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Cross Cultural Issues In Human Resource Management Business Essay

Cross Cultural Issues In Human Resource Management Business Essay. As a result of globalization, companies across the world are forced to restructure their business in order to meet the constant change in demand. A global workforce is created due to companies in various countries merging together. This becomes a vital and complex issue for HR personnel to manage with the increase in diversity of cultures within companies. India is no exception and has recently become a favorite spot for many of the foreign companies to invest in, in order to utilize the high skilled labor force of India at a cheaper rate when compared to other countries in the world. The above research investigates the cross-cultural issues faced by Indian managements due to differences in culture caused by current liberalization of economic policies in India. Research carried out by Budhwar and Debrah (2001 cited in Bhatti, 2009, pp. 38-39) to examine the influence of national culture on personnel specialists suggests that, Indian managers give highest priority to their perception and thinking of cultural assumptions that modify their organizations (Bhatti, 2009, p. 39). Furthermore, with the help of open-ended questions, it was revealed that 54 % of Indian managers considers the importance of social relationships in managing human resources in their respective companies (Budhwar and Debrah, 2001 cited in Bhatti, 2009, pp. 38-39). However, 48% of the managers surveyed believed that the values, norms and behavior of Indian culture influences human resource practices followed in India (Budhwar and Debrah, 2001 cited in Bhatti, 2009, pp. 38-39). As per their view, these norms and beliefs govern their decisions and actions throughout their managerial career. As per Hofstede’s cultural dimension model, India’s Power Distance is the highest with a score of 77 compared to a world average of 56.5, which suggests that there is a great degree of inequality of power and wealth within the society (Hofstede, 2009). This can be explained by “the presence of the hierarchical nature of Hinduism, the early socialization process stressing the significance of the architecture of family and the impact of British colonialism” (Bhatti, 2009, p. 41). Further, it was observed that India has a medium score in Individualism (48); representing a society with a less individualistic attitude towards their life (Hofstede, 2009). “This can be attributed to choosing family and group achievements over actual work results” (Bhatti, 2009, p. 42). In terms of Masculinity India has a medium score of 56, compared to world average of 51 which indicates a larger gap between values of men and women in the society (Hofstede, 2009). Furthermore, India’s Uncertainty Avoidance is very low at a score of 40, compared to the world average of 65. The main cause can be explained as the unwillingness of Indian managers to agree to organizational changes and to take risky decisions, and being less responsive to job-related tasks. It was noted that the author did not highlight the fifth dimension of Hofstede cultural dimension, which is Confucian Dynamism. Pertaining to Confucian Dynamism, India scored 61, with the world average of 48 indicating a culture that is perseverant and parsimonious (Hofstede, 2009). A study conducted by England (1975 cited in Bhatti, 2009, pp. 43-45) on personal value systems of around 2,500 managers in 5 different countries including India, revealed that Indian managers are found to be more receptive to humanistic and bureaucratic results of their decisions. Another research carried out by Smith and Thomas (1972 cited in Bhatti, 2009, pp. 45-46) between Indian and American managers indicates that mid-level and senior level Indian managers prefer team-based, collective decision making efforts, whereas American managers favor individual decision making instead of group-oriented participation. An alternative study was conducted by Best International Human Resource Management Practices (BHRMP) to evaluate the comparisons in performance and pay practices between Indian and German manufacturing companies in automobile industry. It was concluded that the pay decisions lean more towards seniority levels in India, whereas pay decision in Germany lean more towards the performance levels of employees. A research carried out by David and Victoria (2007 cited in Bhatti, 2009, pp. 48-53) discovered major HRM problems within a cross-cultural context faced by major Swedish Multinational Companies (WM Data and Ericsson) operating in India. Important findings from this study are discussed below: Communication Misunderstanding: There was a huge language gap between Indian and Swedish managers in both companies because Swedish managers lacked English skills where as Indian managers had good English skills. As a result, there was several misunderstanding between the managers. Furthermore, the nature of Indian employees who do not use negative responses and who do not often say “no” to manager’s questions resulted in frustrations and annoyance. Leadership Style: Both companies faced similar types of problems in leadership style because of Indian’s hierarchical approach to managing employees where as Swedish management style was based on consensus leadership, allowing employees to respect their managers without being intimidated by them. Motivation: Main motivational factors for Indians working in both companies were money and titles, where as Swedish employees are motivated by the task itself. Conflict: Major conflict arising between Swedish and Indians are task related conflicts. This occurs because of Indian employees demanding a detailed and clear task descriptions from their Swedish managers. However, Swedish managers are unable to explain the task clearly to their Indian subordinates. Key findings from the above article are conflicts faced by major Multinational Companies operating in India because of the cultural differences between foreign managers in these companies and the Indian employees working for them. In addition, Indian employee’s performance can be negatively affected by certain characteristics in their behavior, placed by their upbringing. For instance, Indians are brought up where they have utmost respect for older and senior people. Therefore, they often hesitate to question or disagree with things said by seniors, even though it may prevent them from performing a task to the best. One major cultural aspect that the author has not highlighted in this article is regarding the low context of Indian culture where developing trust is a critical step in business (Mielly, 2010). Further, in Indian culture, words as well as context (tone of voice, facial expression, gestures, status) of conversation are important. For example, an Indian ‘head shake’ to say ‘yes’ could easily be misunderstood as a ‘no’ by a person unfamiliar with their cultural characteristics. In addition, being punctual is not observed as strictly, in Indian and several South Asian cultures, when compared to Western cultures. Despite the gap in culture and behavior, not many studies have investigated ways to overcome these differences. It is essential that a person going to work in a different culture to their own should study and adapt to the respective cultures in order to benefit mutually. Cross Cultural Issues In Human Resource Management Business Essay

