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Crucial Role Of Traditional Healers Health And Social Care Essay

Share this: Facebook Twitter Reddit LinkedIn WhatsApp In this paper a comparison of Western medicines and African traditional medicines shall be made. The purpose of this paper is to identify similarities and differences between Western and African conceptions of diseases, cure and effective patient care. According to Germov (2007, p. 8) Western Medicine is “the conventional approach to medicine in western societies, based on the diagnosis and explanation of illness as a mulfunction of the body’s biological mechanisms.” It encompasses a range of health care practices evolved to maintain and restore health by the prevention and treatment of illness Hewson (1998). WHO defines Traditional medicine as “the sum total of knowledge, skills and practices based on theories, beliefs and experiences indigenous to different cultures that are used to maintain health, as well as to prevent, diagnose, improve or treat physical and mental illnesses”. Traditional medicine that has been adopted by other populations outside its own culture is often termed alternative or complementary medicine (WHO, 2008). Helwig (2005) claimed that primary healers in traditional African medicine are midwives, herbalist and diviners. Diviners focus on the root causes of sickness by the ancestral spirits (Helwig, 2005). Midwives use herbs and local plants to assist with pregnancy and childbirth (Helwig, 20005). Herbalists use animal, plants and mineral based medicines to cure diseases (Helwig, 2005). Herb market and herb trading is a very common practice in many African countries (Helwig, 2005). According to Okpako (2006) traditional African communities have three main groups of plants they use to cure serious illnesses, poisonous plants and plants for minor illnesses. Plants used for minor illnesses treat illnesses such as headaches; bruises and pain fever are used without consultation of spiritual healers (Okpako, 2006). Plants used for serious illnesses are used when dealing with life threatening illnesses and need the intervention of spiritual healers, what the patient gets is holistic treatment (Okpako, 2006). Okpako (2006) stated that as for the poisonous plants, many African communities recognise it just from experience with it or from accidental poisoning. Okpako (2006) claimed that in most African countries, many people western medicines are out of their reach as they do not have money to buy the drugs and so they resort to traditional medicine is it cheap. Traditional African medicine is based on accumulated experience of ancient Africans (Okpako, 2006). Traditional African medicine’s mode of transmission is spread by word of mouth and has hindered emergency of a generally accepted theory and hence of the systematic development of traditional African medicine as a self-regulating profession (Okpako, 2006). Traditional African medicine practitioners are healers who believe that their methods can cure many conditions including cancer, AIDS, mental problems, infertility, some sexually transmitted diseases, wounds and burns as well as many other ailments and conditions (Helwig, 2005) Good health is linked to a correct relationship between people and their supernatural environment (Helwig, 2005). According to Helwig (2005) among the traditional healers, being able to diagnose an illness is considered a gift from both God and the ancestors. Helwig claimed that “a major emphasis is placed on determining the root cause underlying any sickness or bad luck”. Illness is said to stem from lack of balance between the patient and his or her environment, (Helwig, 2005) Diviners may use plants not only for healing purposes but also to control weather and events, (Helwig, 2005). Helwig (2005) stated that “in addition to plants, traditional African healers may employ charms, incantations and casting of spells”. They are also skilled in psychotherapy and counselling (Helwig, 2005). African healing systems recognise the influence of the mind on the human well being (Helwig, 2005). They recognise the negative emotions such as fear, guilt and hate can lead to illness (Helwig, 2005). Rituals are undertaken to appease the angered ancestral spirits, patients need to make confessions in order for the spirits to forgive them and be well (Helwig, 2005). The rituals accompanying the use of herbal medicine is referred to as “incantation”. Incantation is a collection of carefully chosen words used to bring healing effect or resolving emotional conflict in the mind of the patient (Helwig, 2005). Spirits of the ancestors protect their living descendants, however ancestors demand from their descendant’s strict adherence to the moral laws laid down (Helwig, 2005). An immoral act for example incest is believed to annoy the spirits resulting in serious illness or misfortune (Helwig, 2005). According to WHO, 80% of the African population depends on traditional medicine for primary health care. In Ghana, Mali, Nigeria and Zambia, 60% of children with high fever resulting from malaria use herbal medicine at home. Lovell (2009) claimed that individuals suffering from pain, anxiety, depression, headaches and fatigue use alternative medicine. WHO estimates that several African countries practice traditional birth with the help of traditional midwives who uses indigenous plants to aid childbirth. WHO (2008) claimed that 70% to 80% of the population in western countries has used some form