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CU Security & Vulnerability Defining Penetration Testing Cyberattack Research Paper

CU Security & Vulnerability Defining Penetration Testing Cyberattack Research Paper.

Penetration testing is a simulated cyberattack against a computer or network that checks for exploitable vulnerabilities. Pen tests can involve attempting to breach application systems, APIs, servers, inputs, and code injection attacks to reveal vulnerabilities. In a well-written, highly-detailed research paper, discuss the following:What is penetration testingTesting StagesTesting MethodsTesting, web applications and firewallsYour paper should meet the following requirements:Be approximately 4-6 pages in length, not including the required cover page and reference page. (Remember, APA is double spaced)Follow APA 7 guidelines. Your paper should include an introduction, a body with fully developed content, and a conclusion.Support your answers with the readings from the course and at least two scholarly journal articles to support your positions, claims, and observations, in addition to your textbook. The UC Library is a great place to find resources.Be clear and well-written, concise, and logical, using excellent grammar and style techniques. You are being graded in part on the quality of your writing.
CU Security & Vulnerability Defining Penetration Testing Cyberattack Research Paper

For this Writer’s Notebook, you will complete the following quoting activity over the article “Your Brain Lies to You” by Sam Wang and Sandra Aamodt. Be sure that you have read and taken notes over both the article and the lesson The Art of Quoting before beginning this activity (they are both posted above). The Art of Quoting ExerciseUse the following topic sentence and quote from the article “Your Brain Lies to You” by Sam Wang and Sandra Aamodt to create a PARAGRAPH with a correctly embedded quote sandwich. Your quote sandwich needs the following four parts: an introduction, the quote, the explanation (or interpretation), and the commentary. Be sure to introduce your quote with the authors’ names and titles (credibility). Make sure your paragraph follows the tell, show, share method of paragraph development. Be sure to refer back to your thesis at the end of your paragraph. Thesis statement that you are defending (be sure to refer back to your thesis at the end of your paragraph):Political campaign advertisements should be required to be truthful and accurate.Topic sentence (use exactly as it is to start your paragraph):Political candidates use the brain’s own power of forgetting to spread and reinforce false rumors about the opposition.Quote from page 79: “Even if they do not understand the neuroscience behind source amnesia, campaign strategists can exploit it to spread misinformation. They know that if their message is initially memorable, its impression will persist long after it is debunked.”Grading rubric: Topic sentence, 5 Includes author’s name and credibility, 10 Does not include the title of work, 5 Uses the correct quote, cited correctly, 10 Uses a strong signal verb, 5 Translation/explanation of quote, 10 Analysis of quote, 20 Reference to thesis, 10 Uses college level grammar and punctuation, 10 Is an actual paragraph, 10 Total, 100
Ruamahanga River Analysis: Abiotic and Biotic Factors. 1. Introduction A brief description, including an aim of your investigation, details of your chosen area(s), sampling technique and the scientific names of the organisms investigated. Our investigation took place in the Ruamahanga river our aim was to find what abiotic factors and biotic factors were at the Ruamahanga river. We discovered a high number of organisms such as Ephemeroptera (Mayfly) and Trichoptera (caddisfly) and also a very small number of Plecoptera (stoneflies) from the Trinotoperla species 2. Biology of the Ecological Community Information about the organisms in the community you investigated. Describe the ecological niche and adaptations of at least two species, and relevant interrelationships between these organisms. Mayfly: Soft, elongate bodies, The aquatic mayfly nymphs have distinctive, leaf-shaped appendages on the sides of their abdomen that serve as gills for the exchange of respiratory gases.Three Life Stages: egg-aquatic nymph, and adult cycle which includes two phases: (subimago) dun and (imago stage) spinner Caddisflies: Caddisflies are related to Lepidoptera and resemble small hairy moths, but their wings are covered in dense hairs rather than scales and they lack the typical curled proboscis of most moths and butterflies. They are mostly dull-coloured and range in size from 2-40 millimetres in body length. Caddisflies are recognisable by the following features: Elongate body 2 pairs of membranous wings that are of differing size Wings covered in fine hairs. Wings form a roof over the abdomen when at rest Reduced mouthparts Larvae are all born and found in the water since their aquatic and the adults are predominantly found on land. Adults are nocturnal and found on tree trunks resting 3. Abiotic Environment Description of the abiotic factors found in the area you investigated. At the place of our investigation we had a look at the abiotic factors in the area there were tall trees blocking sunlight from hitting all of the river which creates an increase in oxygen because it’s colder but in the sunny spots the water temperature increases which causes’ the solubility