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cultural diversity

cultural diversity.

For this written assessment we will focus on generational diversity in the nursing population. Review table 12.2 on p. 379 of your textbook and address the following:Define and describe the four generations (veterans, baby boomers, generation x, and millennials) – name, timeframe, and a description of that group’s characteristics.Choose the group to which you belong. Explain how you think that you fit with this assessment of that generation. (I am apart of the millennial group, born 1990)Select any other group to which you do not belong. Explain how those from your group can learn from that group, and explain how that group could learn from Transcultural concepts in nursing care, Andrews & Boyle, 7th ed. minimum 600words, APA format, must have introduction and conclusion. Minimum of four (4) total references: two (2) references from required course materials and two (2) peer-reviewed references. All references must be no older than five years (unless making a specific point using a seminal piece of information)Peer-reviewed references include references from professional data bases such as PubMed or CINHAL applicable to population and practice area, along with evidence based clinical practice guidelines. Examples of unacceptable references are Wikipedia, UpToDate, Epocrates, Medscape, WebMD, hospital organizations, insurance recommendations, & secondary clinical databases.
cultural diversity

Table of Contents Introduction The concept of marriage Implications Early marriage Contributing factors Ethical perspective of early marriage Conclusion Bibliography Footnotes Introduction Early marriages entail marriages involving adolescents between the ages of thirteen years and nineteen years. Over the years, the subject of early marriage has sparked controversy among various outfits in the international community including the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF). The main source of concern for most people involves the ethicality of the concept especially in consideration of the possible disadvantages that marriage presents to teenagers including lack of proper gradual transition into adulthood, financial impact of marriage on teenagers, and loss of opportunities for better lives. However, such schools of thought ignore the society’s involvement in the process and overlook the positive possibilities that early marriage presents for teenagers. This paper seeks to explain how early marriages comply with the society’s code of ethics by presenting different perspectives from those to which most people subscribe. The paper explores the concept of marriage, its implications, the ethical perspective of early marriage, and some of the reasons why the concept should subsist until it dies a natural death. The concept of marriage Marriage is a social concept that bears legal implications upon the parties that choose become participants. Traditionally, marriage involved the legal union of a man and a woman of sound mind and above the age of a minority. However, the elements of gender and age have changed over the years. Recent transformations in the social order in most societies have made it possible for people to conduct marriage at younger ages than the conventional prescriptive age. Some societies have also embraced the concept of the same sex marriages in which individuals of the same sex can legally contract marriage agreements that allow for enforcement of the same worldwide. Implications Marriage has implications that generally fall into three categories, viz. legal, social, and religious. One of the legal implications that marriage has involves property ownership and distribution for the married parties. In the United States, division of matrimonial property takes the form of a fifty-fifty percentage share between the marriage partners at the time of the dissolution of their marriage, which means that the law perceives marriage partners as equal contributors to the attainment and maintenance of property regardless of the purchaser of such property. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Additionally, partners in a marriage share legal responsibilities especially with regard to debts and maintenance of their children where applicable. This aspect means that both partners have to monitor and take care of each other’s activities to ensure their conformity with state laws since they both stand to lose if one of them makes irresponsible mistakes. One of the social implications of marriage is that it binds two individuals’ lives together including their social lives. Usually, each individual has a separate social life consisting of interactive behavior peculiar to that specific individual. For instance, some people thrive in crowds while others prefer seclusion. Marriage interferes with this dynamic by creating a social atmosphere that requires the married partners to adapt and thrive in each other’s choice of social interactions. Secondly, the institution of marriage creates a responsibility for the couple to reproduce. Reproduction forms the consummation bit of marriage and in most societies it forms one of the essential reasons that people engage in marital affairs. In most societies, marriage is an aspect that elevates the status of the concerned individuals. Married couples serve as role models to the younger generations as a road map for responsible social behavior and appropriate interaction between males and females, especially with regard to sexual interactions. Marriage also defines the gender roles in society by prescribing what society expects of men and women alike. For instance, men typically play the role of protectors for women in society, which emanates from their roles as individuals within marriages. Society also requires men to provide for women in their lives and consequently the women in the entire society. On the other hand, women are generally responsible for raising the young members of society through raising their families. Such a responsibility involves imparting moral virtues into children from infancy and guiding them through to adulthood. Lawrence Kohlberg forms part of the group of scholars that prescribe to this notion through their establishment of the moral development theory. The theory suggests that children take on the moral beliefs of their parents as well as members of society they hold in high regard.