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Criminology Essays – Youth Crime Prevention

Youth Crime Prevention Youth and Crime: The Need for a Prevention Strategy There is considerable debate over the issue of whether the level or the seriousness of offences committed by youth has increased in recent years. Those who feel it has point to statistical evidence of increased youth involvement in certain types of crimes. This position is also often supported by our personal experience of victimization, and our collective exposure to media reports of dramatic incidents involving young offenders. Others, however, argue that some of the apparent increase in official rates is a result of lower tolerance on the part of the public, and of an increasing tendency to use the formal justice system rather than community based or interpersonal solutions in response to offending by young people. In any case, there seems little doubt that there are increasing levels of concern among the public about the problem of youth crime and an increased understanding that most adult offenders start committing offences as youth and, thus, intervention must occur early to be beneficial. 3 The focus is on youth because research shows that early onset of delinquent and aggressive behaviour is the single best predictor of prolonged involvement with the criminal justice system.5 Thus, the intent of prevention focusing on youth is to reduce the occurrence and/or delay the onset of the initiation of delinquent behaviour. In other words, if a comprehensive crime prevention strategy for youth is developed and implemented, it would have the short-term effect of lowering the number of youth processed by the criminal justice system, thus saving both time and money, and the long-term effect of actually lowering the rates of crime and victimization, thus making the role of police less reactive. Crime Prevention The term “crime prevention,” in the broadest sense, encompasses any activity that has the effect of reducing crime.6 It includes a broad spectrum of activities, ranging from the social development approach to the prevention of opportunity through to deterrence. These include diversion of offenders prior to charging and dealing with offenders after sentence.7 A comprehensive strategy for crime prevention would include a complete range of activities covering all levels of intervention and elements of the crime event. 8 The problem of youth crime is complex and requires the involvement of the families, communities, schools, and often other agencies, to develop and implement prevention initiatives. Focus on the Causes of Criminal Behaviour In dealing with youth and children it is very important to understand the causes of criminal behaviour. Risk factors, such as early onset of delinquent behaviour, family violence, lack of support and supervision, substance abuse, etc., should become the focus for prevention programs. The social development approach is particularly well-suited for dealing with the causes of delinquency. Consideration of Victims’ Needs A lack of support for victims can result in continued victimization, causing further suffering for the victim. The provision of victim support services to deal with the effects of the crime are essential for responding effectively. The interests of other victims and potential victims need to be recognized and addressed as well. The use of alternatives to the traditional court system allows more involvement of victims in the process. If the victims wish to be involved in mediation or victim/offender reconciliation this should be actively encouraged. Tertiary prevention involves the full range of responses that occur after a crime has been committed. The vast majority of the activities of the criminal justice system are tertiary interventions. The objective is to rehabilitate or incapacitate the offender (deter recidivism), deter others who might consider similar behaviour, and repair some of the damage done to the victim. At present, most of the activity in this area concentrates on detecting, convicting, and sanctioning offenders. The major limitation of the public health model described above is the fact that it is grounded in the principles of pure science and implies that causes of crime are as identifiable as the causes of disease. Unfortunately, social science is not as exact a discipline as health science. It is based on associations and probabilities as opposed to certain specific causes. Further, there is often inadequate and sometimes conflicting evidence regarding the validity of specific causes.3 This raises the possibility of mislabeling a specific individual as a potential criminal because of his or her history and social circumstances or, on the other hand, mislabeling someone as unlikely to commit crime because of their positive social environment when in fact they are involved in crime. 4.1.2 Where — The Focus of Prevention A prevention initiative must identify one or more specific targets upon which a proposed program can have an impact. The design of an initiative must consider the full range of target options. This requires a focus on all the aspects of a criminal event, which include an offender(s), a victim(s), and a situation(s) which brings these people together.4 The focus on the offender turns our attention to the issue of the motivation of a criminal act (e.g., Why is the individual tempted?; Are there social factors that place the individual at greater risk?), and to the ability of that same individual to exercise sufficient self-control over criminal motives. The thrust of offender-based strategies is to reduce the social conditions believed to contribute to criminal activity, reduce the levels of criminal motivation, or increase the capacity of individuals to exercise self-control. The focus on the situation shifts the attention to the opportunity to commit a criminal act, and to the levels of external control on individuals or groups. The main thrust here is on attempts to make 46 offending more difficult or less rewarding, or to increase the probability that an offender will be identified and caught. The focus on the victim raises the issue of the relative