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Criminal Justice

Criminal Justice. I’m working on a Law exercise and need support.

Police Stress
Write a 500-750 word APA-styled paper that addresses the following tasks:
1.What are some of the causes and effects of police stress?
2.How can departments recognize and deal with the stress felt by officers?
3.Can certain stressors impact the way that officers deal with citizens? Should some acknowledgement of that be taken into consideration when we look at potentially negative police/citizen encounters? Why or why not?
Support your argument with at least two scholarly references.
Be sure to cite your resource(s).
Only the body of the paper will count toward the word requirement. You may use your textbook and other outside sources as needed.
View your assignment rubric.
Criminal Justice

NetSol Technologies, Inc. was founded in the year 1995 by three brothers; Salim Ghauri, Najeeb Ghauri, and Naeem Ghauri, each of whom was a successful professional in his own right. Having started out with humble beginnings in the city of Lahore, NetSol soon grew to a sizable business having operations in Australia, China, Pakistan, Thailand, UK, and a headquarters in California, USA. In 1996 NetSol got its big break, when it was awarded a major offshore contract with Mercedes Benz Thailand, many more such contracts were to follow. Focusing on quality NetSol went on to attain the ISO 9001 and ISO 27001 certifications in 1998 and 2008 respectively, and in 2006 it achieved CMMI Level 5 certification, a distinction shared by fewer than 100 companies worldwide. NetSol was also the first US Company to dual list on both the NASDAQ Capital Market and the Dubai International Financial Exchange DIFX, which became NASDAQ Dubai in 2008. 1.2 Vision Statement “Our vision is to become a leading digital security organization in Pakistan providing support in securing the digital boundaries of Pakistan”. 1.3 Mission Statement “Deliver high quality, innovative and best-in-class IT solutions and services to help our customers achieve their business objectives and operational efficiencies”. CONCLUSION This chapter was all about introduction of NetSol. In next chapter Business operations of NetSol will be explained. CHAPTER NO 2 BUSINESS OPERATION Chapter Outline Second chapter of this report is devoted to the business operations of NetSol. In this chapter first departmental structure of NetSol is discussed. I also offer SWOT analysis of NetSol. Marketing and competitive strategy is also offered in this chapter. In the end of this chapter I interpreted businesses process analysis of NetSol in which I thoroughly discussed the HR department. Figure 2.1 Organizational Structures (Organizational Chart) 2.2 SWOT Analysis It is the analysis of the strengths weaknesses opportunities and threats of NetSol Tech. While doing the SWOT analysis that what are the areas where a company is better off than other and what are the areas where it lacks. 2.2.1 Strengths Exponential Growth It is growing rapidly, joint ventures, acquisitions, and contracts are giving it a fast growth rate. Highly Skilled Human Resource at Low-Cost Work force in Pakistan is cheap than the advanced countries of the world so they are able to explore this workforce by providing training to it. Access to Quick Communications Optical network and satellite links are available all over the world. Company can coordinate with its offices also customers. Blue Chip Clients Many of the fortune 500 are its clients who want innovation and quality which NetSol is doing. So it is not easy for its customers to switch to others. Sound Organizational Structure Organizational structure of NetSol helps it flourish every department works on its own. First Pakistani Company to Achieve CMMI level 5 Assessment in Pakistan Since it has achieved CMMI level 5 assessments for the first time in Pakistan, this will help the company to enlarge its customers in Pakistan. Strong Financial Position Company is financially strong so has the ability to meet the increase in demand by increasing the operations. Low Turnover NetSol gives more satisfaction to its employees by giving them extra benefits and incentives. Family like environment is given to the employees, so they do not want to leave the organization. 2.2.1 Weaknesses Average Quality of Service Numerous companies of the world offer the products and services same as it is offering. It should offer unique ideas. Small Market Segment of Customers Customers of NetSol are few big companies; if some of them switch to others it will create problems for the company. Least Focus on Pakistani Market NetSol has greater focus on foreign contracts and foreign customers. Pakistan is a big it market which it is not exploring to the highest degree as a result other companies of the world are taking the advantage. Research and Development Programs on Small Bases It world is changing rapidly day by day and there is a need to spend much on research and development which it is not doing to that extant. 2.2.2 Opportunities Huge International and National Market Its market in the world is large in size and is expanding day by day. NetSol can capture this increasing market. Rapidly Increasing e-Governance in Government Sector in Pakistan Government of Pakistan is computerizing its operations; company can take it as a big customer. Local Production Its operations are expanded to six large it economies, it can understand the local needs and provide the products as needed. Adopt Latest Technologies and Techniques It is known for innovation, by adopting the latest technologies and techniques, it can provide better products and services. Removal of International Trade Barriers Since the application of WTO international trade barriers are being removed day by day, it creates the opportunity to go to those economies which were not allowing the Pakistani products. 2.2.4 Threats Recession in the World Economy World economy is in a big recession. Affording of the people is decreasing. As a result sales is reduced and companies are going into loses. So business has shrieked. Political Issues, Security Concerns Due to security concerns people don’t want to come to Pakistan and as a result NetSol has to send its representative to their countries for getting the contracts. On the other hand it is sending its employees to UK for training which is costly. Sanctions on Pakistan Economic sanctions on Pakistani economy are imposed from time to time, it adversely affect the exports. Copy Rights and Patent Violations Copy rights and patent violations cost the It companies especially. It cost them billions of dollars per year. 2.3. Marketing Strategy 2.3.1 Product First and foremost strategy of the company is to maintain quality and standard of the existing products and services, their development, meeting demands of the market has become a great challenge for the company. It offers more than 10 products and services. Perceived Quality Performance: The Company’s