of oxygen to decrease. We tested The speed of flow with a tape measurer, a stopwatch, and a ball and timed how long it took to travel 10m from point A to B. Slow flow: Fast flow: Test 1: 34 m/s Test 2: 42 m/s Test 3: 29 m/s Average: 35 m/s Test 1: 13 m/s Test 2: 13 m/s Test 3: 13 m/s Average: 13 m/s The PH using a ph measurer. PH in slow flow was 7.61 PH in fast flow was 7.51 Temperature using a thermometer. In the sunlight the temperature was 17.8 and 19.8 in the slow flow area In the sunlight the temperature was 17.6 and 18.1 in the fast flow area Water clarity using a transparency tube. Slow flow Fast flow Test 1: 82 cm Test 2: 88 cm Test 3: 85 cm Average: 85 cm Test 1: 81 cm Test 2: 85 cm Test 3: 85 cm Average: 83.66 cm Conductivity reading: Slow flow read at: 140 μs/cm Fast flow read at: 140 μs/cm 4. Biotic Environment Note any interrelationships you may consider of the organisms to be studied. Consider predators, herbivores, competition and mutualism. During our investigation on biotic factors we noticed that we were catching a high number of Caddisflies and mayflies in both slow and fast flow, which showed us Slow flowing river point: Name of organism found: Number found: Pollution score of organism Flat Mayfly 6 8 Free-living caddisfly 2 6 Name of organism found: Number found: Pollution score of organism Flat Mayfly 4 8 Free-living caddisfly 3 6 Name of organism found: Number found: Pollution score of organism Flat Mayfly 8 8 Free-living caddisfly 1 6 Name of organism found: Number found: Pollution score of organism Flat Mayfly 7 8 Free-living caddisfly 1 3 worm 1 6 Name of organism found: Number found: Pollution score of organism Flat Mayfly 5 8 Free-living caddisfly 0 6 Name of organism found: Number found: Pollution score of organism Flat Mayfly 4 8 Free-living caddisfly 1 6 Fast Flowing point: Name of organism Number found Pollution score Flat Mayfly 7 8 Woody case caddisfly 0 5 Free-living caddisfly 2 6 Spotty Stonefly 1 5 Name of organism Number found Pollution score Flat Mayfly 9 8 Woody case caddisfly 2 5 Free-living caddisfly 4 6 Name of organism Number found Pollution score Flat Mayfly 11 8 Woody case caddisfly 1 5 Free-living caddisfly 3 6 worm 1 6 Name of organism Number found Pollution score Flat Mayfly 8 8 Woody case caddisfly 2 5 Free-living caddisfly 2 6 Name of organism Number found Pollution score Flat Mayfly 10 8 Free-living caddisfly 2 6 Spotty Stonefly 2 5 Name of organism Number found Pollution score Flat Mayfly 12 8 Woody case caddisfly 1 5 Free-living caddisfly 1 6 Beetle 1 6 5. Diagrams/pictures of your sampling site. Photo of the fast flow part of the river where we took our fast flow samples A picture of our fast flow area where we did all of our test for fast flow. A picture of how slow flow area where we did all of our test for slow flow. 6. Processed field data Presented in a table and graph which is appropriate and enables you to clearly show and the distribution pattern of your chosen organisms in the ecological community. 7. Discussion Explain why the population distribution pattern you have observed and described occurs. Relate the pattern in the community to the biology and adaptations (structural, behavioural or physiological) of the two organisms studied. Discuss how environmental factors (abiotic and biotic) might affect the organisms in the community, and how this relates to the observed distribution pattern, or absence of a pattern. This could involve elaborating, applying, justifying, relating, evaluating, comparing and contrasting, and/or analysing. In your discussion, include interrelationships between organisms in your ecological community. With Caddisflies and Mayflies we saw that they didn’t bother each other when we had them in the sampling container but they do compete for the same food because the both species eat algae and there would be a competition for the food. One thing we did notice was a larger population of Mayflies compared to what we caught in the way of Caddisflies. Due to the significant amount of Mayflies we suspect that because of the pollution score being up at 8 that it’s a bit too much for the Caddisflies to be able to live in with a higher population number. Another thing is a big predator to a Mayfly is a stonefly and we didn’t see a lot of Stoneflies in the stream so the Mayflies are either dominant or the stoneflies just can’t survive in that particular area because of their pollution level being down at 5. In conclusion I have realised that the higher the pollution number in an area i.e Mayflies being up at 8, they would then have a higher population were as if it’s a low pollution score i.e stonefly being down at 5 then there isn’t such a big population. A small sample of a food chain in a stream: Algae→Mayflies→Stoneflies. A couple of biotic factors are: other organisms, competitors, predators herbivores and prey. 8. Bibliography A list of the information sources you used to help you write your report, written in a format that allows other people to find the information sources. These are the sources used to find most of my research. http://www.ento.csiro.au/education/insects/trichoptera.html https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Caddisfly#Ecology https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mayfly http://www.encyclopedia.com/plants-and-animals/animals/zoology-invertebrates/mayflies Biology level 2 book Biology scipad level 2 Ruamahanga River Analysis: Abiotic and Biotic Factors