Instructions:To begin this assignment, compose your Essay 2 by addressing the following requirements:Choose a topic } Social Media or College Education.Write a Thesis Statement that establishes a cause/effect relationship and uses qualifiers as needed to ensure that no absolute claims are made.Offer clear, fully-developed body paragraphs, making sure that the reader can see the relationship between the causes(s) and effect(s).Remember that the purpose of the analysis is to answer the questions of “What?” and “Why?” (sometimes, it can also answer“How?”).Make use of transitions.Ensure that all borrowed material, quotes and summaries, from the source essays is parenthetically cited to avoid plagiarism.Offer bibliographic citations for any essays you choose to use (it is not required that you use any) in the Works Cited at the end of the paper.Write 800+ words.This essay will be submitted to our Plagiarism Checker.

Mayan, Aztec and Incan civilizations. Paper details Discuss the similarities and differences of daily life, religion, and culture for these Mayan, Aztec, and Incan civilizations – How did geography help shape and develop each of these civilizations? Write a compare and contrast essay of 550 words on the Mayan, Aztec and Incan civilizations looking at their: • Daily Life • Religion • Culture Write an Introduction, 3 Bodies, and Conclusion using the MLA format 4 external resources All resources must be accessible for free.Mayan, Aztec and Incan civilizations

MGT 330 SDMC Opening Your New Dunkin Donuts Locations Case Study

MGT 330 SDMC Opening Your New Dunkin Donuts Locations Case Study.