performance in the whole is unmatched in terms of the solutions that they provide. The performance of NetSol’s products is also excellent. Features: The enterprise solutions, e- services consulting, and software solutions have numerous features which add value to the overall product diversification. Reliability: The reliability of NetSol products is a lot. Customers trust the products and services. NetSol has a “make a promise and fulfill it” ideology. They have a perfect track record on system delivery. The customers are delivered on time, exactly what they want. Durability: The NetSol products and services come with a guarantee of being excellently worked out and worked upon. The durability promise has been fulfilled for many years now. NetSol products are known nationally and internationally to be the best. Creating Customer Value and Customization NetSol creates customer value, by adding up exactly those features, the customer desires in the product. The products and services are made with such proficiency that they are efficient and generate value for the customer. The component of customization is obvious. This is because of the fact that the services and products provided by NetSol are such that without the customization it would not be feasible to use them in such dissimilar industries like automotive, chemical, textiles, Internet marketing, software, medical, banks, higher education and telecommunication links, and, financial services. 2.3.2 Price Customer Price Perceptions The NetSol customers are usually large organizations their chief concern is to get the best in the class software, services and products. The price perceptions of NetSol clients are that they are charged for what they are being provided. Value Pricing The products, and services provided by NetSol are priced according to their value. The products and services are developed according to the customer requirements and the quality is unmatched. The price that is being charged for the value creating products and services is perfect and appropriate. Customer Sensitivity to Price The customer sensitivity to price is not much. The customers of NetSol products and services are not at all price conscious and they care more about the product quality rather than its price. The major cost drivers in the market are the infrastructure and the employees. 2.3.3 Place Availability NetSol has established itself over the years as the best solution provider and the provider of best quality services and products. It has also established its basis significantly in the international market. The customers know NetSol and they know that they will be provided with the best services and products at NetSol. Thus the availability is not the concern, because the market presence of NetSol is significant. Direct Channels The products and services of NetSol are delivered by the company’s team dedicated for this task. The team goes for product delivery, installation and also user training. The products and services are provided on the date that is requested by the customer. There aren’t any delays or errors in this process. 2.3.4 Promotion Advertising NetSol has started focusing on advertising which previously was not a major concern. The industry participation was there but as such advertising wasn’t done. NetSol has already been working on the international marketing with development of global marketing departments which work intensively on the marketing strategies for the organization with due consideration to the country values and culture. Event Marketing/Sponsorships NetSol has marketed itself in a lot of different domains for the services that it provides. NetSol has always shown its presence as a major sponsor IT events. They participate in IT exhibitions and events. They have shown participation in SOFTEC and other national and international IT extravaganzas. NetSol has been doing a lot of marketing and their campaigns have taken a higher gear for quite some years now. In Pakistan the media has provided significant coverage to NetSol and the CEO Mr.Saleem Ghauri has represented NetSol on all the prestigious of events and places. Direct Response Advertising NetSol indulges in direct response advertising as well. There is a lot of advertising activity done online and via e-mails and broadcast media. Not much of telephonic and other types of advertising are done. But the advertising done directly is significant and plays a vital role. Place Advertising The place advertising is very important and NetSol is very well aware of that. We do not see much billboards covered with NetSol and its offerings here in Pakistan but they do advertise internationally this way. On events like SOFTEC and other exhibitions NetSol has printed flexes and posters and hanging banners with the company logo which are large and very attractively designed. 2.3.5 Public Relations Public relations of NetSol are very well managed. They keep their customers very satisfied by unprecedented work quality and they show regular presence on major industry events by both participation and sponsorship. 2.4 Competitive Strategy 2.4.1 Competitors and Pricing The pricing is competitive. The industry is such that everyone knows what the other is charging and it basically depends on the type of the product or service being demanded by the customer. The major competitors of NetSol internationally are TATA, VIPRO etc. now NetSol has developed itself for the niche, and thus it does not matter essentially how products and services are priced. The competitive advantage that NetSol has over others is the quality. The pricing is competitive and there are no discounts offered to customers, but there are due negotiations done on the prices by both parties doing business. 2.5 Business process analysis 2.5.1 HR Department It was established in 1999 as an independent department. HR department was established to meet the following needs. Recruitment and selection Training and development Objectives Its main objective was the following: To make the company equal opportunity employer. To determine HR needs both in short term and long term. To attract right pool of candidates. To generate new recruitment channels. To create good relationship with other departments. To gave best services to the employees. To maintain and keep database of quality applicants. HR Functions at NetSol The HR department performs the following functions at NetSol, although the main heads are still the same but overall the following functions are performed by the HR department of NetSol. These include: Strategic HRM: Following are the areas of concern in this function: To set HR objectives/goals To formulate policies, procedures and strategies To forecast/plan the Human Resource Requirements to address the goals To design the skill set and knowledge base for Human Resources to accomplish the goals To create career paths for Human Resources To reward and retain the Human Resources Generation
University of Phoenix Interdisciplinary Care Providers Case Study.