[1] Lastly, marriage requires people to work as partners in decision-making. Decisions depend on personal perceptions of situations and environments. However, marriage introduces a new element to the decision making process, which is the life of another individual. Decisions that a person make can affect the life of the other. For this reason, married people consider the way that their decisions affect the lives of others around them. We will write a custom Term Paper on The ethicality of early marriages in the American society specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In most societies, marriage is also a religious institution. Although most cultures require the legal formalization of marriages, they also consider them religious unions for which they perform ceremonies marking their initialization. Different cultures celebrate wedding ceremonies in different ways, but the ultimate denominator in all of them is the sacred nature with which they hold the marriage institution. Some societies consider reproduction outside marriage as a taboo, and thus encouraging marriage as a way of erasing the ‘shame’. Since religion forms an integral part of the society’s practices, the practice of marriage as an escape makes it part of society’s practices too. Early marriage Early marriage involves the union between two individuals below the legal age of majority, which is usually between thirteen and fifteen years in most societies. In most cases, marriage is a preserve for adults. However, most communities do not have specific ages at which society considers its members adults. In order to ensure uniformity, the legal institutions in different societies establish a standard age to represent the age of majority at which members of society consider younger members as adults. Setting a definite age of majority is important because it sets the boundary beyond which young adults can conduct their activities legally including property ownership and marriage. For instance, in China, the age of majority is twenty-two years, while in the United States the acceptable universal age is eighteen years for all states except Nebraska, which prescribes to nineteen-years. Contributing factors There are numerous reasons for which teenagers choose to get into marriage with the most common one being early pregnancy. Research indicates that although the rate at which teenagers get pregnant has dropped over the centuries, over three hundred thousand teenagers in the United States between the ages of fifteen and nineteen got pregnant in 2012.[2] Traditionally, the American society favored marriage for teenagers going through early pregnancy to save them from shame and stigma. Most Americans consider teenage mothers as irresponsible persons with poor judgment, hence the stigma. Although times have changed and teenagers feel more independent now than they did in the nineteenth century, society still frowns upon teenage pregnancy, thus creating the need for teenage mothers to marry at a young age to avoid the stigma. The second reason why teenagers choose to engage in marriage is love. Ideally, love is a concept that society believes should be the main reason why individuals choose to marry. However, love is subjective and it means different things to different people, which explains why love is a complex concept to explain. For instance, most people use the presence of affection as an indicator of love, but due to the ambiguity of gestures that constitute affection, it is always difficult to distinguish between genuine and fake affection. The complexity, ambiguity, and lack of objectivity of love as a concept is one of the principle reasons why the American society deems it necessary to make requirements for parental consent for teenagers under the age of majority. Teenagers tend to act out of impulse in their journey to self-discovery, thus clouding their judgment regarding what is essential in their lives as they grow into adulthood. Not sure if you can write a paper on The ethicality of early marriages in the American society by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Another reason why teenagers yearn to engage in marriage is their religious beliefs. Religious institutions are some of the avenues through which teenagers learn about their roles in society as well as what constitutes ethical behavior. The more religious institutions teach on the importance and benefits of marriage, the more young members of society who prescribe to such institutions feel the need to conform in order to gain acceptance. However, in doing so, teenagers usually overlook various other factors such as their responsibility to themselves as children and responsibilities that follow marriage. As mentioned earlier, teenage in a phase in which self-discovery is crucial, usually through trial and error. Although some decisions that teenagers make only have temporary effects on their lives, others, such as marriage, are more permanent, thus creating the necessity for society to shield its children from such effects. In the US, the law requires parental consent or consent of a legal guardian for marriage between teenagers below the age of eighteen years, usually coupled with a court order. In some cases, the law also prescribes counseling sessions to aid in the transition and inform the young adults of their responsibilities, especially when early pregnancies are involved. Security is the third reason why some teenagers choose marriage as one of their life choices. The two forms of security that are common in these cases are physical security and financial security. Physical security usually applies in instances where teenagers live on their own or desire better companionship than they currently have with their families or guardians. Such teenagers use marriage as a solution for their vulnerability as it provides them with a permanent guardian of their choice. Such a move works sometimes albeit not always. Financial security involves the provision of all the monetary requirements that an individual deems essential for survival and comfort among other needs. In most cases, teenagers who choose to marry other teenagers for financial stability consider the family background of the individual in question. Some teenagers even resort to pregnancy as a means of attaining such security from male counterparts with substantial wealth. Although family and peer pressure are not common reasons for early marriages in the present American society, they are still viable reasons why teenagers choose to marry at an early age. As noted earlier, teenagers have the tendency of making decisions on a whim without thinking the consequences through. As a result, it is possible to find teenagers venturing into marriage just to ‘fit in’ without analyzing the outcome of their actions. Research shows that unlike marriages that existed between teenage couples in the eighteenth and nineteenth century, teenage couples that marry presently experience higher chances of divorce[3]. Marriages founded on peer pressure lack substantive reason to make them last, thus forming part of the reason divorces among teenage marriages are high. Culture forms yet another reason why teenagers resort to marriage at such tender ages. The United States is one of the most culturally diverse countries in the contemporary world. The resultant effect of such cultural diversity is an exchange of cultural experiences and activities among communities that live together. In such scenarios, young individuals from one community learn from and sometimes adopt cultural practices from other communities as they grow into adulthood. For instance, the Hindu culture permits arranged marriages whereas the African American culture favors personal choice of spouses. A possible result of the two communities living together is young Indian children choosing to adapt the culture of the African American community instead of their own, thus rushing into marriage at a young age to avoid betrothal. Although the American judiciary has tried its best to ensure that young adults do not make permanent decisions such as marriage without oversight from parents or guardians, it is still possible for teenagers to exploit loopholes in laws and contract marriages without parental supervision. Ethical perspective of early marriage The issue of early marriages is one that has resulted in a lot of controversy over the years, especially with regard to the ethical aspect of the matter. Some scholars argue against the allowance of early marriages among teenagers by citing various reasons including the mental maturity of teenagers and the concept’s compliance with culture. In the