of alternative or complementary medicine for example acupuncture. As noted by Germov (2007) there are varied reasons why alternative medicine is so popular at the expense of western medicine. When people get sick they need to know the causes of the illness, suffering or even death (Germov, 2007). In Western medicine, the traditional view that illness was caused by spiritual evil is no longer valid. Alternative medicine that have an explanation to causes of illnesses and suffering have a greater appeal (Germov, 2007). The desire to achieve a more holistic form of care may be a motivating factor as to why patients choose traditional medicine (Lovell, 2009). In most African countries, drugs are out of reach to many people as they do not have the money to buy them. The only solution available is to resort to traditional medicine as it is cheap and reliable (Okpako, 2006). Most African people are so skeptical to try western medicine. The main reason is that they are afraid to try something new and prefer to continue using their old way of seeking medical help that is the use of traditional medicine(Okpako, 2006). As stated by Germov (2007) people have lost trust in western medicine. Many toxins found in the drugs have drove people away from the use of it. People have also lost trust in scientific experts, they blame them on almost all the environmental problems such as global warming, oil spills and even acid rain (Germov, 2007). Germov (2007) claimed that there is a good relationship between ‘personal’ healer and patient. Personal healers take their time to listen and provide tailor made treatment to the individual client. By so doing they create a strong bond which can lead up to trust and loyalty. Wilcox
Personal: involves various kinds of non verbal behavior unique to one person. The meaning is also unique to the person sending the message, for example a person may laugh due to nervousness or fear ,while another may cry these responses non verbally communicate discomfort. A person might bite his nails in anticipation or walk to n fro in state of confusion. Cultural: Characteristic of a group of people, it is learned unconsciously by observing others in the society or a group. In different cultures individuals tend to behave in a unique way according to their upbringing and culture .For example nowadays in few parts of India if a boy and girl are dating each other and they walk hand in hand, it would be a big taboo in the society whereas in the western culture its quite normal. In our culture body language plays a vital role , traditionally to welcome someone into our homes we hold our hands together and bow down our heads ,to show they are welcomed into our house and they would be treated equal to their gods . Another bright example would be , when Indians nod their head sideways as a “yes” it would seem as a “no” and use the same signal as “no” which in fact gets people all over the world confused. Universal :Behavior that is common to human kind. It shows happiness, sadness or deep-seated feelings .Universally speaking its accepted in all the cultures where when a person speaks in a low tone generally shows respect towards the other person and when a person speaks in a high tone of voice it usually means commanding or disrespectful in other occasions. 2.Classification of Non-verbal communications Kinesics: is the study of non-verbal communication achieved by movement of the body. Example facial expressions (mouth and eyes are the two indicators of emotion) and Posture and Gesture (movement of arms, hands head, feet and legs), winking your eye at someone would be sending out a signal of mischief or raising both your eyebrows would show that you have not understood a message or a state of confusion or it could be with the mouth, your happiness could be brought forward with a smile or a frown can clearly show your sadness. Proxemics: is the study of communication with aspects of physical distances (space) between individuals. In simple words proximity means nearness. There are lot of factors where space would play as an important factor for communication some of them are status , roles , culture, gender and age. It would be smart if an individual knows as to how much space he/she has to maintain while communicating with the other person for example it would be quite awkward to stand right in front of your boss while he/she is addressing. Haptics: Communication based on sense of touch. For example stroking, hitting ,holding , handshake or patting. By sense of touch you could send variety of messages , a nice and firm hand shake would mean that the other person is really expected and welcomed, where as a strong hand shake would definitely mean dominance .A pat on the shoulder to a male colleague would mean encouragement and the same to a female colleague would definitely mean sexual harassment these days. Oculesics: communication regarding usage of eye , its a very common thing as we as human beings judge a person at his/her first appearance and how physical appearance really matters for example when a man is meeting a woman he instantly judge her completely based on her appearance and the women too would see how the man is dressed or his shoes , this type of communication is completely based on outward appearance. Environment: it can influence the outcomes of communication and it eases up people and match their expectations be it at an office or a regular bar. For example organizations give full consideration to the office space its