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Cuba And Embargo Essay, Research Paper

Cuba and the Affects of the Embargo

The island state of Cuba, located merely 90 stat mis off the seashore of Florida, is place to 11 million people and has one of the few staying communist governments in the universe. Cuba? s leader, Fidel Castro, came to power in 1959 and instantly instituted a communist plan of sweeping economic and societal alterations. Castro allied his authorities with the Soviet Union and seized and nationalized one million millions of dollars of American belongings. U.S. dealingss with Cuba have been strained of all time since. A trade trade stoppage against Cuba that was imposed in 1960 is still in topographic point today. Despite terrible economic agony and increasing isolation from the universe community, Castro remains committed to communism. ( Close Up Foundation )

The United States and Cuba portion a long history of common misgiving and intuition. All facets of U.S. policy with Cuba, such as the current trade trade stoppage, in-migration patterns, and most late the possibility of a free exchange by members of the media, provoke heated arguments across the United States. While most Americans agree that the ultimate ends should be to promote Castro? s surrender and advance a smooth passage to democracy, experts disagree about how the U.S. authorities should carry through these purposes. Some believe that the state? s current policy toward Cuba is outdated in its Cold War attack and needs to be reconstructed. However, many still consider Fidel Castro a menace in the hemisphere and a threat to his ain people and favour fastening the prison guard on his government even more. ( Close Up Foundation )

For about 40 old ages, the United States has non imported any Cuban merchandises, nor allowed any American nutrient, medical supplies, or capital to come in Cuba. President Clinton, like each of his predecessors, supports the trade trade stoppage. Two recent pieces of statute law have tightened the economic limitations on Cuba. ( Close Up Foundation )

The Cuban Democracy Act, passed by Congress in 1992, farther isolates Cuba from the universe economic system by forbiding any foreign-based subordinates of U.S. companies from merchandising with the state. The measure? s end was to stultify the Cuban economic system in order to convey down Castro? within hebdomads, ? harmonizing to the measure? s primary advocator Robert Torricelli ( D-N.J. ) .

The Helms-Burton Act states that American citizens can action foreign investors who utilize American belongings seized by the Cuban authorities. In add-on, those who? traffic? in this belongings or net income from it will be denied visas to the United States. Supporters of the statute law believe that forbiding foreign investing will accelerate Castro? s ruin. ( Close Up Foundation )

Many argument on the issue of why the U.S. should or shouldn? t maintain the ebargo against Cuba. These arguments deal with the effects of the Embargo on Cuba? s economic system, human-centered rights and wellness of the people of Cuba. The trade stoppage today places a prohibition on subordinate trade, Licensing, transportation and human-centered assistance. ( Close Up Foundation )

In 1992, the Cuban Democracy act imposed a prohibition on subordinate trade with Cuba. This prohibition restricted Cuba? s ability to import medical specialties and medical supplies from 3rd state beginnings. There have besides been corporate buy-outs and amalgamations between U.S. and European pharmaceutical companies therefore adding to the figure of companies permitted to make concern with Cuba.

Under the Cuban Democracy Act, The U.S. Treasury and Commerce Departments are allowed to licence single gross revenues of medical specialties and medical supplies, purportedly for human-centered grounds to do up for the trade stoppage? s impact on wellness attention bringing. Harmonizing to the U.S. corporate executives, the licensing commissariats are so tough as to hold had the opposite consequence. With this statement, it is assumed that there are fewer licences given out for human-centered ground hence prefering the trade stoppage and helping in the ruin of wellness in Cuba.

Since 1992, the trade stoppage has prohibited ships from lading or droping lading in U.S. ports for 180 yearss after presenting lading to Cuba. This has discouraged shippers from presenting medical equipment to Cuba. Due to this, transportation costs have risen and further compressing the flow of nutrient, medical specialties and medical supplies to Cuba. Another consequence of this is Cuba? s increased disbursement on transporting medical imports from Asia, Europe and South America instead than from the neighbouring United States. Charity hasn? t been plenty for an alternate to free trade in medical specialties, medical supplies and nutrient. With the holds in licensing and other limitations have discouraged charitable parts from the U.S.

The effects of the prohibitions on subordinate trade, licensing, transportation and human-centered assistance has contributed to malnutrition, hapless H2O quality, deficiency of medical specialties and equipment and updated medical information. The prohibition on the sale of American groceries has aided in nutritionary shortages. These nutrient deficits were linked to an eruption of neuropathy totaling 10s of 1000s. Poor H2O quality is due to limitations on Cuba? s entree to H2O intervention chemicals and spare-parts for the islands H2O supply system. This leads to unsafe imbibing H2O therefore doing lifting mortality rates from water-borne diseases. ( American Association for World Health )

Many foreign investors see great chances in the Cuban trade market, because of the terminal of Soviet assistance and decennaries of the U.S. trade trade stoppage. For illustration, Canadian concerns are profiting from the deficiency of competition from the United States. Canadian pharmaceutical companies are marketing Cuban merchandises, Canadian excavation companies are developing uninhabited countries in Cuba, and hotel ironss are runing state-owned resorts on Cuban beaches. American investors take note of all this and conclude that they are losing out on valuable concern chances. ( Close Up Foundation )

The primary intent of the Embargo was to assist ease the remotion of Castro from power. In order to carry through this end, the U.S. has worsened the economic system. Cuban? s unrecorded under conditions of mass unemployment, widespread hungriness and deficient rewards. In a study done by the stopping point up foundation, there is a statement made by a Cuban market seller. This Cuban market seller commented, ? the lone manner people can purchase [ meat ] on a regular basis is if they get money from relations abroad or from something illegal. ?