US, most people strive for compliance with international cultural practices that support the abolition of early marriage provisions in the law. The American government supports the institution of adult marriages over teenage marriages, owing to some of the implications stated above that most teenagers, in society’s opinion, could not handle. However, it is important to note that the presence of legal provisions in support of the practice under specific conditions means that the American society approves the practice as part of its culture. Therefore, early marriages involving teenagers are indeed ethical. In proving this point, it is vital to go over several elements that influence the ethicality of marriage among young adults. First, it is important to remember that early marriage is a cultural practice that has run through the American society for centuries albeit at a reducing rate as each century passes by. Culture is an element that displays the uniqueness of different societies. It connotes the distinctive ways in which people live, represents their experiences, and displays the changes different environments can have to people’s behavioral patterns. Some of the elements that constitute culture include language, traditions, religion, leadership, technology, and cuisine. Scholars explain that when people live together for a substantial length of time, they develop habits that help in defining who they are. Therefore, annihilating the existence of the practice in conformity with international cultures kills off the identity of the American society as a distinct entity in the international arena. The American society should thus let the practice subsist and die a natural death instead of one thrust upon it in the guise of development. Secondly, it is important to remember that the environment around which teenagers develop is presently different in comparison to its condition twenty years ago. Teenagers are not as vulnerable now as they used to be. Various factors have led to a change in the physical and subsequently the cultural environment, thus increasing adaptability to new practices. For instance, technology is one of the main elements that have contributed to the great shift in most cultural practices. Individuals are now in a position to access information regarding other cultures and the benefits that some of them have over their own. This aspect has enhanced interaction amongst different cultural groups, thus enabling the groups to learn from and even adopt specific aspects from other cultures. The resultant effect is the creation of new cultural practices that comprise combinations of different practices from different groups. Essentially, this aspect means that teenagers no longer make foolhardy decisions out of ignorance, but out of the knowledge that they obtain to make decisions including those concerning marriage. For instance, most teenagers in the Indian communities prefer marriage options that allow them to choose their own partners based on criteria of their choice when making decisions concerning marriage, as opposed to the age-old practice of arranged marriages. It is worth noting that technology, as an interactive tool, only enlightens the teenagers on their options and allows them to make their own choices thus creating an enlightened society. The teenagers may very well choose to engage in early marriages, but they do so out of enlightenment. This assertion underscores one of the ways that society can let the young in its midst grow into maturity without excessive restraints by allowing them to learn from their mistakes for a better future. Education serves as another important factor influencing the ethicality of early marriages. Teenagers in the US presently get better education than those in the eighteenth and nineteenth century did. This aspect means that currently, the vast majority of teenagers are well aware of the benefits as well as the downside to early marriage.[4] In addition, thanks to the advancements in the education system, the young adults possess the independent mentality to analyze concepts such as morality and culture. Morality, for instance, is a subjective principle that depends on the perception of an individual with regard to different situations. Different individuals subscribe to different moral doctrines thus making it difficult to establish whether certain acts conform to morality or not. One of the moral doctrines available for adoption is moral absolutism, which essentially suggests that certain actions are moral while others are not, without any middle ground between the two. This doctrine is mostly common with religious institutions around the world. An example of actions that such institutions find utterly immoral regardless of the reason behind it is murder. Scholars that prescribe to the doctrine of moral relativism on the other hand believe that morality is dependent on persisting circumstances during decision-making. Relativism suggests that an action that one person may consider moral at a point in time may appear immoral in another depending on the circumstances. An example of such a scene where one person steals in order to satisfy basic needs while another steals to amass wealth. In both cases, the common factor is theft, but circumstances differ. John Stuart Mill, a proponent of moral relativism, also posits that a person should be in a position to do what he or she wishes with his or her life as long as such actions do not interfere with the peaceful existence of other people within the same community.[5] This assertion means that society should allow individuals to marry as long as their actions do not present any threat to the existence of other members in society. Such enlightened analysis of various situations owing to education has enabled teenagers to develop personal theories regarding marriage. By creating education centers to impart such knowledge, the society implies its trust and faith in teenagers to make decisions that best suit their lives while fostering free will. By doing so, society ensures that it does not guard the freedom of teenagers so much that it keeps them from developing independent decisions concerning their own personal lives. The actions of teenagers, as young adults, in any society mirror the general attitude and behavior of the majority of the influential members of that society. Several theories suggest that teenagers emulate what they learn from adults from their childhood into their adulthood. Therefore, if adults in a society find it unethical to engage in early marriages, it is easier to teach the same to teenagers by acting in ways that prove otherwise and setting examples for the younger generations. Kohlberg, who is a proponent of the moral development theory, posits that as children grow, they emulate the behavior of their parents and other influential members of the society before forming independent ideologies during adulthood.[6] The scholars suggest that there are three stages to a child’s development into adulthood with each overlapping the other. The first stage is the pre-conventional stage whereby children learn from their parents through a system of punishments and rewards. Here, children tend to focus more on actions that yield rewards and less on those that result in punishment. The second stage, the conventional stage, which occurs during teenage, comprises of behavior involving the teenager mimicking actions from members of society they look up to with the main aim being acceptance and conformity. This stage primarily applies to this discussion by proving that teenagers only engage in early marriages if influential members of society make it seem normal. This assertion underscores the reason behind the decline in early marriages in the US over the years. The last stage in the moral development theory is the post-conventional theory, which involves the adoption of independent views over various issues that an individual has considered the norm throughout the development process. Kohlberg indicate that the last stage sometimes manifests much later in life depending on a person’s cognitive ability.