Prior to completing this assignment, review the pertinent sections of Chapter 3. You have been the manager of a Dunkin’ Donuts store in the Midwest for the past two years. The store is owned by a Dunkin’ Donuts franchisee who owns 20 other Dunkin’ Donuts locations. Your employer took an employee inventory and examined all current employees. It has been noted by the owner that you have a highly successful track record. You have been recognized for doing an exceptional job staffing, leading, training, coaching, and managing people. You have been recognized for successfully managing all key components of your store and have successfully managed key business drivers such as cash, profits, growth, asset utilization, and people. In regards to the metrics that are used to measure their stores for sales, quality, and customer service, your store is the top performing store in their system.Congratulations! You have just been promoted to district manager! The Dunkin’ Donuts franchisee sees your growth potential and the growth potential in your geographic area. The owner now has committed significant capital and plans to open five new locations over the next two years. You will be given complete autonomy, authority, and responsibility to structure, staff, and operate these five new locations. You will be playing a key role in this expansion for growth.For this assignment, you will prepare a five-page paper in which you explain your chosen job design and organizational design as the new District Manager for Dunkin’ Donuts.You must organize your paper using the following section headings and include additional section headings as needed:Introduction—Provide a well-organized introduction to the paper.Job Design—Explain your chosen job design including job analysis, job description and job specification.Organizational Design—Explain why the chosen organizational design was chosen.ConclusionYour paper must include at least three scholarly sources in addition to the textbook and be formatted according to APA style guidelines as outlined in the Writing Center.TextBook Source: Baack, D., Reilly, M., & Minnick, C. (2014). The five functions of effective management (2nded.). Retrieved from
MGT 330 SDMC Opening Your New Dunkin Donuts Locations Case Study

How was the translation of Ibn Sina’s (known as Avicenna in the West) Canon of Medicine representative of intellectual life among Jews, Christians, and Muslims in medieval Spain?

essay writing service free How was the translation of Ibn Sina’s (known as Avicenna in the West) Canon of Medicine representative of intellectual life among Jews, Christians, and Muslims in medieval Spain?. I need help with a Writing question. All explanations and answers will be used to help me learn.

hi, you can find below two examples of a good discussion post and a bad one.
you can find the reading attached.
“Good” Discussion Board Post example:
In the Harvard Religious Literacy Project’s “Our Method,” Diane Moore begins by distinguishing two approaches to the study of religion, religion as “devotional expression” which makes normative claims about which religious beliefs and practices are “orthodox” and the “nonsectarian study of religion” which is more descriptive in nature and recognizes the legitimacy of diverse religious expressions (1). Adopting this latter approach, Moore claims that three further claims about religious traditions emerge: 1) that religious traditions are internally diverse, meaning that there are differences “within sects or expressions because religious communities function in different social/political contexts” (2); 2) that religious traditions evolve and change over time, and as such, “are constantly interpreted and reinterpreted by believers” (2); and 3) that religious traditions are embedded in cultures, and “just as religion cannot be understood in isolation from its cultural (including political) contexts, it is impossible to understand culture without considering its religious dimensions” (3).
“Bad” Discussion Board Post example:
Our reading talks about some ways we should think about religion such as the devotional expression and the nonsectarian study of religion it also mentions three parts of the nonsectarian study of religion approach such as internal diversity, how religions evolve and change, and how religions are culturally embedded.
How was the translation of Ibn Sina’s (known as Avicenna in the West) Canon of Medicine representative of intellectual life among Jews, Christians, and Muslims in medieval Spain?