Grande Bretagne Hotel; External business environment

Strategic concepts in tourism, hospitality and events Individual assignment: Grande Bretagne Hotel Athens; External business environment INTRODUCTION No company in the world is working standalone and in isolation. That’s even more emphasised in the tourism industry where the location of the tourism companies follows the location of the tourism product, the tourism destination. A hotel can not be located standalone in a no attractive tourism destination and expect success, it should be as close to the epicentre of the tourism happening and movement. The problem is, every tourism company wants that, and they all have to compete in the saturated, consistent market with each other and with the environment like a whole. In this assignment we will discuss the challenges and implications of the external environment applied to our hospitality organisation of a choice based on the selected theoretical model. Further evaluate the competitive environment using the Porter’s Five Forces Model with closing recommendation for the future of the business. BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF CHOSEN SUPPLIER For the purpose of this assignment we had chosen the New Hotel Athens. New Hotel Athens (formerly Olympic Palace Hotel), along with 4 other hotels, is a part of Yes Hotels chain, and they are part of the worldwide Design Hotel company with more than 250 independent hotels in over 50 countries worldwide. (http://corporate.designhotels.com/about_design_hotels) Situated in Plaka area in central Athens, New Hotel is a 79 room establishment designed by the Brazilian award winning design duo Fernando and Humberto Campana. The hotel also sports exquisite all-day bar-restaurant, New taste, and Workshop Floor, meeting space with teleconference facilities. IDENTIFICATION OF FACTORS ISSUES IN THE EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENT (MACRO ANALYSIS) Business environment refers to those factors of the surrounding of business enterprise which have influence on the functioning of a business. The business cannot control these aspects but can respond to change if needed. This is also call macro environemnt. (http://books.google.gr/books?id=nfADHVmJkTUC

UTA Congruency with Nursing Standards and Current Nursing Intervention Essay

online dissertation writing UTA Congruency with Nursing Standards and Current Nursing Intervention Essay.

I’m working on a nursing multi-part question and need a sample draft to help me understand better.