layout, sales area , ergonomics and many more things to create an environment where one would feel its solace and blend in. 3. A communication effectively used for decoding a message through a sender and a receiver without any use of words is known as non verbal communication, this form of communication tends to be unconscious and often reveals the sender’s feeling and preferences more spontaneously and honestly than the verbal form of communication, few examples of non verbal communication are , Facial expressions Body language Tone of voice Gestures Behaviors Every culture has its own uniqueness of non verbal communication involved in it , As for me hailing from India few of the communication methods could be effectively seen such as, Facial expressions: part of kinesics which involves communication involving expressions through mouth and eyes which indicate various emotions.In India facial expressions play an important role, one could notice it in everyday life ,for example in south of India Kerala there is a famous form of ballet / opera / dance known as kathakali which is based completely on facial expressions , in a traditional Indian family is a wife has to call her husband from a rendezvous amongst his friends , she would not call him by his name or send somebody to call him , she would partially hide behind the curtain wait till she catches his eyes and signal him to come inside. Body language: This form of non verbal communication usually involves gestures by physical ability as simple as waving your hand to bid good bye to someone which is universally known or waving both the hands to say “no” .As per my experience goes , every move of yours is thoroughly judged at a point of interview when u lean forward it shows you are genuinely interested and when your posture is more relaxed it clearly shows you are not paying enough attention or not interested. Tone of voice : This form of non verbal communication purely depends on an individual’s intrapersonal skills, how well he/she is able to communicate , tone of voice sends out clear message if the person on the other end is clearly appreciated or not. India has been a male dominated country right from history, so the head of the house is always the male person , An Indian wife would always speak in a low tone of voice to show respect for her spouse and her submission towards him .A son/ daughter too would behave in the same manner , speaking in high tone of voice would show utter disrespect to the head of the house. When a teacher speaks in the class no student would speak up even outside the class of school premises the student always shows respect to their teachers my maintaining a low tone of voice. Gestures : This form of non verbal communication clearly deals with gestures – gestures according to the dictionary simply means – “A motion of the limbs or body made to express or help express thought or to emphasize speech.” As India is a multi ethnic , multi cultural and a country with many religions has a varied effect on the people and their behavior. Simply to greet a relative or a close friends Muslims in our country simply hug the other person three times from right to left shoulder and then left to right shoulder where as another dominant religion Hinduism the younger person touches the feet of the elder person to seek his good will or blessings. Behaviors: According to the dictionary the very meaning explains us that it is the actions or reactions of a person or animal in response to external or internal conditions and according to one’s behaviors we could clearly understand the message he/she is trying to communicate. In our culture one’s character is always judged by his/her behavior, for example we personalize with everyone very easily, imagine if a cab driver is little elderly we would straight away call him uncle ,if he is comparatively younger we would call him brother .In another example just to show respect for elders whenever they walk into the room , everybody stands up and welcomes them. 4. As a HRM manager recruiting for finance manager position I would prepare myself with these following questions, Open What qualities according to you should a good finance manager posses ? Close If you are selected for this position, would you be able to join immediately ? Probing Could you narrate an incident where you have handled a crisis effectively as a finance manager ? 5.Active listening :communication at its best to help others understand the problem or a situation from an individuals point of view. An active listener has empathy with the speaker. Active listening often involves the use of confirmation ,rejection or disconfirmation. Active listening in a business environment is quite essential right for example, right from the basics of an interview the interviewer would notice how much of an active listener you are , a sign of active listening would definitely be of what we spoke of earlier , body language ,gesture and behavior. In a business setting every one has to coordinate with each other , a simple message of urgency could be passed through number of employees and if anyone of them is not paying enough of attention the would message and its meaning would change till it reaches at the other end. Imagine customer service for an instance and grieved customer calling the support team to tell about his issues regarding the product and if the representative is not actively tuned to the conversation , the whole point of customer service is lost and it would definitely