Peoples opposing the U.S trade trade stoppage point out that by wounding the Cuban economic system is barbarous and inhumanely by denying people basic necessities. However, protagonists of the trade stoppage argue that insulating Cuba from the planetary economic system is the most effectual manner to weaken Castro? s political support. Peoples that support the trade stoppage believe that there is a big organic structure of false information and accusals made on the United States. There has been false accusals that include U.S. policy to deny medical specialty or medical supplies and equipment to the Cuban People. ( Burns )

Spokesman Nicholas Burns released a imperativeness statement about Thursday

e misinformation about the U.S. authorities and the trade stoppage against Cuba. The U.S. is non all to fault but at the same clip can non be ruled out. Everyone seems to be faulting the U.S. but Castro plays a large portion as good. This release speaks of the little inside informations that protagonists of the trade stoppage seem to go forth out.

As stated earlier, the Cuban Democracy Act of 1992 does allow companies and their subordinates to sell medical specialty and medical equipment to the United States and has approved 36 of 38 licence petitions for commercial gross revenues of medical specialties and medical equipment to Cuba. During the same period, the U.S. has licensed over $ 150million in human-centered aid which is more than the entire universe broad foreign assistance received by Cuba in those old ages much of which came in medical specialties and other health-related points. ( Burns ) This contradicts the statement made by the U.S. corporate executives that licensing commissariats are tough. They may be tough but they get the occupation done. The corporate executives may be bias in their judgement in stating this merely because it is harder for them to be able to do the money.

Castro? s manner of commanding wellness attention does non profit the bulk of the people but merely the few elites. We must non bury one time once more that the U.S. is non all to fault since the U.S. did non make the wellness attention system in Cuba. Health attention has deteriorated for the mean Cuban because of Castro authorities has made a pick to direct its resources elsewhere. Aside from this, there has non been a just health care system in Cuba. Substandard health care is available to the mean Cuban while senior Cuban Communist Party functionaries and those who can pay in difficult currency can acquire ace medical services when needed.

This system exists because the Cuban Government has chosen to develop a two-tiered medical system, which established a sort of? medical apartheid? . This medical apartheid funnels money into services for a privileged few, while striping the wellness attention system used by the bulk of Cubans of equal support. Following the loss of Soviet subsidies, Cuba developed particular infirmaries and put aside floors for sole usage by aliens who pay in difficult currency. These installations are good equipped to supply their patients with quality modern attention. ( Burns )

In 1994, Cuba exported $ 110 million worth of supplies. In 1995, this figure rose to $ 125 million. These net incomes have non been used to back up the wellness attention system but diverted to back up and subsidise Cuba? s biomedical research plans. This money could hold been used for primary attention installations. ( Burns )

In this release, Burns mentions a group of Cuban physicians that arrive to the United States said that they were mystified at the allegations made in the American Association for World Health that the United States trade stoppage is to be blamed for the public wellness state of affairs in the state. These are physicians that see how the system truly works. Burns besides mentions the instance covering with the laminitis of the Havana International Center for Neurological Restoration and her positions on how Castro runs the medical system. The laminitis is Dr. Hilda Molina. She quit her place in 1994 after declining to increase the figure of nervous graft operations without the needed testing and follow-up visits. She expressed her indignation that lone aliens are treated. She resigned for her place in the national legislative assembly, and returned the decorations Fidel Castro had gave her for her work. For person this dignified to see that the Castro authorities is incorrect merely gives people a better position and to believe once more on who is to fault.

The U.S. has issued 21 visas to Cuban median physicians in 1997 to go to medical Congresss and/or to see U.S. medical establishments. Among other things, Cuban physicians have visited the Center for Disease Control, the University of Puerto Rico ( Bio Ethics Congress ) , the American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons Annual Meeting, the Johns Hopkins University/Johns Hopkins Schools of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill/Duke University ( HIV infections ) , the Marmer Medical Eye Center, and the American Academy of Neurology ( Parkinson? s Disease ) . In 1996, visas were issued to 125 research workers in the natural scientific disciplines, most of whom were physicians who worked in infirmaries and clinics throughout Cuba. ( Burns ) Mentioning back to medical contacts, the U.S. has clearly made an attempt to educate and advance the latest progresss in medical research throughout Cuba.