Objectives of Standard Costing

Objectives of Standard Costing. What is the definition of standard costing? Standard costing is the system of using standard costs. Standard costing involves using the predetermined costs/standard costs to compare with the actual to find the difference or variance. Variance can be adverse (actual result is worse than standard) or favorable (actual result is better than standard). An adverse variance tells management that if everything else stays constant the company’s actual profit will be less than planned. Whereas, a favorable variance tells management that if everything else stays constant the actual profit will likely exceed the planned profit. What are the major objectives of standards costing? What are types of cost standards? The standard is the level of attainment accepted by management as the basis upon which standard costs are determined. There are four different standards to consider which are current standard, ideal standard, basic standard and normal standard. A current standard is a standard which is established for use over a short period of time and is related to current condition. It reflects the performance that should be attained during the current period. The period for current standard is normally one year. It is presumed that conditions of production will remain unchanged. In case there is any change in price or manufacturing condition, the standards are also revised. Current standard may be ideal standard and expected standard. However, ideal standard is the standard which represents a high level of efficiency. Ideal standard is fixed on the assumption that favorable conditions will prevail and management will be at its best. The price paid for materials will be lowest and wastes etc. will be minimum possible. The labor time for making the production will be minimum and rates of wages will also be low. The overheads expenses are also set with maximum efficiency in mind. All the conditions, both internal and external, should be favorable and only then ideal standard will be achieved. Ideal standard is fixed on the assumption of those conditions which may rarely exist. This standard is not practicable and may not be achieved. Though this standard may not be achieved, even then an effort is made. The deviation between targets and actual performance is ignorable. In practice, ideal standard has an adverse effect on the employees. They do not try to reach the standard because the standards are not considered realistic. Third standard which is basic standard may be defined as a standard which is established for use for an indefinite period which may a long period. Basic standard is established for a long period and is not adjusted to the preset conations. The same standard remains in force for a long period. These standards are revised only on the changes in specification of material and technology productions. It is indeed just like a number against which subsequent process changes can be measured. Basic standard enables the measurement of changes in costs. For example, if the basic cost for material is Rs. 20 per unit and the current price is Rs. 25 per unit, it will show an increase of 25% in the cost of materials. The changes in manufacturing costs can be measured by taking basic standard, as a base standard cannot serve as a tool for cost control purpose because the standard is not revised for a long time. The deviation between standard cost and actual cost cannot be used as a yardstick for measuring efficiency. The last one is normal standard. As per terminology, normal standard has been defined as a standard which, it is anticipated, can be attained over a future period of time, preferably long enough to cover one trade cycle. This standard is based on the conditions which will cover a future period of five years, concerning one trade cycle. If a normal cycle of ups and downs in sales and production is 10 years, then standard will be set on average sales and production which will cover all the years. The standard attempts to cover variance in the production from one time to another time. An average is taken from the periods of recession and depression. The normal standard concept is theoretical and cannot be used for cost control purpose. Normal standard can be properly applied for absorption of overhead cost over a long period of time. What are the advantages and disadvantages of standard costing system? Standard costing have several advantages. First advantage of standard costing is as a key element in a management by exception approach. If costs remain within the standards, managers can focus on other issues. When costs fall significantly outside the standards, managers are alerted that there may be problems requiring attention. This approach helps managers focus on important issues. Second advantage is standard costing is standards that are viewed as reasonable by employees can promote economy and efficiency. They provide benchmarks that individuals can use to judge their own performance. Besides that, standard costs can greatly simplify bookkeeping. Instead of recording actual costs for each job, the standard costs for materials, labor, and overhead can be charged to jobs. Last but not least, standard costs fit naturally in an integrated system of responsibility accounting. The standards establish what costs should be, who should be responsible for them, and what actual costs are under control. However, the use of standard costs can present a number of potential problems or disadvantages. Most of these problems result from improper use of standard costs and the management by exception principle or from using standard costs in situations in which they are not appropriate. Standard cost variance reports are usually prepared on a monthly basis and often are released days or even weeks after the end of the month. As a consequence, the information in the reports may be so stale that it is almost useless. Timely, frequent reports that are approximately correct are better than infrequent reports that are very precise but out of date by the time they are released. Some companies are now reporting variances and other key operating data daily or even more frequently. Besides that, if managers are insensitive and use variance reports as a club, morale may suffer. Employees should receive positive reinforcement for work well done. Management by exception, by its nature, tends to focus on the negative. If variances are used as a