Module 5: AssignmentThis is a professional paper in which headings, full sentences,
paragraphs, correct grammar and punctuation, and correct citation of
sources are required.Theory Evaluation:Include a discussion of whether/how the theory appears to be
accurate/valid (based on empirical testing of the theory as discussed
above). Discuss the generalizability of the theory. Summarize the
strengths and weaknesses of the theory. Discuss whether/how the theory
is congruent with current nursing standards and current nursing
interventions or therapeutics. Explain whether/how the theory is
relevant socially and cross-culturally. Describe how the theory might
contribute to the discipline of nursing. Style & Format:The paper will be written using APA standards. The paper will include
a title page (using specified format), 2-3 pages of text, and a
reference list. It will be double-spaced, written in 12-point Times New
Roman font, and have 1-inch margins. Professional and orderly
presentation of ideas (precision, clarity, format, headings, grammar,
spelling, & punctuation) with appropriate citation of sources in
text and reference list is required. Up to 0.5 points will be deducted
for each type of grammar, spelling, punctuation, or format error.Submission Instructions:Secondary sources such as, textbooks, literature reviews, systematic
reviews, dissertations and concept analyses are NOT to be used. Only primary sources and empirical research articles are to be used for this assignment.Submit as a Word document.Rubric
Module 5 Theoretical Evaluation

Module 5 Theoretical Evaluation

Criteria
Ratings

Pts

This criterion is linked to a Learning Outcome
Brief discussion of whether/how the theory appears to be accurate/valid (based on empirical testing of theory) (15 pts)

15
pts
Clear, correct discussion and support from the literature (15 pts)

10
pts
Correct, limited discussion and support from the literature (10 pts)

7.5
pts
Stated without discussion or support from literature (7.5 pts)

5
pts
Incorrect discussion OR summarizes discussions from research articles or text (5 pts)

0
pts
No discussion of accuracy/validity (0 pts)

15 pts

This criterion is linked to a Learning Outcome
Brief discussion of generalizability of the theory (15 pts)

15
pts
Clear, correct discussion and support from the literature (15 pts)

10
pts
Correct, limited discussion and support from the literature (10 pts)

7.5
pts
Stated without discussion or support from literature (7.5 pts)

5
pts
Incorrect discussion OR summarizes discussions from research articles or text (5 pts)

0
pts
No discussion (0 pts)

15 pts

This criterion is linked to a Learning Outcome
Summary of strengths and weaknesses of the theory; with a minimum of 2 each (15 pts)

15
pts
Clear, correct discussion and support from the literature (15 pts)

10
pts
Correct, limited summary and support from the literature (10 pts)

7.5
pts
Stated without summary or support from literature (7.5 pts)

5
pts
Incorrect
identification OR summarizes discussions from research articles or text
OR one strength and one weakness identified (5 pts)

0
pts
No discussion (0 pts)

15 pts

This criterion is linked to a Learning Outcome
Brief discussion of
whether/how the theory is congruent with current nursing standards and
current nursing interventions or therapeutics (15 pts)

15
pts
Clear, correct discussion and support from the literature (15 pts)

10
pts
Correct, limited discussion and support from the literature (10 pts)

7.5
pts
Stated without discussion or support from literature (7.5 pts)

5
pts
Incorrect discussion OR summarizes discussions from research articles or text (5 pts)

0
pts
No discussion (0 pts)

15 pts

This criterion is linked to a Learning Outcome
Brief explanation of whether/how the theory is relevant socially and cross-culturally (15 pts)

15
pts
Clear, correct explanation and support from the literature (15 pts)

10
pts
Correct, limited explanation and support from the literature (10 pts)

7.5
pts
Stated without explanation or support from literature (7.5 pts)

5
pts
Incorrect explanation OR summarizes discussions from research articles or text (5 pts)

0
pts
No explanation (0 pts)

15 pts

This criterion is linked to a Learning Outcome
Brief description of how the theory might contribute to the discipline of nursing (15 pts)