Read the following case study.You are a staff nurse working in an intensive care unit and assigned to care for a 75-year-old man who had coronary artery bypass graft surgery four days ago. The patient has a history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbated by heavy smoking. His postoperative course has been difficult, and he has suffered a number of setbacks. Staff members, despite their diligent efforts, have not been able to wean him off the ventilator since the surgery. He has required frequent suctioning throughout the shift, and he is being evaluated for the development of ventilator-associated pneumonia.Today, when returning from lunch, you observed that an experienced nurse was suctioning your patient. His secretions were thick, and you observed that the nurse was instilling saline into the patient’s endotracheal tube as she was suctioning him. The patient turned red and began coughing, and it was obvious he was in distress.You asked the nurse why she was instilling saline into his endotracheal tube. She replied that this was being done to loosen the secretions. You told her this was no longer an acceptable practice. She stated that she many years of critical care experience and she didn’t care what anyone said, that the only way you could loosen the patient’s secretions would be to instill saline. She also said that would be the last time she would do something for one of your patients while you were at lunch. Identify the interdisciplinary care providers you need to include to ensure your patient receives the best treatment.Outline how you will coordinate, engage, and transition your patient to other providers.Format your assignment as the following:18- to 20-slide presentation (Excludes title page and reference page slide)Cite at least two scholarly articles as a basis for your interdisciplinary recommendations.Meet the grading criteria Content: 150 points possible Points possible Points earned Comments Identifies interdisciplinary care providers 37.5 Outlines coordination of care 37.5 Explains engagement strategies 37.5 Summarizes transition techniques 37.5 Format: 50 points possible Points possible Points earned Comments Cites at least two scholarly articles 25 Follows a structure that is clear, concise, and easy to follow 25 Points earned/possible /200
University of Phoenix Interdisciplinary Care Providers Case Study