[7] Society should thus not allocate blame on teenagers for their choice of marriage periods. The personality of an individual often guides the decisions he or she makes. For instance, introverts prefer living in seclusion away from most of society, while social people thrive in attention. A person’s personality also determines how he or she reacts to stimulus from the surrounding environment. Society forms part of such stimulus. Therefore, it is right to state that society plays a hand in endorsing early marriages by the way it treats teenagers. Most adults in society know the causes of early marriages, but they do little to change the circumstances that potentially compel teenagers to engage in marital affairs. For instance, rebellion is one of the reasons why teenagers choose to get into marriages, as a medium of escape from abuse by adult caregivers. However, unlike engagement in alcohol and drug abuse, marriage provides a means through which society can monitor the young adults and guide its success as a learning process. Sigmund Freud, the founder of the Psychoanalytical theory on personalities, “explains that personality is divisible into three components, namely the id, the ego, and the super ego”[8]. The id acts according to the pleasure principle, viz. desiring pleasure without considering the environment.[9] The ego becomes operational at this point, with its function being to synchronize the desires of the id with the environment, thus meeting the desires in accordance to reality. The super ego applies societal ideals and moral judgment upon the ego resulting in actions that are both realistic and moral.[10] According to this theory, actions of adult members of society influence the reactions of teenagers in the same society. Another scholar, Heinz Kohut, uses the Freudian theory to introduce the idea of mirroring and idealization. In his view, “children need to idealize certain concepts and allow for emotional acceptance in order to learn self-soothing and other skills that are necessary in life”.[11] This observation suggests that marriage is one of the self-soothing mechanisms that teenagers from broken homes or abusive families apply in their quest for more comfortable living environments. Heinz also supports the view that psychic energy is convertible into behavior. Translation of this theory into real life situations regarding the subject at hand means that instead of prohibiting the availability of marriage for teenagers, society should strive to change their mode of thinking instead. Another scholar, B.F Skinner, “presents the view that children use bad behavior as a means of obtaining attention”.[12] The fact that prior activity of the nature usually results in the attraction of attention serves to reinforce the action. For instance, a baby might resort to crying in a bid to draw attention as such behavior has hitherto given such results. Crying, in this case is a response to a stimulus, while attention is the consequence. The stimulus is the circumstance that would cause the child to cry for attention. Such behavior, over time, embeds in the child, thus becoming part of his or her personality. An overview of these theories establishes that society has a duty to young adults during their childhood years to set the right environments for growth before allocating blame to teenagers and the ethicality of their actions. In addition, marriage laws form part of the environmental factors in the application of the above theories, making early marriages ethical and legal for teenagers. The American constitution is a document that guards the society’s most treasured values against exploitation and abuse. It forms the core of the society’s moral foundation. The first ten amendments of the constitution comprise laws that together form the American Bill of Rights, the fundamental rights, and freedoms that each American citizen has the right to exercise without interference from other people. Application of the constitution to the subject matter reveals that early marriage is ethical as long as it complies with the provisions of the Bill of Rights and it does not interfere with the rights and freedoms of others. In this light, the American constitution supports the ethicality of early marriages by providing rules that support. As long as teenagers seeking to engage in early marriage are eighteen years and above, the constitution protects their right to marry any individual of their choice within the same age bracket without interference from members of the society, regardless of their relationship with the teenagers in question. In cases where the eligibility of teenagers for marriage depends on reasons other than age, the courts provide remedies that suit each case individually. Such endorsement is indicative of the ethical nature of early marriages in the US. Conclusion Early marriages comply fully with society’s concept of morality in numerous ways. Most early marriages in the US occur between teenagers under the prescribed age of majority. In addition, society shows various ways in which it supports the practice, including provision of meticulous procedures for teenagers who deem it fit to engage in marital affairs before they attain twenty years of age. Society goes a step further to provide adult supervision during and after the marriage process by ensuring that it is safe for teenagers. Current trends and changes in society have made the practice diminish in popularity, and thus present few causes of concern for the American society. Bibliography Dahl, Gordon. “Early Teen Marriage and Future Poverty.” Demography 47, no. 3 (2010): 689-718. Hamilton, Brady, Joyce Martin, and Stephanie Ventura. Births: Preliminary Data for 2012. Hyattsville: National Center for Health Statistics, 2012. Kohlberg, Lawrence. The meaning and measurement of moral development (Volume 13). Worcester: Clark University Heinz Warner Institute, 1981. Myers, David. Psychology. New York: Worth Publishers, 2010. Schultz, Duane, and Sydney Schultz. Theories of Personality. Belmont: Wadsworth, 2008. Footnotes Lawrence Kohlberg, The meaning and measurement of moral development (Worcester: Clark University Heinz Warner Institute, 1981), 82. Brady Hamilton, Joyce Martin and Stephanie Ventura, Births: Preliminary Data for 2012 (Hyattsville: National Center for Health Statistics, 2012), 98-112. Gordon Dahl, “Early Teen Marriage and Future Poverty,” Demography 47, no. 3 (2010): 697. Gordon Dahl, “Early Teen Marriage and Future Poverty,” Demography 47, no. 3 (2010): 699. David Myers, Psychology (New York: Worth Publishers, 2010) 128. Lawrence Kohlberg, The meaning and measurement of moral development (Worcester: Clark University Heinz Warner Institute, 1981), 95. Ibid, 98. David Myers, Psychology (New York: Worth Publishers, 2010), 61. Duane Schultz and Sydney Schultz, Theories of Personality (Belmont: Wadsworth, 2008), 112. David Myers, Psychology (New York: Worth Publishers, 2010), 35. Ibid, 62. Ibid, 86.