vulnerability of certain individuals or groups to criminal victimization. The thrust of intervention in this area is on improving the ability of potential victims to manage risk more effectively, and on providing the necessary support and assistance necessary to allow people to reduce their exposure to risk. A Conceptual Framework for Crime Prevention The discussion of the possible levels and targets of a prevention initiative can be combined into a typology of prevention options.5 The typology presented in Table 4.1 allows us to identify the range of elements and components that should be considered in the development of a comprehensive prevention strategy. Community Crime Prevention The objective of this strategy is to supplement the work and resources of the police by improving the capacity of a community to supervise and control potential offenders. The emphasis is on increasing informal social control, usually through programs such as Neighbourhood Watch, which recruit members of the community on a volunteer basis as the “eyes and ears” of the justice system. Tertiary PreventionThe assumption is that this will provide more information to the police and the courts, thus allowing them to improve their rate of arrests and convictions. The theory is that this will deter offenders and thus improve community safety. Unfortunately, the research on this type of programs is not always supportive or encouraging: there is little indication that crime rates are reduced, and it appears that these programs are extremely difficult to set up in the communities that need them the most.6 Traditionally, the criminal justice system has intervened largely at the tertiary level, that is, after an offence has been reported. The overwhelming focus of attention has been on the identification, arrest, prosecution and conviction of offenders. The shift to a focus on prevention of recidivism and the integration of the offender provides a context for the discussion of the general strategy of diversion as an option for dealing with the needs and concerns of victims, offenders, and communities in a more effective and cost efficient manner. A discussion of strategic options for the design and implementation of diversion programs can be found in Chapter 6.0 of this manual. In the area of policing, the problem is to identify and implement policing strategies that maximize the ability to reduce recidivism and ideally, to deter others from getting involved in offending. Traditionally, the role of the police has been to deliver prosecutable cases to the Crown prosecutor for processing — the assumption being that successful prosecutions and sentences would have the best effect on both recidivism and general deterrence. However, the recognition of the broad range of risk factors associated with the development of persistent offending offers an alternative to this approach. The lesson from the research on persistent offenders is that success is most likely in situations where the full range of problems faced by the individual are addressed by early intervention. In practical terms, this means designing intervention strategies that reflect the knowledge we have of risk factors. (the above is not in my words just extra info! The assignment must be on one case study only! Thinking errors: Thinking errors involves young people (under the age of 18 years old) attempting to alter the truth and to ignore taking accountability for their actions and repercussions. There are many common thinking errors that young offenders may use. Blaming: a young individualperson who justifies their negative behaviour as being due to someone else initiating the incident they have committed. E.g. it was not my fault, she started it. Assuming: a young individualperson may assume they know what another person is thinking or feeling and will often act before verifying the details. E.g. he looked at me funny as if he wanted to fight so before he hit me I hit him. Minimising: the young individualperson will try to make what he or she did seem less bad. E.g. I didn’t crash the car that badly, it can still start. Telling lies: a young individualperson tries to lie about what he or she have done. E.g. I didn’t steal that lady’s handbag, she dropped it and I picked it up. Coming up with excuses’: a young person constantly making up excuses for their action. E.g. but I really didn’t see her there I thought it was my toy gun not a real gun that was loaded. Thinking errors are created through faulty understanding of facts. Everyone engages in thinking errors at some point in time and it doesn’t automatically render into a life of criminality but many young people engage in criminal behaviour, and will use thinking errors to validate their wrong doings or actions.
Nowadays, lot of teachers in our country are facing problem in managing their classrooms in schools. Perhaps the single most important aspect of teaching is classroom management. The students are described to be different and some of them tend to act superior to the school management system, even to the teachers. They show less respect to the teachers, refuse to get involve in the learning sessions and even misbehaving in the schools. In order to make sure the learning environment go well, the teachers have to come up with certain guidelines in managing their classrooms. Classroom management is a term used by teachers to describe the process of ensuring that classroom lessons run smoothly despite disruptive behavior by students. The term also implies for the prevention of disruptive behavior. It is possibly the most difficult aspect of teaching for many teachers, indeed for some who experiencing these kind of problems already leave the teaching profession altogether. This problem is not only faced by our local teaches but it is believed to be happening world wide. In the year of 1981, the US National Educational Association reported that 36% of teachers said they would probably not go into teaching if they had to decide again. A major reason was “negative student attitudes and discipline”.(Wolfgang and Glickman). According to Moskowitz
St Johns Syllogisms & Existence in Aristotle Posterior Analytics Discussion.