Education homework help. .tictac{background:purple;border:#999 10px groove;width:180px;height:180px;font-size:150px;}// create a variable for if the game is over, initialize it to false// create a variable for the current player, initialize it to ‘O’ or ‘X’// based on who will go first// create an array for the squares using the regular methodology// create a 2-d array of the win combinations, the data is as follows:/*0, 1, 23, 4, 56, 7, 80, 3, 61, 4, 72, 5, 80, 4, 82, 4, 6*/// declare function named reset with no parameters{// write a for loop starting at index 1 instead of theÿ// usual 0, that loops through all 9 positions{// create a variable to relate to each HTML button,// set it equal to explicit text “sqr” concatenated// with the looping variable of the for loop// update the associated HTML element with the id// equal to the variable created above, set it equal// to and explicit empty string}// reset the global variable for the squares to anÿ// empty array using the literal methodology// reset the global variable for the game being over// setting it equal to false}// declare function named squareClick with one parameter called square{// create a variable that is set equal to the HTML element// with the id of square (i.e. the parameter) and retrieve its value//// this will be used down below as the id to update the HTML element// create a variable that is set equal to the JavaScript method call// parseInt() passing as an argument square.substring(3, 4),ÿ// subtract one from the result of the parseInt method call//ÿ// this will represent the index of the array of squares where// the user clicked// write an if statement that evaluates if the variable// value is equal to explicit string “”{// update the HTML element using the parameter square as// the id, setting its value equal to the global variable// player// in array of the squares update element stored at// the index retrieved above to the global variable// player}// call the function checkForWinner passing as an argument// the explicit value ‘X’// call the function checkForWinner passing as an argument// the explicit value ‘O’// change the player// write an if statement that checks if the player variable// is equal to O, if true, set player to X// write the else leg that switches player from X to O}// declare function playAgain with no parameters{// create a variable that stores the response to a// confirm dialog box with text “Play again?”// write an if statement that evaluates the user’s response// from above compared to true{// call function reset}// write the else leg{// display an alert dialog box that thanks the user// for playing}}// declare function checkForWinner with one parameter called value{ ÿÿ// write for loop, start at index 0, loop while// the index less than the length of the array// winCombinations{// write an if statement that evaluates// the squares array [] where the index is// array winCombinations[][], with the first index// being the looping variable and the second indexÿ// being value 0, 1, or 2, checking if it isÿ// equal to the value parameter;// this if statement should beÿ// three statements using the logical and &&// e.g. squares[windCombinations[][]] ÿ== value &&{// display an alert dialog box stating which// player won// set the variable gameOver equal to true}}// write an if statement checking if gameOver is true{// call function playAgain}// write the else leg{// use the return statement for program control}}Education homework help

Savannah State University The Article Daughter Execute Mother Discussion

Savannah State University The Article Daughter Execute Mother Discussion.

After reading Chapter 8, 9, Qisas Law in Islam and the attached link to the story “Daughter Executes Mother For Killing Abusive Husband…”, respond to the following questions: Click on highlighted Link >>>>Daughter Execute Mother(1) What was your first impression after reading the article(2) What cultural factors do you have to consider if you were assigned to work with this daughter and family concerning grief and loss (if they moved to the US).(3) Discuss your preliminarily intervention- Chapter 8 (next week we will discuss the planning and implementation) .Daughter Executes Mother For Killing Abusive Husband, Won’t Face Charges (
Savannah State University The Article Daughter Execute Mother Discussion

Management and Leadership: Defining the Relationship

assignment helper
What are the roles of the individuals in the above scenarios? Are they managers, leaders, or both? What distinguishes management from leadership and managers from leaders? The nature of the relationship between leadership and management remains a topic of debate among scholars. The debate provides insight into the definition of leadership and offers a suitable avenue for beginning an in-depth exploration of the topic of leadership.

To prepare for this Assignment, consider the similarities and differences between leadership and management.


Submit a 3- to 4-page analysis of the differences between leadership and management. In your analysis, do the following:

Evaluate the two scenarios by answering the following questions:What are the roles of the individuals in the scenarios?Are they managers, leaders, or both?What distinguishes management from leadership and managers from leaders?Analyze the similarities and differences between leadership and management.Support your work with a minimum of two specific citations per page from this week’s Learning Resources and/or additional scholarly sources. These may include specific media examples of leadership behavior and other relevant organizational information.