The U.S.S.R. gave $ 5 billion dollars a twelvemonth in subsidies. With this money, the Cuban authorities has made important progresss in the quality of wellness attention available to mean citizens. Even though this helps, the Cuban authorities besides devoted the majority of its money to the armed forces. Poor economic conditions did non arrive from the trade stoppage but began with the ruin of the Soviet Union. After the interruption up of the Soviet Union, the absence of subsidies from the Soviet Union has forced Cuba to confront the existent costs of its wellness attention system. Since Castro refuses to follow economic alterations to reform its dysfunctional economic system, the Castro authorities continue to pass more money to keep disbursals of the armed forces.

The Embargo Effects Health and Economy to a certain extent but non all of it should be blamed on the Unites States. Cuba has non merely been affected by the trade stoppage but besides it? s dependance on the former Soviet Union. The U.S. seems to be assisting every bit much as they can given the state of affairs. The authorities of Cuba has been known to be corrupt which does non assist the economic system. It seems that the lone manner we can genuinely free Cuba is by reform within the authorities. If Castro truly wants the United States to raise the trade stoppage, he should get down doing some alterations every bit good. How could the United States continue helping a authorities that is non willing to give in. I feel that in order for us to help Cuba, Castro should get down doing alterations. It is non for the United States, but for his ain people.

Bibliography

USA Info-med. ? Health News From Cuba? . 2000. hypertext transfer protocol: //www.igc.org/cubasoli/news99.html

American Association for universe wellness. ? Denial of Food and Medicine: The impact of the U.S. trade stoppage on wellness and nutrition in Cuba? . NY, 1997. hypertext transfer protocol: //www.ifconews.org/aawh.html # findings

Nathan birnbaums, Nicholas, U.S. Department of State. ? The U.S. Embargo and Health Care in Cuba, 1997. hypertext transfer protocol: //www.us.net/cip/sdmyths.htm

Castaneda, Mereya. ? Washington Guides European Votes Against Cuba? . Granma Interacional Digital, Cuba, 2 May 2000

Vasquez, Ian. , and Rodriquez, Jacob. ? Trade Embargo In and Castro Out? . 1996, hypertext transfer protocol: //www.cato.org/dailys/12-12-96.html

U.S. State Department. ? Cuba: U.S.-Cuban Relationss? . 1999,

hypertext transfer protocol: //www.state.gov/www/regions/wha/cuba/policy.html

Garfield, Richard. , Santana, Sarah. ? The Impact of the Economic Crisis and the US Embargo on Health in

Cuba? American Journal of Public Health. hypertext transfer protocol: //www.usaengage.org/news/9701ajph.html

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Choose 1 topic

Research Paper: This is a graduate course and students will be expected to research and write papers summarizing in their own words what they have found on current topics from the weekly readings. Research is a theoretical review of relevant literature and application of findings in the literature to a topic related to a specific industry, field, or business problem.
The research must be conducted using peer-reviewed trade or academic journals. While Blogs, Wikipedia, encyclopedias, course textbooks, popular magazines, newspaper articles, online websites, etc. are helpful for providing background information, these resources are NOT suitable resources for this research assignment.
Please Note: The UC Library staff are very helpful with assisting students in using the UC Online Library journal database. Please contact them if you have issues. In addition, the instructor has provided additional resources, including a research tutorial, in the “Course Resources” folder in the “Content” area of the course.
Assignment Requirements:
Choose a research topic from the chapter readings or from the list provided by your professor.
Research/find a minimum at least four (4), preferably five (5) or more, different peer-reviewed articles on your topic from the University of the Cumberlands Library online business database. The article(s) must be relevant and from a peer-reviewed source. While you may use relevant articles from any time frame, current/published within the last five (5) years are preferred. Using literature that is irrelevant or unrelated to the chosen topic will result in a point reduction.
Write a four (4) to five (5) page double spaced paper in APA format discussing the findings on your specific topic in your own words. Note – paper length does not include cover page, abstract, or references page(s).
Structure your paper as follows:
Cover page
Overview describing the importance of the research topic to current business and professional practice in your own words.
Purpose of Research should reflect the potential benefit of the topic to the current business and professional practice and the larger body of research.
Review of the Literature summarized in your own words. Note that this should not be a “copy and paste” of literature content, nor should this section be substantially filled with direct quotes from the article. A literature review is a summary of the major points and findings of each of the selected articles (with appropriate citations). Direct quotations should be used sparingly. Normally, this will be the largest section of your paper (this is not a requirement; just a general observation).
Practical Application of the literature. Describe how your findings from the relevant research literature can shape, inform, and improve current business and professional practice related to your chosen topic.
Conclusion in your own words
References formatted according to APA style requirements
Attach your paper to the Discussion board by the Thursday due date.
Read and respond to at least four (4) other student postings by the Sunday due date.
Grading Criteria:
Content Knowledge