15
pts
Clear, correct description and support from the literature (15 pts)

10
pts
Correct, limited description and support from the literature (10 pts)

7.5
pts
Stated without discussion or support from literature (7.5 pts)

5
pts
Incorrect description OR summarizes discussions from research articles or text (5 pts)

0
pts
No description (0 pts)

15 pts

This criterion is linked to a Learning Outcome
APA Style &
Format (10 pts) Style includes: Professional and orderly presentation of
ideas (precision and clarity). Grammar, spelling and punctuation.
Minimal use of direct quotes (1-2 max.) Format includes: Proper use of
title page (using specified format), spacing, font, margins, and
headings. Appropriate citation of sources in text and reference list. A
minimum of 2 references are required. Up to 0.5 points will be deducted
for each type of grammar, spelling, punctuation, or format error. Up to
two points will be deducted for poor headings /insufficient
headings/formatting

10
pts
0-2 types of errors (9-10 pts)

8
pts
3-4 types of errors (8 pts)

7
pts
5-6 types of errors (7 pts)

6
pts
7-8 types of errors (6 pts)

0
pts
> 8 types of errors (5 or less pts)

10 pts

Total Points:
100

UTA Congruency with Nursing Standards and Current Nursing Intervention Essay

ASU Annual Review Human Capital Business Sucess Discussion

ASU Annual Review Human Capital Business Sucess Discussion.

Imagine you work at a company and it is time for an employee named
Jim’s annual review. While he was a model employee the first nine months
of the year, recently Jim has been coming in late. It has not been just
a few minutes each day, either. It is starting to cause problems in the
production line. In this assignment, write a summary of how you would
approach your conversation with Jim. How will you address his recent
performance issues while still praising him for his previous nine months
of good work? Your goal is to balance negative and positive feedback so
that Jim will leave motivated to do his best. This assignment should
focus on your goals for the conversation and which employee relations
approaches you will use to address the situation.undefinedYou will create and submit your assignment by using the ecree link.
Just click on the link, and start writing. Your work will be saved
automatically. You’ll see some feedback on the right-hand side of the
screen, including text and videos to help guide you in the writing
process. When you’re ready, you can turn in your assignment by clicking Submit at the bottom of the page.undefinedClick the assignment link to start your assignment in ecree. Please note that ecree works best in Firefox and Chrome.undefinedWrite a 5–7 paragraph paper in which you:undefinedExplain how you will address Jim’s recent performance issues.Suggest both constructive and positive feedback designed so that Jim will leave motivated to do his best.Format your assignment according to the following formatting requirements:
This course requires the use of Strayer Writing Standards. For
assistance and information, please refer to the Strayer Writing
Standards link in the left-hand menu of your course. Include at least one reference to support your paper. undefinedThe specific course learning outcomes associated with this assignment are:undefinedRecommend a plan for addressing performance issues in an annual review that includes motivational feedback.
ASU Annual Review Human Capital Business Sucess Discussion

Relationship Between the Enigmatic Quality of Modernist Short Stories and Abrupt Endings