Segregation Of Public Schools Effects On Student Achievement Education Essay

School systems across the U.S. are voluntarily segregating their schools and schools may be more segregated today than they were at the height of the Civil Rights Movement. There is overwhelming evidence that segregation is a toxic social issue that serves to fortify discriminatory viewpoints and attitudes that negatively affect particular populations of people and innately puts Black and Latino students at a disadvantage, weakening facets of social capital in these students’ neighborhoods and further widening the life-long achievement gap between these students and their White counterparts. Black students continue to score lower than White students on standardized tests are underrepresented in institutions of higher learning and achieve overwhelmingly lower rates of wealth. This research will evaluate the affect of racial segregation on student academic achievement, which for purpose of this research will include standardized testing performance as well as attributes of social mobility, in order to identify the best model for U.S. school systems that fosters equity in access to resources and high student achievement. In the present paper, several case studies that investigate the learning outcomes and academic achievement in segregated schools are evaluated. From review of these case studies a hypothesis can be formed that states that racial segregation is detrimental to non-white students, particularly Blacks and Latinos. The following literature reviews demonstrate and support this hypothesis. The studies conclude that students who attend primarily minority schools are not as well prepared for post-secondary education and that this achievement gap is directly related to the degree to which they experienced segregation. The research also shows that all student benefit from diversity in their school setting; White students are also disadvantaged by re-segregation of schools. Review of Literature In a research article by Jones-Sanpei (2009), the research first identifies specific overarching goals of public education. The goals of education that this study evaluated are individual outcomes (academic achievement and job readiness) community outcomes (parental empowerment and social capital networks) and, individual social outcomes, such as future political engagement, social skills, and civic skills. Secondly the Jones-Sanpei research discussed the theory and research surrounding social capital and used data from five southern school districts and matching data from the 2000 Social Capital Community Benchmark Survey (SCCBS), (7) to examine the relationship between community social capital and segregated public schools. The study concluded by speculating about the potential effect of re-segregating public schools on both community and individual social capital. The Jones-Sanpei study stated that several factors promote student individual academic outcomes, which are usually measured by standardized exam scores. According to Jones-Sanpei (2009), student individual academic outcomes rely heavily on teacher attributes, pedagogical philosophy (teaching styles), and school structure. The study also takes into consideration school-mixed factors (community measures) such as parental involvement, curriculum funding, equity issues and community involvement, deemphasizing the practice of using solely standardized testing models to quantify student’s learning outcomes and student potential future competitiveness. The literature further legitimizes the importance of community measures as important outcomes of public education. Specific forms of social capital that may be fostered by public education “include obligations and expectations among a network of individuals, information channels, and social norms. Social capital enables community members to trust one another, establish business and political organizations, and to be involved in public education. Interactions through the public school medium have the potential to increase the general social capital of a community.” (Jones-Sanpei, 2009). The Jones-Sanpei study looked at two large southern school districts from 1992/1998 through 2005. The six school districts included in this analysis all had between 50,000 and 125,000 students in the 2005-2006 school-year. Additional community measures included the percent of each racial group in the community; mean community education, mean community income, and population density based on 1990 Census data. Community social capital measures tested by the study were interracial friendships, informal socializing and social trust. To test the hypothesis that communities with segregated public schools have lower community social capital, the study used t-tests, then used logistic regression to examine which social capital measures contributed to the interracial friendship measure. The findings of the study were that residents of communities with higher levels of school district segregation reported significantly lower levels of general social trust while communities with less segregated school districts reported significantly more social trust. Furthermore, respondents with higher general social trust were twenty-nine percent more likely to report having interracial friendships than respondents who reported lower general social trust. The findings support the hypothesis that segregated schools put children at a disadvantage for competing with their peers who will later have to work in a diverse society. “It may be that community social capital influences local school district policymaking with respect to racial integration or that district segregation influences community social capital. In conclusion, there seems to be a relationship between district segregation and community indicators of social capital.” ( Jones-Sanpei, 2009) The (Goldsmith, 2009) study of the affect of re-segregation of public schools focused on the long-term effects of this segregated schooling on achievement levels of Black and Latino students. The study used longitudinal data from the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988 which surveyed a sample of eight graders from across the U.S. in the spring of 1988. Students were resurveyed in 1990, 1992, 1994 and 2000. The NELS:88 data is relevant research about educational processes and outcome which include student learning, predictors of dropping out and effects on students’ access to equal education. Studying the minority-concentration and educational-attainment relationship is important because “racial segregation results in blacks and Latinos attending schools and living in neighborhoods with higher proportions of minorities than whites.” (Goldsmith, 2009, 4) This study hypothesized that segregation perpetuates racial inequality and that the percentage of black or Latino in a neighborhood negatively affects individuals’ educational achievement. The focus of ( Goldsmith, 2009) was the circumstances surrounding segregated schools, and possible causes of the segregation. This research summarized findings of previous studies and found that “The racial segregation of neighborhoods is principally responsible for the racial segregation of schools” (Goldsmith, 2009, p10).that show that schools that attempted to change from white, segregated schools to integrated schools had high rates of teachers and staff who reported that they did not receive adequate training to teach in integrated settings. Goldsmith also concluded that schools of segregated populations of Black and Latino students were less likely to graduate from high school and attain a bachelor’s degree than students in predominantly white schools. Empirical data from previous studies was analyzed the correlation between segregated neighborhoods, segregated schools and educational outcomes. This research supports earlier discussed hypotheses of segregation’s affect on individual achievement and community social capital by analyzing the validity of the “perpetuation theory”. This theory maintains that Blacks and Latinos who experience segregation in schools and their communities continue to be segregated in other social institutions over the course of their