leave the customer more infuriated. In a sales scenario if a customer has ordered for 30 packages and the employee has understood it as 13 , it would lead into utter chaos these factors would majorly impact the business and finally it has a bright chance of getting shut. The main factor of active listening are acknowledgment empathize clarity acknowledgment : The act of admitting or owning to something .If a person is trying to communicate a message acknowledge the fact that you have understood or comprehended verbally or non verbally (face to face situation). Empathize : accepting the emotional dimensions of a message. For ex: I understand how u feel about this ! …. Clarity : If a person is unclear in his attempt to send a message across , it is not wrong to politely ask that person to clarify his stand or repeat the sentence again .This would avoid any confusion or misunderstanding. 6.The six thinking hats concept has been designed to improve thinking effectiveness and how an individual can utilise them in negotiations are, facts and information :An individual at this stage should be gaining knowledge about the company and its payment to the employees as in does it pay well or not , based on that the individual could expect. feelings and emotions :Should be able to express his/her willingness to join the team or the company , so it should seem that the candidate is genuine for the pay he/she is expecting. critical judgment :this is where the interviewers come up with the counter strategy , building up anxiety expressing things like , the market is pretty dull cant expect more etc but as a negotiation scenario one should stand up as per the expectations. Positive: This is where an individual has to be promising , it is a situation completely opposite to critical judgment , its a reply to that hat . New ideas: It is based around the idea of provocation and thinking for the sake of identifying new possibilities. This is often carried out on critical judgment statements in order to identify how to get past the barriers or failings identified, in other words as said earlier the individual has to be promising. Big picture: This stage is where one has to rethink as to what have we done so far? and question what can we do next? In simple words just analyze the situation. All these steps would definitely help in successful negotiation. 7.Feedback we get to hear this word quite often, it simply means response to an inquiry. In today’s entire business setting feedback is quite essential. It can be noticed from two different point of views from the company’s and the customer’s perspective. Feedback has two important factors, self assessment – making your own judgment about your performance and contribution to the teams work. Peer assessment – receive feedback from team members. Feedback can be of two kinds positive and negative. Positive feedback is something received when a task has been completed exceptionally well and negative feedback means something has been done which is not up to the expectations and needs to be improved. A company launches a product which has never been produced by any another companies and it is quite new in the market, how would one know if the product is wanted and is in demand, the answer is feedback . When the product enters the market through a big advertising campaign customer’s would get attracted to it and finally buy it, if the customer wants more of it, he would order it again in this cycle we would know that the product is in demand and if it is not much in demand then the company would request the customer and enquire what lacks in that product and when the customer replies to the company about the product it would be a feedback. An employee at the same firm who has been working hard and diligently known for his work receives an appreciation, this too can be a form of feedback. This in fact could encourage the employee to sustain his performance or even improve which in fact would help the productivity in the company (positive feedback) , on the other hand if the employee is little slow and not hard working if he/she gets a notice that improvement is needed or hard work needed then the employee would know what he needs to do (constructive feedback). Negative feedback is easy to understand it could be a termination letter. Feedback then is very important for a company if it needs to change or prosper. 8.Assertiveness meaning positive it is a kind of constructive and helpful behavior when an issue arises ,this for of communication is a way if dealing with issues if unfair use of power and gaining respect and recognition. Standing up for your rights and expressing what you believe , feel and want in direct, honest and appropriate ways that respects the right of the other person. The four steps which would help me become an effective manager are Set limits – have a bottom line and be treated with respect expect to be fairly rewarded for work be comfortable with ourselves have our health and safety considered have our needs considered. Refusals: say no to requests that are unreasonable, unfair or beyond what is expected in our job without feeling guilty. Be direct ,clear and honest. Persistence or broken CD technique You have clear views and can justify your viewpoint. Making requests. Ask for what you want . Set the tone. Be relevant : communicate about what is relevant. References: Written notes and lecturer hand outs from the business communication class. www.thinkexist.com and www.freedictionary.com.