most of the work is all compiled and complete in the attatchments be sure its atleast 10 pages and read below. I’m studying for my Philosophy class and don’t understand how to answer this. Can you help me study?

Compile all previous sections on your observations into a a 10-12 page paper about Officer Smith and how you are going to handle her to help her get that detective job she really wants. Your paper will include an APA formatted title page, 10-12 pages of narrative and a reference page. Be sure to add an introduction and conclusion tying your thoughts together.
fix this part of the paper below
Good paper Jackie, however, a sergeant is a much higher rank than a detective. As I said in one lecture, a detective is not really a promotion as a detective is the same as a patrol officer. A detective is not a supervisor – a Sergeant is a supervisor. Also, I see no in-text citations in paragraphs which are a requirement.
most of the work is all compiled and complete in the attatchments be sure its atleast 10 pages and read below

The Baroque Era Now

The Baroque Era Now.

Week 5 (October 29 – November 4) Chapter 6- The Baroque;Chapter 6- The Baroque EraNow we see some more familiar ideas when it comes to what we now refer to as “classical music” (remember, during each era before the 20th century, what you think of as classical music was the popular music of the time- so it does not make sense to tell me that “classical music was popular during the Baroque era.” That statement is misleading and arguably incorrect.) During the Baroque era, different forms (ways of organizing music) appear, and different musical genres such as opera and orchestral are invented.
Baroque PowerpointFile14.3MBBOOK EXAMPLE: When I am laid in Earth (pg 91-92)URLBOOK EXAMPLE Excerpt from La PrimaveraURLBOOK EXAMPLE: St Matthew Passion ExcerptURLBOOK EXAMPLE: HalleluyahURLQuiz 3 (Due November 4)Quiz 3 focuses on the Baroque Era.
The Baroque Era Now

Work Behavior For Older And Younger Generation Psychology Essay

essay writing help Behaviour of an employee in an organizational setup is expected to be well defined and there is a diminutive scope for an employee to deviate from it. However there are occasions when our work behaviour is governed by our work attitude and other key reasons. Present paper attempts to explore the complex relationship between attitude and behaviour in an organizational setup across generations. Constructivist approach has been adopted to unravel this dynamic relationship. 18 employees from older and younger generations were in-depth interviewed. Thematic analysis was used to analyse the data. Present study found that there is a weak relationship between work attitude and work behaviour across the generations. However the reasons for the same differs across generations. Keywords: Work attitudes, work behaviour, generations Introduction ‘Attitude’, ‘work’, and ‘generation’ as concepts originated in different disciplines of social sciences. Attitude primarily belonged to social psychology, whereas work and generation were offshoots of sociology. The present paper makes an endeavour to unravel the relationship between work attitude and work behaviour across generations. Lack of attention to attitude and behaviour relationship can be attributed to an assumption that attitudes in general results into a given behaviour, they are generally tandem in nature. It has been historically assumed that a person’s behaviour is generally governed by the attitude towards an object. Attitude was introduced in social psychology as an explanatory device in an attempt to understand human behaviour (Ajzen 1991). Studies carried out by La Perie (1934) and Wicker (1969) brought a paradigm shift. It was observed that attitude need not always be the cause and reason for behaviour. This led to the investigation of potential moderators and mediators of the attitude-behaviour relationship (Armitage and Christian 2003). The current study does not advocate all or none stand in relation to attitude being related to behaviour or people behaving in accordance to their attitude. Across generations, there has been divided stand, that is, there are occasions when attitude indeed govern behaviour and there are instances when the relation between them is extremely weak. The present study has made an attempt to unravel the reasons behind such conflicting findings with the help of theory of planned behaviour. The multi-component view of attitude is used to explain the low empirical relation between attitude and behaviour. This provides the range of behaviours that can be used to infer a person’s behaviour; some responses might be reflective of affective and cognitive components and others of behavioural component. However, multi-component view does not provide full account of relationship between attitude and behaviour. As it is not clear whether behaviour is determined by attitude as a whole or merely by its conative (emotional/affective) component. Another approach that aids to explain the low empirical relationship between attitude and behaviour is the concept of moderating affects of the other variable. In the given context, if the subject has required degree of skill to perform a job in question, he is likely to perform well. In this case, the ability is seen as a variable that interacts with the attitude in determining variable. However, it is seen that these ‘other variables’ sometime do and sometimes do not have moderating and independent influence. Studies have shown that immediate predictor of behaviour is the intention to perform the behaviour, theory of planned behaviour deals with the concept of intention. In the present study, theory of planned behaviour has undertaken to explain the relationship between attitude and behaviour (Fishbein and Ajzen 1975). In view of above stated limitations, the present research applies theory of planned behaviour to explain relationship between attitude and behaviour. The theory of planned behaviour is an extension to the theory of reasoned actions; it addresses the limitations of the same by dealing with behaviours over which people have incomplete volitional control (Ajzen 1991). Methodology Objective: To explore the relationship between work attitude and work behaviour across