lives fail to develop networks with whites or the knowledge for developing these networks. These networks are important because they carry high-status knowledge, for example, about college admission procedures. “An inability to form social ties with whites and to access information in white networks reduces the life chances of blacks and Latinos well after adolescence”. (Goldsmith, 2009, p10). Goldsmith, 2009 also presents reason for future research to study schools in predominantly minority neighborhoods as it would provide valuable data on effects of segregation on student achievement. The method for this research included NELS data as stated before as well as an analysis of students’ residential zip code areas retrieved from eth 1990 and 1992 census reports. The research conducted by (Austin, A M, 2008) clearly lays out data for the correlation between segregated schools and achievement on non-white students. The weight of the findings in this study further legitimize the importance of the two previous studies discussion of the long-term, quality of life disparities caused by the lack-luster community social capital of students in segregated schools and segregated neighborhoods. The main focus of this research was to compare the grade point averages of white male and female students to the grade point averages of male and female minority students. The student’s high school GPAs are then used a measure to project future college achievement by race. This research also supports the research presented by the NELS, clearly stating that racial segregation in schools across the U.S. directly affects minority students’ ability to compete in institutions of higher learning and eventually in the job market. (Austin, A M, 2008) found that the gap between white and minority students is about 11.2% of the average GPA. This study also looked at the effect of different environmental factors faced by minority students, specifically their segregation in early years of schooling, to explain the academic performance gap that existed once they reached the post-secondary level. Like previously reviewed studies, this study sound that minority students tend to live in segregated neighborhoods and attend segregated schools. This fact put minority students at a grave disadvantage at the post-secondary education level. For the research, student performance was tracked over a period of 6 years of 1331 public school students from the State of Georgia who enter the University of West Georgia in the Fall semester of 2001. Of the 1331 students in the study, 60% are female, 75.1% are white, 20.4% are black and the remaining students are Asian (1.1%), Hispanic (1.4%), Native American (0.4%) and multi-racial (1.7%). The average high school GPA is 3.01, and the average SAT scores are 502 for the verbal test, and 497 for the math. The study by (Massey, 2006) reported that 2/3 of African American lived under conditions of high racial segregation, and that 2/3 of all African Americans attended minority dominant schools. Massey’s study focused on the academic achievement of 3924 students entering 28 selective universities in the Fall semester of 1999. He surveys these freshmen and assembles a data set on social conditions in neighborhoods and high schools and finds that “minority students from segregated backgrounds attended substandard schools, received lower quality instruction, were exposed to higher levels of disorder and violence, and were less prepared socially for campus life.” (Massey, 2006, 6) By looking at the reported performance of these students over their first three semesters in college, Massey concluded that segregation has a significant impact on student achievement. He estimated that going from total integration to total segregation would lower GPAs by about 0.13, and that taking segregated backgrounds into account reduces the performance gap, but doesn’t completely eliminate it. He also predicts that, because his data is from highly selective schools, in general the effect will be worse. The study by (Condron, 2009) found that the number one cause of the achievement gap between minority students and white students is racial segregation in the schools. This study cited the social and economic stratification (social capital) between black and white Americans as a barrier to student achievement in schools and later as adults. This research used 1st grade data from a longitudinal study of a pre-kindergarten cohort and found that segregated schools cause an elevated role in the academic achievement gap as well as in social class disparities. This study’s approach to the research differed from most by looking at social class as it directly correlates with race as opposed to looking at race as a sole determining factor of socio-economic status. This approach allowed the researcher to take into account that “children growing up in different positions in the stratification hierarchy have categorically unequal and qualitatively different (rather than continuously graded) life and educational experiences [and that] poverty involves distinct material hardships and environmental disadvantages that may stunt poor children’s cognitive development” (Condron, 2009, p9). This research also went deeper into the school-level practices that attribute to student achievement gap more so than the other literature reviewed here. In addition to looking at social capital, which other studies also did, this study analyzed organizational processes, teacher attributes and resources at the schools, in relation to student body composition. This study found that racially segregated schools had poor administrative cohesion, poorly developed staff, and substandard resources for students. In conclusion, the research is clear that despite historic Supreme Court victories to desegregate U.S. public schools, the workforce may be integrated but our neighborhoods and schools are not. There needs to be more research done in the way of showing more qualitative data of the future overall individual achievement of minority students who attend predominantly minority schools, segregated from white students. This should be done so that that one of two things can take place. Either a de-segregation movement in education reform policy needs to be pushed through or schools that remain segregated need to be brought up to the same standards of predominantly white, high performing school. It has already been proven that this has a significant impact on students in two ways. The first solution may prove more favorable as research also provides evidence that a diverse school environment benefits both minority and white students alike. The study will seek to provide to answer these specific questions: What is the perspective of individual teachers of the effects of their students’ culture, class, and gender on their academic performance? How do students view their race and the race of their classmates as factors that affect their academic achievement and overall academic experience? How do students and teacher talk about racial inequality in their school? How does school segregation affect both white and non-white students? The proposed study will help bring awareness to these critical points. Methodology For my study I will use two New York City schools, both on the Lower East Side of Manhattan. One school is a charter school where of the 380 students, 43% are black, 29% are Hispanic, 1% are White and 1% are Asian (information for the ethnicities of the other 25% was not provided at time of this proposal). 