringing various opinions into accordance to get positive results. When it comes to problems associated with the process of group decision-making, it is important to pay close attention to the situation of decision-makers and their knowledge levels. Three readings chosen for the paper refer to various problems in group decision-making. In their research, Yang, Du, Wang, and Liang (2017) discuss problems that occur when group members evaluate potential final decisions and do not use the same criteria to guide their choices. As for my experience, I find myself in similar situations in everyday life; for instance, choosing a place to go to with friends often presents a difficult task as some of my friends are unable to agree on clear evaluation criteria beforehand. Other important problems that I am familiar with include a number of people in a group and a lack of demonstrability caused by the presence of unresolved conflicts between decision-makers. There are two extremities when it comes to forming a group of an appropriate size. Due to limitations caused by people’s personal experience and knowledge, small groups are at risk of missing important aspects when making their decisions. A reverse trend exists in groups that include too many individuals – it can be difficult for large groups to compartmentalize evaluation criteria based on their significance. Ideas and recommendations helping to reduce the mentioned struggles include determining the most appropriate group size based on the complexity of problems to be solved. According to modern researchers who have found the link between the complexity of tasks, group size, and performance, larger groups are less likely to be effective when solving complex tasks (Amir, O., Amir, D., Shahar, Hart,

What does the breakdown of ATP produce? Biology homework help

order essay cheap What does the breakdown of ATP produce? Biology homework help.

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What does the breakdown of ATP produce? Biology homework help

JUS 337 Northern Arizona University The Emergence of Classical Schools Discussion

JUS 337 Northern Arizona University The Emergence of Classical Schools Discussion.

Discuss the issues listed below:1. Our course textbook on page 375 discusses the topic of “enlightenment” and the belief of dignity and worth of all individuals. Is that where are are today?2. Do we feel empathy for those whom we view as being like us?3. How are we doing today with the goal of rehabilitation, allegedly ushered in thanks to the Great Depression?Cite your sources. For the discussion board, you do not have to write in a “formal” manner, but you do need to use proper spelling, grammar, and punctuation. This ensures your classmates can discern the content of your posting.Minuimum of 200 words.
JUS 337 Northern Arizona University The Emergence of Classical Schools Discussion

Hilton Hotel Hr Issues In Pakistan Business Essay

Due to globalization and the technological changes human resources is shaped by many factors. The human resource management is the need of the hour because of its special attention to communication, motivation and leadership values. This helps in building trust and faith between the employee and the organization. Today, Human resource management is going through significant changes due to development in technology, change in demographics, globalization and changing work dynamics especially in hospitality industry. The aim of the human resource management is to retain the talented workforce, especially the ones who are committed towards the organization’s goal and development. So, to be successful we need to alter the human resource strategy in such a way that it benefits both the organization as well as the employees. As a result of the changing market scenario, companies are laying special focus on the human resource planning so as to remain competitive. In case of Hilton Hotel, a change in their existing internal and external structure can help in achieving the management goals. The personnel planning, plays a very important role as they are the ones on whom the success of the organization depends. To generate results, the employees undergo training and development which further motivates them to perform better. Improvement in performance will definitely bolster the image of your organization. Problem solving is the best means to maintain long lasting relations with the other team members. If the problems of the employees are dealt with properly then it can improve the employee’s efficiency towards work and generate better productivity and revenues. Background The hotel is situated in the midst of the city of Pakistan, is a five star business hotel. The hotel serves for business purpose during the week days and weekends. The hotel has great ambience, green lush gardens, and huge swimming pool and pool side restaurants. It is not far off from the International hotel so majority of people book their stay here. This place is in a business district so that people who come for business purpose should plan their stay here. The hotel is made up using the latest technology and the designs. The infrastructure The hotel has 150 suites Two line telephones in all rooms Internet access TV cable facility in all TVs Business conference hall Laundry Club Swimming Pool 24 hour room dining Restaurants 2.0 Principle of HR Planning Due to the increasing competition in the business environment a lot of changes are taking place and has called for a change in both the internal and external face of the organization. To become more competitive, the organizations are changing the way they allocate duties and responsibilities, thereby brining a change in the internal structure of the organization. Some of these problems of flexibility, team work, service agreements, performance etc were faced by the managers of well known brand of Hilton Hotel. Human resource planning should be done in a proper and organized way based on principles and actions so as to give the desired results. According to me, the Hilton hotel should be divided from the hierarchical level of organization to a semi autonomous one, in which individual units will be responsible for performance in their area of work. I am sure this will definitely produce good results to meet the customer satisfaction and better employee management relations. The first and foremost role of human resource planning is personnel planning. This is an integral part of any human resource planning; this involves deciding on the positions that are vacant and to be filled up in future. They predict all the positions from a clerk to management level. This happens when the organization plans to diversify its business or start with a new stream of business. Hilton hotel which operates as both for vacation and trade purpose has a good name and fame. To fill the vacancies the HR department has to keep three things in mind: 1. Forecast Personnel needs 2. Internal supply of candidates and 3. External candidates 2.1 Forecast the need To begin with the personnel planning of this new branch we would do the need analysis of the various offices in the hotel. They are: Human Resource Office – At the top we will have the human resource manager who will be responsible for taking the key decision of the organization. He will be assisted by the assistant manager who will take care of the major dealing and will have a secretary under him. We will also have an officer responsible for recruitment at initial phase. The HRM will also have a personal officer lead by personal supervisor. Finance Department (8 staff) – the finance department looks after the credit, audit related activities of the organization. At the top we would have a chief accountant who is the head of the department. Under him will come three heads, Credit officer, account’s officer and system coordinator. The credit office and the account’s officer will have credit supervisor and internal auditor respectively. These two will have assistants under them for help and to assist them in their work Marketing Manager – marketing officers, communication specialist and marketing executives. Food