club, subordinates may be tempted to cover up unfavorable variances or take actions that are not in the best interest of the company to make sure the variances are favorable. For example, workers may put on a crash effort to increase output at the end of the month to avoid an unfavorable labor efficiency variance. In the rush to produce output quality may suffer. In some cases, a “favorable” variance can be as bad as or worse than an “unfavorable” variance. For example, McDonald’s has a standard for the amount of hamburger meat that should be in a Big Mac. A “favorable” variance would mean that less meat was used than standard specifies. The result is a substandard Big Mac and possibly an unsatisfied customer. Another problem of using standard costing, there may be a tendency with standard cost reporting systems to emphasize meeting the standards to the exclusion of other important objectives such as maintaining and improving quality, on-time delivery, and customer satisfaction. This tendency can be reduced by using supplemental performance measures that focus on these other objectives. Just meeting standards may not be sufficient; continual improvement may be necessary to survive in the current competitive environment. For this reason, some companies focus on the trends in the standard cost variances – aiming for continual improvement rather than just meeting the standards. In other companies, engineered standards are being replaced either by a rolling average of actual costs, which is expected to decline, or by very challenging target costs. In sum, managers should exercise considerable care in their use of a standard cost system. It is particularly important that managers go out of their way to focus on the positive, rather than just on the negative, and to be aware of possible unintended consequences. Nevertheless standard costs are still found in the vast majority of manufacturing companies and in many service companies, although their use is changing. For evaluating performance, standard cost variances may be supplanted in the future by a particularly interesting development known as the balanced scorecard. How standard costs are sets? Standards should be set for the quantities and prices of materials, labour and services to be consumed in performing each operation associated with a product. Product standard costs are derived by listing and adding the standard costs of operations required to produce a particular product. Two approaches are used or setting standard costs. First, past historical records can be used to estimate labour and material usage. Secondly, standards can be set based on engineering studies. With engineering studies a detailed study of each operation is unedertaken under controlled conditions, based on high levels of efficiency, to ascertain the quantities of labour and materials required. Target prices are then applied based on efficient purchasing to ascertain the standard costs. How a standard costing system operates? Standard costing is most suited to an organization whose activities consist of a series of repetitive operations and the input required to produce each unit of output can be specified. A standard costing system involves the following: The standard costs for the actul output are recorded for each operation for each responsibilty centre. Actual costs for each operation are traced to each responsibility centre. The standard and actual costs are compared. Variances are investigated and corrective action is taken where appropriate Standards are monitored and adjusted to reflect changes in standard usage and/or prices. Variances What is the main purpose of variance analysis? There are very few plans that turn out exactly as planned. Even when the overall objectives of the plan are achieved, some, if not all components of the performance will have varied from the sub-plans or standards that make up the overall picture. For example, a football team may win an important game, as planned, but within the team performance there may be many aspects that the manager will analyse during and after the match so that performance can be improved for next time. As in business, good points need to be encouraged, less positive aspects need to be discussed and corrected. In a game of football, a side may have won a high number of corner kicks, but conceded too many free-kicks in defending. There is little to be gained for the next match if we do not think about the last performance in detail. Variance analysis provides a framework for business managers to breakdown the overall performance of an organisation, so that each individual element of the business can be isolated and analysed in turn. What are the causes of labour, material, overhead, and sales margin variances? Quantities cost variances arise because the actual quantity of resources consumed exceed actual usage or vice versa. Examples include excess usage of materials and labour arising from the usage of interior materials, careless handling of materials and failure to maintain machinery in proper condition. Price variances arise when the actual prices paid for resources exceed the standard prices or else. Examples include the failure of the purchasing function to seek the most efficient sources of supply or the use of a different grade of labour to that incorporation in the standard costs. How to calculate material, labour, variable overhead, fixed overhead, and sales variances. Objectives of Standard Costing

Florida International University Equitable Early Childhood Classroom Paper

Florida International University Equitable Early Childhood Classroom Paper.

Cultivating a More Equitable Early Childhood Classroom
Purpose: The purpose of this assignment is to explore and reflect on issues related to diversity, equity and inclusion.
Read the following article…that examines how equity implementation can sometimes get in the way of meaningful efforts. 
Reflect, evaluate and respond to the following questions. Make sure to include references to the module readings and/or video when supporting your answers.
Which equity traps and tropes sound or feel familiar to you? Why?
What could you do to create a more equitable learning environment for all young children and their families? Your response needs to consider and address:Diverse cultures
English language learners
Children with special needs
Florida International University Equitable Early Childhood Classroom Paper

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