generations. Theoretical framework: Present study falls under the constructivist paradigm. It adopts social constructionist approach to unravel the reality. It is assumed that its participants are constructing reality and it can be understood by understanding its process of its construction. Method: In-depth interview as a tool was used with interview as a method. Rationale behind selecting in-depth interview was to unravel multiple levels of realties from the participant’s perspective. In-depth interview unfolds data that this grounded in the field. Sample Profile and Sample Size: Employees from older and younger generation [1] were drawn out using theoretical sampling. Another criteria for selecting the sample were employees should have been associated with their employers for at least two years. [2] 18 interviews across generations from various cross-sections of organizations were taken. Nine from each generation, gender -based bifurcation is 16 males and 2 females. Data Analysis: Data was analysed using thematic analysis. Thematic analysis is based on the premise of encoding qualitative information. Findings and Discussion Older and younger generation reports instances wherein their work attitude has not corresponded to their work behaviour. However, the reasons attributed for the weak relationship between work behaviour and work attitude differs for older and younger generation. Present study as stated above applies theory of planned behaviour (Ajzen 1975) to explain this dynamic relationship. According to the theory of planned behaviour, human action is influenced by three major factors: a favourable or unfavourable evaluation of the behaviour (attitude towards behaviour), perceived social pressure to perform or not perform the behaviour (subjective norm), and perceived capability to perform the behaviour (perceived behavioural control). These three components lead to the formation of behavioural intention (Ajzen 1991). Therefore, the more favourable the attitude towards behaviour, subjective norm and greater perceived behavioural control, the stronger the person’s intention to perform the behaviour in question. [i] While carrying out work, a person assesses the attitude towards work behaviour as well as the perception of social pressure to do so, and perceived control over this behaviour. Therefore, together these elements are going to predict intentions to work or not to work. Actual working should correspond to the intention to the extent that the participant has the authority to carry out work. Behavioural beliefs Normative beliefs Control beliefs Attitude towards the behaviour Subjective Norm Perceived behaviour control Intention Behaviour Actual control Source: Theory of planned behaviour (Ajzen 1991) Situations in which work attitudes do not result into corresponding work behaviour. Extant literature profess conflicting findings, that is, some of the research suggests that attitude and behaviour are related to each other whereas there is an another section of studies that question’s the relationship between them (Suazo 2009, Carmeli 2003). In the present study it is seen that on many occasions participants are unable to behave in accordance to their attitude and state of dissonance that they undergo. There are situations when they have non-positive work attitude but demonstrate positive work behaviour. Situations under which they feel the state of dissonance are different for younger and older generation. For younger generation, dissonance arises when nature of work is not of their kind and their efforts are quashed for inexplicable reasons. They feel that since others are going to form impression about them and their personality, it is safer to behave in socially desirable way. Therefore, even if they do not have a non-positive attitude towards work their work behaviour is of high standards. For older generation, it happens when they are dropped from promotion, are not having good interpersonal relationship with boss, conflict with management, when people are not working. One of the participants elucidates by quoting an incident. I was in Pata and my executive director was incharge of plants we had certain differences in term of opinion. His officer incharge would say work has to be done in given time frame, I also wanted the work to be done in the same time frame but then procedures should also be given its space and importance…but then so are the system procedure, financial prudence etc. I had to follow what my boss and do the job in the time frame and let go the procedures. I feel that even if I have non-positive orientation towards work but I had to give my best to the work. (PK, older generation) Applying the theory of planned behaviour in the given context. The nature of non-liner relationship between work attitude and work behaviour is that people hold non-positive attitude towards work but their work behaviour is positive. Societal norms. It is observed that people in the Indian society are highly governed by subjective norms. Indian society is directed by the concept of nishkam karmayoga propagating that people should work selflessly without being outcome oriented. Younger generation considers work as a contribution that one should make but for varied reasons. For some, it is a way of contributing to the society, if they work hard the profit of company will soar hence higher the contribution to corporate social responsibility (CSR) and make world better place to work. Others feel that it is one of the ways of developing personality. According to the older generation, society terms ‘not working’ as wasting time, which is not considered good for society at a larger level. Work helps the personal and professional fulfillment. Since work is conceived as the immediate identity of people, so it becomes imperative for employees to work to prove their identity to avoid being termed as ‘useless’. Therefore, there is a likelihood that people are going to give their best to the work even though they do not possess positive attitude towards it. Participants amongst the older generation state that another reason for their positive work behaviour is that they cannot fight against system and management and want to maintain healthy interpersonal relationship with everyone. Result