Discuss the relationship between the enigmatic quality of modernist short stories and their abrupt endings. Frank Kermode argues in his book The Sense of an Ending: Studies in the Theory of Fiction that ‘‘…whether you think time will have a stop or that the world is eternal; there is still a need to speak humanly of life’s importance in relation to it – a need in the moment of existence to belong, to be related to a beginning and to an end.’.[1] With a literary traditionary that seeks to provide closure and understanding within this narrative, modernist short stories disrupt this sense of security by ending abruptly.. As a result of constraints on the narrative due to their length, and the complexity of issues addressed within this confined space, both the protagonists within the short stories and the readers themselves do not gain full understanding of events with ease, if at all, which makes the stories themselves enigmatic. Abrupt endings in modernist short stories leave the reader with unanswered questions and removes the readers’ sense of security that they gain from viewing their lives as a firm narrative of beginning and end and thus more accurately mirrors the unpredictable nature of life. I will consider Samuel Beckett’s Dante and the Lobster andKatherine Mansfield’s Bliss in light of these statements and examine how the enigmatic nature of the complex allusions made within the texts are reinforced by the abrupt ending of the narrative. Within the confined space of the modernist short story the protagonists cannot experience revelations to the fullest extent and gain complete understanding. Thus it is the role of the reader to decipher the ultimate truth and leaves the reader pondering the multiple plausible endings to the narrative. This lack of understanding within the consciousness of the protagonist is presented through their immobility within the narrative. With this full understanding one can assume that the protagonists may gain a new found mobility that is not presented within the narrative of the short story and it abruptly ends before the protagonists’ full realisation. Katherine Mansfield’s Bliss presents a women who occupies a liminal space between childhood and womanhood. The short story opens with ‘Although Bertha Young was thirty she still had moments like this when she wanted to run instead of walk, to take dancing steps…, to bowl a hoop, to throw something up…,or to stand still and laugh at – nothing – nothing, simply.’.[2] This opening phrase presents Bertha’s overwhelming energy and feeling of bliss through asyndeton and the use of listing as it quickens the pace of the line and mimics Bertha’s overflow of emotion. This feeling of elation is in opposition to the content as the narrator is describing what Bertha wishes to do but what she cannot. Bertha is immediately introduced to the reader as a protagonist without independence or social mobility. Mansfield’s name choice associates Bertha with her productive capabilities and within the narrative she is repeatedly presented within her home and thus she is inextricably linked with domestic life. Despite this she appears unable to fulfil her role as wife and mother. Despite being Little B’s mother the Nanny is presented as adopting a more involved role in the raising of the child, to the point of not wanting Bertha to interfere with her upraising. Even upon the discovery of her husband’s affair Bertha does not react initially and continues her unexciting conversation about a mundanely named poem ‘Why Must it Always be Tomato Soup?’.[3] Bertha’s lack of independence and the restrictive nature of her role of wife and mother prohibits her from expressing discontent. Had Mansfield not ended the short story abruptly but continued to a narration to the point of resolution and happiness for her protagonist, the negative presentation of the immobility of her protagonist may have lost its effectiveness. Similarly, Dante and the Lobster opens with the idea of stasis. Belacqua is described as being ‘stuck’ and ‘so bogged that he could move neither backward nor forward.’.[4] Beckett’s protagonist is named after a character in Dante’s The Divine Comedy who is representative of indolence, this use of intertextuality contributes to the enigmatic nature of the short story as it is the role of the reader to infer the higher meaning that the limited textual space does not allow for. Dante’s Belacqua does not attempt to climb up Mount Purgatory and reach heaven, nor does he travel down towards hell. Sam Slothe argues ‘Dante’s Belacqua is stuck in a lethargy that delays his spiritual progress. On the other hand Beckett’s Belacqua is stuck on a loftier clime.’.[5] The ‘loftier clime’ represents Belacqua’s repeated inability to gain full understand of either the literature he studies or the situations he encounters within the narrative. This lack of understanding demonstrates the stagnancy of his situation. Belacqua’s lack of development is demonstrated by his willingness to abandon his studies ‘when he heard the midday strike. At once he switched his mind off its task.’ despite the earlier statement that ‘he pored over the enigma, he would not concede himself conquered…’.