100% of the students who attend this k-5 school qualify for free lunch based on government poverty guidelines. The math and reading scores are high, among the best in the city ( The other school’s, a pubic school under the department of education, demographics is such: of 336 students, 13% black, 36% Hispanic, 34%White, 13% Asian ( The math and reading scores at this school are less than stellar. I will select 15 respondents from each school for the interview; three students from each grade, grade 3 through 5, one Black, one White and one Asian. I will select two teachers from each grade level. Teachers in both upper and lower elementary school will be chosen and their ethnicities will be mixed to mirror those of the students being interviewed. This will be done to ascertain whether there are common themes in regards to perspective of race and students achievement amongst the teachers in terms of their ethnic background. The teachers will be selected based on the test score of their students from previous years; teachers with high results for student achievement will be selected. Data will be collected through interviews and observations. The interviews will be open-ended. They will focus on biographical information, what populations they have the most experience teaching, what they felt contributed to their success and trends in academic achievement they notice among the students they have worked with. They will also be asked general questions about how they prepare themselves to be culturally aware, how they address diversity or multiculturalism in the classroom and how they communicate expectations to their students. A sample of interview questions for the teachers that will be used: 1. Tell me about yourself? (Where are you from, upbringing, culture, why you chose to be a teacher…) 2. Have you been to any professional development workshop about diversity in the classroom? 3. How do you think your background and/or teacher training influence how you interact with students? (Your rapport with the students, communication style, your ethnic background in comparison to your students…) 4. Do you set high expectations in your classroom? Why? Why not? 5. Do your expectations change depending on the demographics of your class? A sample of interview questions for the students that will be used: 1. Do you spend time with kids who are different from you in school? How are they different? 2. What is it like to go to school with these kids? 3. Do you have friends that attend another school? What is it like for them? 4. Does your teacher set high expectations for you? 5. Is school difficult for you? Why or why not? 6. Do you ever feel that you are different from your classmates or teachers? How? The teachers will be observed and video taped for ten hours in the span of three months. During the observations the researchers will take specific notes in regards to the teachers’ behavior and interaction with students. Potential codes that may arise include: expectations, communication, empathy and rapport. The researchers will look at the data identify overarching themes that speak to the effects of the shift to re-segregation of public schools. The data will be studied to see how the experiences of students in racially diverse school settings differ from those in segregated school settings and how this experience may translate to differences in academic achievement and components of the social capital theory, specifically, obligations and expectations among a network of individuals, information channels, and social norms. The committee will also seek to see if there are common themes in regards to the teacher’s ethnicity and professional development in regard to their cultural sensitivity. They will look at how the perspectives and identity of the teachers reflects how they approach diversity in the classroom and how they transmit information about a variety of topics, and how they set expectations for their students depending on students’ race. Discussion This research will clearly show that re-segregation is a problem that needs to be taken under control. This research is not only concerned with academic achievement affected by segregation, but is also concerned with students’ and teachers’ experience and perspective of race in the school. The data collected will tell the story of what effect race has on a school community and the whole educational experience of students. I expect to find that in the charter school where students are segregated in that there is a very small percentage of white students and there is less of a mixed demographics, that teachers are under-prepared to teach in classrooms where their students’ race is different from their own. I also expect to find that these teachers have had little or no professional development for fostering cultural sensitivity in their classrooms. Most importantly, I expect to find that teachers’ expectations and perception of student achievement in the charter school will be inconsistent, and differ from those of teachers in the public school where there is a more diverse student population and that their attitudes will decrease the effectiveness of their classroom instruction, thereby hindering the academic achievement of their students. Another expected result of this research is that students of different races will have significantly different responses to the question of what their teacher’s expectations. I expect that while teachers may report that they have the same expectations for all of their students, interview responses from students may very well reveal that students are intuitive and sensitive to the differences in teacher expectation that may be communicated through subtle teacher behavior like how much they are encouraged to participate in class discussions compared to other students. Possible shortcomings of the methods in this proposed study are that this data collected in the manner previously stated does not provide true longitudinal data to track specific students’ experiences of racial integration or segregation and their resulting academic achievement beyond elementary school. A longitudinal study may follow this study in the future. Further considerations for methodology that may affect the outcomes of this study are the affect of overall student interracial experiences. Limitations to the proposed research methods are that no data will be collected that gives researchers information for what the out-of-school experiences for the students are; do they live in diverse neighborhoods or segregated communities? What are their parent interracial relationships and/or experiences that may inform them? In future research data may be collected on the degree to which students are segregated outside of school. To collect this data, student enrollment records would have to be collected, tracking the students by race and places of residence, which can be generally identified by area zip codes. The possible problem with collecting this data may be that some students actually live outside the neighborhood listed on records. This could affect the findings of this research by misrepresenting the correlation between in-school segregation and neighborhood segregation that affect overall student segregation and academic performance. Another limitation of the interview method to collect data in this study is that students and teachers may answer as they feel they are expected to. This would make the data collected by interview about teacher rapport with students and expectations of students’ achievement inconsistent with data that may be collected through formal observations by researcher. As we see more school reforms that resemble business models and more charters, we also see more segregation. One possible implication of this research is that charter, which appear to contribute heavily to the re-segregation, will come under more stringent scrutiny and closer regulation. As for public schools that are a part of the board of education. Other possible implications of this research are that administrations will consider more professional development training for their teachers in eth way of preparing them to teach their diverse or non-diverse populations. As stated in the introduction of this proposal, one of the goals of public schooling is to produce critical thinkers who can function in what is becoming a more diverse global job market. Having said this, it is foreseeable that this research will be used to inform schools and educators to the extent to which they are meeting this requirement of public schooling or missing the mark. There sill also be a shift in the conversations that surround race in the school. Through the information gathered from the interview responses, teachers and administration will become aware of the disconnect between students’ experiences and teachers’ perception of students experiences.