I’m working on a philosophy report and need support to help me study.

i have a 3page paper due may 3rd at 11:59pm. i have attatched a file that i would like the topic to be about. you may use outside sources if you wish but please site them all but still use the side show i have attached. here are my teachers tips to writing a good paper: When writing a philosophy paper, it is very important to focus on clarity and concision. Clearly express your thesis state (the position you will be arguing for) and say no more and no less than you need to say. Naturally, grammatically correct and syntactically felicitous prose are necessary for the overall clarity of your paper. You must offer at least one argument for your position and at least one objection to that argument. The argument and objection should then be followed by a defense of your argument against the objection. i hope you find that useful
St Johns Syllogisms & Existence in Aristotle Posterior Analytics Discussion

HHS460 Ethics in Research and Ethical Implications

HHS460 Ethics in Research and Ethical Implications. I don’t understand this Health & Medical question and need help to study.

Ethics in Research
Ethics plays an important role in conducting of research. While the individual researcher is responsible for his/her ethical practice, any research sponsored by an organization, university, or government program has a review process guided by a code of ethics. Besides the code of ethics, the Institutional Review Board (IRB) plays an important role in monitoring research. Your task in this discussion is to examine the origins of the IRB and analyze how the Review Board guides or monitors research. In your 250-300 word post answer the following three questions:
What does the IRB do to protect a research participant from harm?
One of the reasons for the existence of the IRB has to do with screening research applications. What is the basis for such screening?
The IRB provides the guidelines for ethical research practice. What would the researcher responsibilities be in terms of these guidelines?
Ethical Implications
Assume you were interested in the issues related to violence in elementary level school children. You are aware of the increased incidences of bullying, leading to serious problems. Specifically, you want to video tape children’s behavior out of school on their way home to and from school. You want to capture, on video, the social interactions that take place, trying to record behaviors that are definitely bullying behaviors or “could lead to bullying.” So you are focusing on the perpetration of bullying. For this discussion, you are asked to identify “ethical” factors involved in your proposed research. Your list would include research issues and ethical implications beyond the basic informed consent condition.
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HHS460 Ethics in Research and Ethical Implications

PU Humor Does Not Necessarily Link up With Emotion Discussion

essay writing help PU Humor Does Not Necessarily Link up With Emotion Discussion.

Please respond to each student with 10 sentences Student 1Morreall disagrees with traditional views on humor that connect it with emotion. Give an example of humor (in your own words, not from the text) that demonstrates disengagement (as Morreall describes it). Identify the theories of humor and ethical considerations in your example.Morreall disagreed with the traditional views on humor in that he came to the conclusion that humor doesn’t necessarily have to be linked with a certain emotion, as is the traditional thought. The traditional view on humor is that the laughter you receive from a situation is based on a linked emotion related to that situation. Emotions are said to have four different components: beliefs and desires, which cause physiological changes, which lead to adaptive actions, and finally lead to sensations of the physiological changes (feelings) (Morreall, 2009). Humor and disengagement teach us that it is possible for us to see something and find it funny, without us necessarily having to have an emotion about said thing. For instance, I may see a man and a dog walking down the street that happen to resemble each other. The fact that the man and dog look alike won’t stir up any emotions in me, but I will still be amused. Another example that incorporates a different aspect of disengagement might be if I see someone come out of the bathroom with toilet paper stuck to their shoe. I may experience superiority but since the circumstance isn’t involving me, I am disengaged and amused. The text mentions that the role a person plays (or lack of) in a situation drives their response (Morreall, 2009). Because the toilet paper isn’t on my shoe, I am disengaged, and therefor find amusement in the situation.References:Morreall, J. (2009). Comic Relief: A Comprehensive Philosophy of Humor. Malden, MA. Wiley-Blackwell.Student 2Morreall disagrees with traditional views on humor that connect it with emotion. Give an example of humor (in your own words, not from the text) that demonstrates disengagement (as Morreall describes it). Identify the theories of humor and ethical considerations in your example.Hello class,I believe that there are a lot of examples of disengagement going on in our world. There are a lot of things that bring up emotions, such as fear, and instead of feeling the fear, people are turning them into jokes. One example of humor that I have seen lately is the Sweet caroline Tiktok video that was going around. School-age kids have been making videos about school shootings with this soundtrack, and instead of bum bum bum, there are gunshots. School shootings are a major thing that school-age kids are afraid of, but instead of feeling that, they turn it into a joke and disengage from their fear. A lot of people would say this joke or humor is unethical because people who have been in shootings feel this is very traumatic. Most people would say this is a serious issue that should not be turned into a joke. I think people use humor to cope with uncomfortable or scary situations. My therapist told me that you could not be in fight or flight and laughing at the same time, and that has been one of my main coping mechanisms with PTSD. If I start to feel fight or flighty, I will open TikTok and start watching videos to try to trick my body into thinking that it’s safe.
PU Humor Does Not Necessarily Link up With Emotion Discussion