[6] Frank Kermode looked at the long literary tradition of fictions that portrayed the end of human existence. He argues that ‘Such models of the world make tolerable one’s moment between beginning or end, or at any rate they keep up drowsy emperors awake.’.[7] This implies the security humankind gain from believing they are part of a narrative controlled by some higher power, can lead them to become less proactive in improving or changing their situation as they believe, to an extent, that theirs and the world’s fate are predestined. Both Dante’s and Beckett’s Belacquas are presented as intellectually and spiritually ‘stuck’ yet unmotivated to improve their situations. Beckett was concerned with the meaninglessness and futility of life and the abrupt ending of the story reinforces the enigmatic nature of human existence by removing the false sense of security provided by the idea of a predestined end. This in turn presents as convoluted form of encouragement to adopt a mindset of self-determination opposed to lethargic complacency. William Warde looks at how “new criticism” was used to understand the complex structure of short stories and it ‘concerns itself with the work of art as object and emphasizes image and symbol, especially as used thematically and mythically so that a large significance…can be revealed in a seemingly trivial or insignificant incident.’.[8] This is evident in Bliss with the symbolism of the pear tree. The tree is first introduced through the description ‘At the far end, against the wall, there was a tall slender pear tree in fullest richest bloom; it stood perfect…’.[9] Mansfield consistently represents a distance between Bertha and the pear tree which represents her inability to gain full understanding of its meaning. The metaphorical meaning of the pear tree is not explicit within the text, yet the protagonist’s initially blissful state causes her to assume it is ‘a symbol of her own life.’.[10] Yet when admiring the pear tree with Pearl, a women who Bertha’s feeling towards are ambiguous, Mansfield describes the tree in terms of fire and heat imagery. Mansfield uses the simile ‘like the flame of a candle, to stretch up…to grow taller and taller as they gazed – almost to touch the rim of the round, silver moon.’.[11] The presentation of a growing fire and the presentation of the women physically ‘side by side’, connected through plural pronouns such as ‘they’ and ‘their’, it appears that Mansfield is suggesting a shared and growing passion between the two women. In light of this, the positioning of the pear tree at the furthest part of the garden from her suggests Bertha’s inability to express or engage in these repressed homosexual feelings. In Mansfield’s Bliss there is ambiguity surrounding the nature of Bertha’s fascination with Pearl which the narrative length and abrupt ending do not allow to come to pass fully. The narrator informs the reader that ‘Bertha had fallen in love with her, as always did fall in love with beautiful women who had something strange about them.’. [12] The notion of love when framed against the claim that Pearl is ‘strange’ could imply her strangeness is derived from awareness of her homosexual tendencies, tendencies which would have been considered taboo for much of Mansfield’s contemporary audience. However, this strangeness may also allude to a mild jealously Bertha has for this more interesting and exotic women. Bertha associates Pearl with symbols of modernity, for example she makes the statement that Pearl ‘lives in taxis.’. [13] By aligning Pearl with modern life she is demonstrating an independence the ‘strange’ woman enjoys that middle-class family life would not allow. Despite Bertha’s claim of happiness she describes how she and Harry ‘had this absolutely satisfactory house and garden.’.[14] The use of the unemotive adjective ‘satisfactory’ implies a lack of excitement in her life, something that is furthered through the short story as it follows the mundane social gathering. This notion of mediocrity of Bertha’s life is reinforced by her husband’s unimpassioned compliment that her soufflé was ‘very admirable’.[15] This notion of jealousy is supported by the discovery of Pearl’s affair with Harry as Bertha had previously claimed that her and her husband ‘were as much in love as ever…’.[16] Nonetheless, after the discovery of the affair Bertha remains calm and continues to engage in menial conversation with Eddie. It is only when Pearl initiates physical contact and holds ‘her hand a moment longer…’ that Bertha is overwhelmed with emotion and runs to the window to see her beloved pear tree.[17] It appears that the reader, the narrator and Bertha do not have full understanding at the end of the short story. Warde argues ‘these stories also contain tremendously complex internal structures, growing out of and reflecting the growing problems of the twentieth-century experience.’