PQC Purpose of Learning Is to Prepare for Upcoming Exams Revision Practice

PQC Purpose of Learning Is to Prepare for Upcoming Exams Revision Practice.

For this prompt, the goal is simple… perform some actions that will help you improve your memory and study skills.When you’re ready, follow these steps:1) Write down the typical process you engage in whenever you study for exams. How far out do you begin? What types of tactics do you use? 2) Afterward, engage in a quick discussion on how effective you believe your established process is. Do you always do well on your exams? What are the strengths and weaknesses of the process? Would you consider your current method to be more effective or ineffective in terms of the type of success you’ve experienced? -300 word minimum. 3) Next, go back and read about the five hacks mentioned above in the lecture, and also do a deeper search on them. Once you have discovered what they are, based on what you know about yourself, think about which one’s you think would be helpful for you personally. Then, spend some time writing about each one you’ve selected and discuss why you think it would be helpful. ( The 5 hacks : Acronyms, Rhymes, Chunking, Method of Loci, and Keywording)-300 word minimum. 4) Now, it’s time to pick one of the hacks, or a combination of two or more, and develop a strategy for Quiz #2 OR a major exam in a different course. Please, don’t just pick what you think might be the easiest one. Instead, pick one that you feel will genuinely be helpful. Then, spend some time developing a plan for how you will use this new technique. Once you’ve completed your plan, share that plan here. Make sure and include a reason as to why you think this plan will be effective, and exactly how you will implement the plan. -500 word minimum. *PLEASE NOTE: You do not have to completely abandon the manner in which you typically study. Please just add/adopt these hacks into your routine to better structure your habits. 5) Once the plan has been established, it’s time to execute the plan. Sometime before the exam, you’ll need to actually put the plan in motion. Once/as you do, journal about the process. Discuss things like… How’s it going? Do changes need to be made? Are you catching on quickly? Is it working? -300 word minimum. 6) If you need to make changes, make changes. Otherwise, continue using the strategy until you take the quiz. 7) Once the quiz has been completed, now it’s time to use hindsight and discuss how well you think your strategy actually worked. This is simply a reflection piece. So, just evaluate the quality of your outcomes, whether you think your strategy worked, and what you will do moving forward. This will also serve as your conclusion, so make sure and include your thoughts on the experience as a whole, and “tie a bow on it”. -500 word minimum.
PQC Purpose of Learning Is to Prepare for Upcoming Exams Revision Practice