Position Paper One – Media and Society

Position Paper One – Media and Society.

Imagine that you are running for a state office (e.g., governor, senator, or Congressional representative) and you have to prepare a position paper for a debate on controversial issues in the news. (Select one (1) of the topics addressed in the first four weeks of this class.) Remember that you are addressing a significant segment of your state’s population and you want to be elected to public office, so your topic will have to have a broad appeal, such as the importance of family values, the fair treatment of women in the workplace (equal pay for equal work), the treatment of minorities, and the media and one’s self-image, among other topics from those chapters. You will want your position paper to demonstrate critical thinking, sound logic, valid claims, personal passion, and credible support that is cited correctly because the paper will be provided to the news media before the debate and will be scrutinized by the media and reported on regarding these criteria.Write a two to three (2-3) page (500 to 750 words) paper in which you:Introduce your position using a thesis statement in the first paragraph, including a quote, question, or statistic from your reliable sources and an overview of the main points you will cover. (It’s important to grab the audience’s interest and inform the audience of what the main and support points are.)Provide two or three (2-3) major points to support your thesis statement. (Put each major point in a separate paragraph.)Provide one (1) paragraph in which you identify and answer an expected argument against your view.Organize arguments and support your claims effectively.Demonstrate personal passion for your position and critical thinking with persuasive language, sound logic, valid claims, and credible support for the claims.Use the Library at to locate and provide two to three (2-3) credible and reliable sources (in addition to the textbook) about current events, which have been published in the last five (5) years and are cited correctly in the position paper. (Wikipedia, dictionaries, and encyclopedias are unacceptable and will not count toward your number of credible sources.)Your assignment must follow these formatting requirements:Be typed, double spaced, using Times New Roman font (size 12), with one-inch margins on all sides; citations and references must follow Include a cover page containing the title of the assignment, the student’s name, the professor’s name, the course title, and the date. The cover page and the reference page are not included in the required assignment page length.The specific course learning outcomes associated with this assignment are:Apply critical thinking skills to the analysis of issues involving mass media and society.Use technology and information resources to research issues in media and society.Write clearly and concisely about media and society using proper writing mechanics.
Position Paper One – Media and Society

Columbia Southern University Impact of International Trade Analysis Essay

Columbia Southern University Impact of International Trade Analysis Essay.

Unit IV EssayWeight: 20% of course gradeGrading RubricDue: Monday, 08/2/2020 11:59 PM (CST)InstructionsInternational trade can have big effects on domestic markets. For both an import good and an export good (in other words, address each bulleted item below twice—once for import and once for export), describe how opening up to international trade affects the following:supply or demand for the particular good,the competitiveness of that good’s market, andhow the change in competitiveness affects equilibrium price and quantity.Stepping away from the import/export examples, describe how opening up to trade specifically affects a domestic monopoly. Include an explanation, using game theory, of how even a single additional competitor can lead to a market outcome similar to perfect competition.Your essay must be at least three pages in length (not counting the title and references pages) and include at least three peer-reviewed resources. Adhere to APA Style when writing your essay, including citations and references for sources used. Be sure to include an introduction. Please note that no abstract is needed.If you need help identifying peer-reviewed publications, review the CSU Online Library resources Peer-Reviewed Resources and video How to Find Peer-Reviewed Resources (Transcript for Peer-Reviewed Resources video).ResourcesThe following resource(s) may help you with this assignment.Citation GuideCSU Online Library Research Guide
Columbia Southern University Impact of International Trade Analysis Essay

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