[18] These unresolved ambiguities make Bliss enigmatic in itself and Mansfield, by ending the short stories before understanding is complete, leaves the ending not confined to one concrete finish but multiple possible endings. Beckett utilises the narrative restrictions of short story to leave the reader with a complex amalgamation of allusions and intense descriptions of Belacqua’s meal preparation and consumption without explanation of how they link until the abrupt ending. Beckett presents Belacqua struggling with the translation of the Italian ‘pietà’, unfortunately he discovers that there is no direct translation into English, it can only be translated as either pity or piety. This encompasses Belacqua’s struggle between understanding the text in a poetic way or in a religious way. This concept of pity is something that is alluded to elsewhere in the text and subconsciously concerns Belacqua despite having allegedly ‘switched his mind off its task’.[19] During the description of Belacqua’s various gastronomical exploits the narrative is interrupted with allusions to the imminent execution of a murderer named McCabe. There is an inherent violence in the description of Belacqua’s toast making process, the narrative describes how ‘he would very quickly that fat white look off its face…’ and how the bread needed to be ‘done to a dead end…’.[20] Beyond this violence, Belacqua attributes life-like attributes to his food. Belacqua makes reference to the bread’s ‘face’ and describing how the gorgonzola was ‘sweating’ and ‘alive’, these life-like attributes are framed as what he finds appealing in his food. Beckett’s presentation of Belacqua’s unusually violent approach to his food and his preoccupation with the translation of ‘pietà’ is only understood as the short story ends. Up until this point comments on McCabe have been subtly filtered through the narrative, yet now he considers ‘poor McCabe’ whilst ‘gripping his parcel’ containing the lobster and pondering the question ‘Why not piety and pity both, even down below?’.[21] In light of the imminent death of McCabe following his petition for mercy being rejected, and the painful death of the lobster, the inability to translate ‘pietà’ is given meaning. Slote argues Belacqua ‘would be unstuck if there would be a word that would mean both pity and piety…But, as it is, there is not, as is evinced in the lobster’s slow death.’.[22] The abrupt departure from the short story mirrors the reader’s abrupt entrance into the protagonist’s day. The complex narrative technique Beckett employs in Dante and the Lobster contributes to its enigmatic quality. The narrator’s voice and the protagonist’s voice are often conflated and it difficult to determine whose thoughts are being presented. Occasionally Belacqua’s thoughts are expressed explicitly ‘So, he thought, having regulated the flow of the grill…’, yet at other points the narration is focalised through Belacqua and the other characters, and less frequently the narrator’s own voice is presented ‘I need scarcely say…’. Notably it is the narrator’s voice that interrupts the narrative which causes the short story to abruptly end. As Belacqua fails to understand the passages of Dante’s The Divine Comedy, he also fails to comprehend the method by which lobsters are cooked. Despite realising the painful way in which the lobster will come to its end, for Belacqua the revelation is not fully complete as he naively thinks it will be a ‘quick death’, something that the narrator interrupts the story to aggressively rebuke. The narrator informs the reader that Belacqua’s wishful thinking is wholly incorrect with the monosyllabic ‘It is not.’. It is only with the interruption of the narrative through the narrator’s voice that offers absolute understanding of the cruelty of the cooking process. Abrupt endings allow the modernist writer to make a comment through structure and form that the length of narration does not allow. Full understanding of events would attribute a completeness that may not necessarily be desired. Part of the enigmatic quality of modernist short stories arises from the author’s inability to fully express controversial thought and practices within the narrative because of the time period in which they were writing. William Warde writes of how writers such as Mansfield have adopted the Chekhovian “slice-of-life” style of short story ‘which reflect the confusing and complex formlessness of life itself; yet in their unique view of reality these stories imply a conscious plotting that is not antithetical to the view of plots with beginnings, middles and ends.’[23] The enigmatic quality of short stories attributes it a sense of realism, and the abrupt end solidifies the presentation of the unpredictable and complex nature of human existence. Bibliography Beckett, S. ‘Dante and the Lobster’ in Evergreen Review,vo.1, No.1(1957) https://evergreenreview.com/read/dante-and-the-lobster/ (Last accessed 16/1/19) Childs, P. (2011) Modernist Literature: A Guide for the Perplexed, (London: Contimuum International Publishing Group) Mansfield, K. ‘Bliss’ in Katherine Mansfield’s Selected Stories, ed. O’Sullivan, V. (New York: W. W. Norton

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