FISV 5526 Goldman Sachs and Bitcoin Financial Reporting & Control Discussion

FISV 5526 Goldman Sachs and Bitcoin Financial Reporting & Control Discussion.

Discussion: WSJ Group Discussion ForumIn addition to the WSJ below – I have posted something loosely relevant to this course, but entirely relevant to MBA students and professionals in general. Check out this Ted talk on body language and professional poise. Feel free to include this in your discussion considerations.Your body language may shape who you are | Amy Cuddyhttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ks-_Mh1QhMcHere are the articles we will be reviewing/discussing this week:1.Goldman Sachs Goes on Buying Binge for Delinquent Mortgages2.Bitcoin Price Plunges on Fears of a Currency SplitYour participation and management will come from engaging in the article (participation) and leading the discussion. You can start off by summarizing the major points of what is presented and agreeing/refuting with what is discussed @wsj. You can further field the questions that your classmates will undoubtedly bring up. You can further find additional articles or references that back up your point(s). Feel free (I encourage you) to find additional articles to bolster your leadership grade.
FISV 5526 Goldman Sachs and Bitcoin Financial Reporting & Control Discussion

Marriage in the Bible Analytical Essay

essay writer Marriage in the Bible Analytical Essay. Introduction The Bible regards marriage as a union between a man and woman. In the Garden of Eden, God created man and woman and then established the marriage institution. During creation, God realized that man would be alone and lonely without company, hence the need to come up with a helper. The book of genesis 2:24 (King James Version), says “therefore shall a man leave his father and his mother, and shall cleave unto his wife: and they will be one flesh.” From the creation story, it is evident that God instituted marriage as a union between man and woman. Although God instituted marriage as the foundation of family and society, His apostle declared that Christians could opt to remain single so long as they could control their urges and avoid indulging in immoral sexual behaviors. Some patriarchs and prophets such as Jeremiah, Elijah, Paul, and even Jesus never married. Hence, marriage in the Bible is an issue that has divided Christians based on the Biblical interpretation because some root for marriage while others support celibacy. Importance of Marriage After creating man, God realized that man could not live happily without companionship and thus created a helper for him. Since the Garden of Eden was very expansive and Adam was not able to dress it on his own, God reasoned that he needed a companion and helper. When Adam woke up from deep sleep, he recognized Eve as part of his bones and flesh. Adam expressed satisfaction in having Eve as his companion and helper. Adams (1986) asserts, “God designed marriage as the foundational element of all human society” (p.4). During creation, Adam and eve formed the basic unit of society and thus set the precedent of marriage as a union of a man and a woman. Hence, God instituted marriage as a source of companionship for man and woman as they tended the Garden of Eden (Hanegraaff, 2012). Marriage is also important to humans because it provides them with the ability to procreate and build strong societies that respect human dignity. God created only Adam and Eve and through procreation, they have multiplied and filled the earth with billions of people. According to the book of genesis 1:28, after creating a man and a woman, God bestowed them with blessings and told them to “…be fruitful, and multiply, and replenish the earth, and subdue it: and have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over every living thing that moveth upon the earth.” Adam and Eve used their power to procreate and multiply populations, thus replenishing the earth so that they could rule the world. Hence, the procreation capacity of marriage has helped humanity to multiply and replenish the earth as per the blessings that God gave to Adam and Eve during creation. Is it compulsory? In the Bible, marriage is not compulsory, but it depends on the interests of a person. However, catholic has made it compulsory for nuns and monks to stay away from marriage. Catholics believe that celibacy is a better option because it relieves a person from marriage and family responsibilities and increases commitment to spiritual issues. In his concession, Paul asserts, “…it is not good for a man to touch a woman” (1 Corinthians 7:1). Some Christians have taken the concession that Paul made in Corinthians and practiced celibacy as a means of dedicating their lives to spiritual matters. Christians who practice celibacy have accepted that marriage is not good because it interferes with spiritual matters that God has ordained for them to perform. For example, when Jesus was selecting his disciples, he told them “follow me”, but one gave an excuse that he wanted to go home and bury the dead while another said he wanted to return home and bid farewell to his family (Luke 9:59). In marriage, people experience many challenges that can distract them from pursing their missions as ordained by God. Hence, Paul’s sentiments explain why nuns and monks do not marry. However, most Christians accept marriage as a holy institution that should form the basis of family and society. Without marriage, it would be very hard for Christians to instill Christian values and principles on families and the general society. Thus, marriage is a basic unit of family and society, which has a noble role of defining morality in the society. Sexual immorality has been a setback, which has been downgrading the essence of marriage in modern society. Campbell (2003) argues, “Extramarital acts of sexual love are, no less than unloving begetting, attempts to put asunder on what God joined together…” (p. 266). Owing to immorality, Paul admonishes Christians, “to avoid fornication, let every man have his own wife, and let every woman have her own husband” (1 Corinthians 7:2). Therefore, most Christian factions advise their members to marry to avoid the temptations of immorality, which is exceedingly rampant in the modern society. Role of Husband and Wife in Marriage During creation, God defined the responsibility of a woman as a helper. After God created Adam, He noted that he had a great responsibility of tending the Garden of Eden, and thus decided to create a helper for him. The creation story says that God made Adam sleep before removing one of his ribs out of which he molded Eve. When Adam woke up, he recognized eve as part of his bones and flesh. As a helper, a wife plays a significant role in assisting her husband to perform certain duties. According to Adams (1986), God created Eve to help man in procreation purposes and in tending the Garden of Eden. Therefore, wives and husbands have common duties on this earth. The Bible states that a husband should be the head of the family. Husband has a great responsibility of providing to the family and ensuring that family members have protection from external forces. The book of Ephesians advises women to submit to their husbands “for the husband is the head of the wife, even as Christ is the head of the church: and he is the savior of the body” (5:23). Moreover, the Bible apprises husbands to show their wives unconditional love for Christ did the same when He went on the cross. In this view, Campbell (2003) advises that husbands should not treat their wives and children as slaves, but rather they should “treat their wives as equals, assuming their God-given responsibility of caring, protecting, and providing for them” (p. 60). Hence, husband and wife have complementary roles in the family, which are essential in caring, providing, and protecting their family members. Divorce and Remarriage-marriage Problems in marriages have compelled many couples to divorce and remarry. Cases of divorce are rampant is the modern society because social, economic, and cultural problems have increased in the past decades. The Bible views marriage as an eternal union between man and woman as it states that when people get married, they become one flesh and thus, “what therefore God hath joined together, let not man put asunder” (Mathew 19:6). Although Moses instructed Israelites to divorce their wives by giving them a divorce certificate, Jesus said that God permitted divorce because people have hardened their hearts; however, but God does not sanction divorce. Hence, when Jesus came, he tightened the issue of divorce among Christians by saying, “Whosoeuer putteth away his wife,Marriage in the Bible Analytical Essay