and betterment of the organisation is also one of the potent factors. Whereas for the younger generation the reason is professionalism and recognition that motivates people to behave in socially accepted manner with respect to their work irrespective of their attitude. Yeah yeah, it has been so times. The day I had joined audit (dislike it).. sometime the kind of boss you have can also be one of the possible reasons… there is something like professionalism. I must not forget that I am first a professional and then an employee of any organisation. Therefore, I would be recognised and that recognition should remain one of the important elements in my life. Being a professional it is important to strive for doing something different and dynamic. (PKY) Perceived behavioural control. Within the organisational context where the individual is bounded by various rules and regulations, there is a less likelihood that people are going to be high on perceived behavioural control. Employees across the generations have said that on several occasions they have felt lack of perceived behavioural control. Several reasons have been cited by both the generations in demand to increase perceived behavioural control. The older generation put forth the view that there should be higher perceived control so that they will be able to work wholeheartedly. In addition, it is a specialised works and their involvement is imperative. They state that ‘we are the major force contributing to work so we can come up with additional information and value addition’. It can be also considered as one of the ways of recognising people. In order to have effective function, it is important to make employee aware of the pros and cons of what they are doing. Another section of respondents feel that it might not be possible to provide with higher degree of perceived control due the limitation of the organisation (decision might be in favour of individual and not in favour of organisation). However, their opinions must be taken and effort should be taken to make them part of key issues that is going to effect them directly. On the similar lines, younger generation states that one of the first step towards making the employee take ownership of his work. Also that while taking decision, management may not be aware of ground reality and that the employees can make them aware of that. Certain section of them feel that it is their right to be part of the decision-making process. Others feel that even if they are not being made part of decision making process they should be taken into confidence by enumerating the reasons and rationale behind decisions. In general, employees across the generation feel that they feel lack of control regarding the things that are directly related to them. From the above arguments, it can be concluded that since people are governed by the subjective norms that are not in consonance to their attitude and they lack the perceived control, there is a likelihood that they are going to have weak behaviour intention, which leads to dissonance between attitude and behaviour. This scenario reduces the likelihood of people to behave in accordance to their work attitude. Therefore, even if people hold non-positive work attitude towards work their work behaviour is positive. Conclusion Attitude and behaviour relationship is dynamic in nature. There are certain occasions wherein people across generations are able to behave in accordance to their work attitudes. However, in general, participants across generation find it difficult to behave in tandem to their work attitude. This has been explained with the help of theory of planned behaviour. Organizations need to come out of the predominant outcome mind-set. If employees are demonstrating positive work behaviour irrespective of their work attitude, organizations should not neglect the area of work attitude and work behaviour relationship. An attempt to should be made to bring in right reasons for right behaviour. Consonance between work attitude and work behaviour should be achieved. It is being hypothesized that when positive work attitude is in consonance with positive work behaviour the intensity and nature of positive work behaviour is going to be far stronger. Future studies can put this hypothesis to test.

Did The Trojan War Actually Happen History Essay

The Trojan War took place in the 12th or 13th century BC and lasted around 10 years. It took place in the city of Hisarlik in modern day north western Turkey in the Bronze Age. In and before the 17th century A.D. Many believed that the Trojan war didn’t actually happen and was thought to be just a Greek mythological story until the late 1870’s when a German Archeologist named Heinrich Schliemann excavated the site by using the story of the Trojan war from an ancient Greek writer and poet named Homer. Homer was a blind Greek poet who wrote the Iliad and the Odyssey. In the Iliad Homer writes about half way through the Trojan war, describing the origins of the war, how Helen ran away from her husband, the king of Sparta, with the prince of Troy. In it Homer also writes about the Greek heroes, such as Achilles and Ajax, he also writes about some of the Trojan heroes such as Hector. The Trojan horse is then mentioned by Homer and thought to be a cunning Greek military strategy that ultimately destroyed the Trojans. Agamemnon burned the city to the ground. Homer also wrote the Odyssey which was about King Odysseus’s return journey to Greece after the Trojan war. Through the use of these two texts Heinrich Schliemann was able to find the actual area of Troy. Through thorough excavations Schliemann was able to excavate many levels of Troy and believes that the 9th level was the Troy described in Homer’s texts due to the fact that there was evidence of burnt walls. The story of the Trojan war starts out around 1193 BC. One of the main reasons of the war was that the youngest Prince of Troy, Paris, dishonoured all means of hospitality by running off with Helen the wife of the king of Sparta, King Menelaus. This angered the King who decided to go to his brother King Agamemnon of Mycenae, for assistance. Agamemnon had always wanted to take over Troy but was frequently stopped by his brother and so saw this as an opportunity to finally take over this beautiful city. Helen of Sparta is referred to in Homer’s writings to have had the face that launched a thousand believed to be the most beautiful woman during the time. In Homer’s stories the gods were involved during the war. They would come down and take part in the war and help the Greeks and Trojans in different aspects of the war. Homer took for granted that his audience knew a war had been fought for what was alternately called Ilios or Troy. The bard was mainly concerned with describing the wrath of Achilles and its consequences. He used Troy and the war as a poetic setting for a conflict between men and gods. From the archaeologist’s point of view, however, the Iliad can be interpreted as a “setting” in an entirely different sense. One may see Homer or his informants as eyewitnesses to Troy and the landscape of Troy at the close of the eighth century B.C., the period when scholars generally agree Homer composed his epic. Troy was largely a ruined site in Homer’s day, but the remains of Troy VI/VIIa, both the citadel and the lower city, were still impressive. Contemporary audiences and later ones from the area around the city were supposed to be able to recognize the general outlines of places where the action happened from descriptive references in the Iliad. They could visualize it, for instance, whenever they climbed up a slope to a sanctuary in “holy Ilios.” “Holy Ilios” is the most frequently repeated description in the Iliad, and one would expect to see a sacred building in such a place. We can make a convincing case for a sanctuary or sanctuaries, maybe in the form of a wooden building, from the early seventh century B.C. at the latest–roughly contemporary with Homer–on this site, which subsequently served as a cult center into the late Roman Empire. There is nothing in the archaeological record to contradict the assertion that Troy and the surrounding countryside formed the setting for Homer’s Iliad in 700 B.C. Although Troy is in Anatolia, Carl Blegen, who directed excavations at the site in the 1930s, regarded Troy VI/VIIa as a Greek settlement. The idea of a Greek Troy, one that had also been entertained by Schliemann, became firmly established. These excavators had come from Greece to Troy, both literally and figuratively, and later returned to Greece, and were biased, most likely unconsciously, in their outlook. However, until the 1930s there was very little archaeologically within Anatolia that might have been compared with Troy, and certainly not in western Anatolia. We know today, from our own excavations and even from earlier ones, that in all main respects, Bronze Age Troy had stronger ties with Anatolia than with the Aegean. We’ve learned this from the tons of local pottery and small finds, such as a seal with a local hieroglyphic inscription, as well as the overall settlement picture, mud-brick architecture, and cremation burials. Research by Anatolian specialists has shown that what we today call Troy was in the Late Bronze Age the kingdom of Wilusa, powerful enough to conclude treaties with the Hittite Empire; even the Egyptians seem to have been familiar with the city. Furthermore, according to Hittite records, there were political and military tensions around Troy precisely during the thirteenth and early twelfth centuries B.C.–the supposed time of Homer’s Trojan War. In conclusion the fact that the land area in which Homer described the war to have taken place in his writings was archeologically discovered, proves that on one of the levels of the excavations at one point in history, an actual war had taken place among men over a woman , land, power and wealth.

University of California 20 Fastest Runners Recorded Statistics Questions

University of California 20 Fastest Runners Recorded Statistics Questions.

Below is a Wikipedia table of the 20 fastest runners recorded for the 5000 meter race. The rank, time, runner’s name and country, date of race, and venue of race are given. Use this information to answer the questions which follow.112:35.36 Joshua Cheptegei (UGA)14 August 2020Monaco212:37.35 Kenenisa Bekele (ETH)31 May 2004Hengelo312:39.36 Haile Gebrselassie (ETH)13 June 1998Helsinki412:39.74 Daniel Komen (KEN)22 August 1997Brussels512:43.02 Selemon Barega (ETH)31 August 2018Brussels612:45.82 Hagos Gebrhiwet (ETH)31 August 2018Brussels712:46.53 Eliud Kipchoge (KEN)2 July 2004Rome812:46.79 Yomif Kejelcha (ETH)31 August 2018Brussels912:46.81 Dejen Gebremeskel (ETH)6 July 2012Saint-Denis1012:47.04 Sileshi Sihine (ETH)2 July 2004Rome1112:47.20 Mohammed Ahmed (CAN)10 July 2020Portland1212:48.63 Jacob Kiplimo (UGA)8 September 2020Ostrava1312:48.64 Isaiah Kiplangat Koech (KEN)6 July 2012Saint-Denis1412:48.66 Isaac Songok (KEN)18 August 2006Zürich1512:48.77 Yenew Alamirew (ETH)6 July 2012Saint-Denis1612:48.81 Stephen Cherono (KEN)12 June 2003Ostrava1712:49.04 Thomas Pkemei Longosiwa (KEN)6 July 2012Saint-Denis1812:49.28 Brahim Lahlafi (MAR)25 August 2000Brussels1912:49.50 John Kipkoech (KEN)6 July 2012Saint-Denis2012:49.71 Mohammed Mourhit (BEL)25 August 2000Brussels1.If I randomly select a runner from the list above, what is the probability that runner is from Kenya?Select one:a. .40b. .25c. .20d. .35e. .302.What is the probability that the race was run in Brussels?Select one:a. .25b. .55c. .35d. .30e. .403. If the probability of a runner being from Kenya and the race venue being Brussels are independent, what is the probability that I would randomly select a Kenyan runner whose race was run in Brussels?Select one:a. .050b. .105c. .200d. .100e. .0004.What is the actual probability of being a Kenyan runner at the Brussels venue?Select one:a. .10b. .20c. .05d. .00e. .155.The actual probability of “Kenya” and “Brussels” being coincident is much lower than we’d expect if the two events were independent: .30∗.35=.105.30∗.35=.105. This difference implies that the two events are not independent. I want you to think about characteristics of college students. What characteristic do you think might be independent of their completing their bachelors degree? What characteristic do you think might not be independent of their completing their bachelors degree?
University of California 20 Fastest Runners Recorded Statistics Questions