ISOL 534 University of The Cumberlands Relevant Issue Regarding Emerging Threats Discussion

ISOL 534 University of The Cumberlands Relevant Issue Regarding Emerging Threats Discussion.

Subject: Application Security IS0L – 534Discussion 1 (Topic): Emerging ThreatsIntroduce and discuss a relevant issue regarding Emerging Threats.Discussion posts must include at least 2 scholarly references in APA format, a detailed initial post, and at least 500 words.Discussion 2 (Topic): Take Away, Areas for ImprovementI wish you all the best as you pursue educational and professional development in the Information Technology field. IT is an exciting, dynamic environment where we should consider education a life-long journey, rather than a destination.Provide a brief or in-depth response of the class focusing on how the class can improve for future students. No references are needed for this assignment. Suggestions below:How would you improve the material for future classes?What sources of information would you add?Where should there be deeper dives in material?Should there be more or less assignments?Any other feedback?
ISOL 534 University of The Cumberlands Relevant Issue Regarding Emerging Threats Discussion

PA 6601 American Military Wk 6 Mental & Psychological Torture to Children Discussion

PA 6601 American Military Wk 6 Mental & Psychological Torture to Children Discussion.

I’m working on a writing project and need support to help me learn.

For this week’s discussion assignment, you will begin your development of Chapter 3 and 4 of your research proposal. In Chapter 3, you must discuss the Anticipated Findings of your study–the outcome you expect to get from the study. In Chapter 4 you must discuss the Implications and Recommendations of the proposed study. Refer to the handout in the Week 1 Learning Module to begin with these two chapters. Refer to the questions that should be addressed within these chapters and make sure you weave responses to each question into your papers. At a minimum, you must respond to these questions within this paper:Anticipated Findings:What you think the results of your study would be if it is carried out?Implications and Recommendations:What are the practical sides of the results?How will the anticipated findings facilitate decision making in the future?I expect each of these two chapters to be from 300-500 words or 2-3 double-spaced pages in length, formatted in accordance with APA requirements. For grading considerations, refer to the grading rubric in your syllabus. Primary TextMcNabb, D. E. (2018). Research methods in public administration and nonprofit management, (4th ed.). New York, NY: Routledge. [ISBN: 978-1138743809].List Required Textbooks***
PA 6601 American Military Wk 6 Mental & Psychological Torture to Children Discussion

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