Known as the CSI-Effect, the medias representation of criminal proceedings manipulates and distorts the deliberations made by juries resulting in unrealistic expectations of contemporary forensic science. The CSI-Effect has evolved and perpetuated through the emergence of popular crime dramas, such as CSI, NCIS, Bones and Criminal Minds that obscure the juries perspective of authentic, credible forensic science. Consequently, juries now perceive forensic evidence as, objective, reliable and infallible. (Wise, 2010, p. 384) This has resulted in an increased demand for prosecution to produce viable and tangible forensic evidence, in order to satisfy the high standard of proof in criminal proceedings. Jurors therefore, fail to distinguish between the media’s stylized portrayal of forensic science and the current limitations and restrictions of forensics within the legal framework. Jurors are now susceptible to the unrealistic view that forensic testing is the most superior, probative form of evidential proof and therefore, afford greater reliability to expert witnesses and examiners. Juries may demand forensic testing or evidence examination in unnecessary cases without regard to the time or financial restrictions placed on lab facilities and testing resources. Similarly, jurors now expect that current forensic experts have access to similar advanced technology and resources as investigators portrayed in televised crime dramas. As the media’s representation of crime fiction continues to inaccurately inform juries’ perspectives ‘ the role of forensic science in the criminal justice system will remain obscured and misinterpreted. Creation of the CSI-Effect The CSI-Effect represents the relationship between popular crime television programs and the deliberations made by juries in criminal court proceedings. The media’s portrayal of crime fiction can be observed through programs including, CSI, Bones, Forensic Files and Criminal Minds. As demonstrated by Nielson Media Research, the Top 10 American Broadcast TV Rankings between June 1st and June 7th, 2009 included Law and Order: SVU with 11,562000 viewers, alongside NCIS with 11,256000 viewers. (Nielson, 2009) Due to the CSI-Effect, jurors falsely associate the forensic capabilities presented in such programs as a reflection of current discipline standards and resources. Therefore, it is commonly assumed in court proceedings that all criminal offences can be resolved using forensic evidence. As argued by Mann, 2006, television as a highly influential form of mass media, has significantly shaped the public perception of the criminal justice system. ‘Many are convinced that in this modern age of forensic science, the ‘CSI effect,’ which refers to the hit CBS television show CSI: Crime Scene Investigation gives jurors heightened and unrealistic expectations of how conclusively forensic science can determine innocence or guilt.’ (Mann, 2006, p. 211) The CSI-Effect relies heavily on the popularity of law-orientated television programs ‘ in accordance to the fictitious, unrealistic representation of forensic science and criminal investigation issues. The manner in which jurors now determine judgements and assess evidence in criminal proceedings has been irrevocably altered. Thus, the CSI-Effect has resulted in a severe distortion of the criminal investigative process and the extent to which credible, forensic evidence can be perceived by jurors in the legal framework. Higher acquittal rates The CSI-Effect has produced an elevated standard of proof in criminal proceedings for prosecution to present substantial forensic evidence to gain a conviction. As supported by Cole and Dioso-Villa, 2009, this is evidenced by heightened acquittal rates amongst juries, subsequent to the advent of crime dramas, such as CSI. Jurors now hold exaggerated views regarding the probative merit of forensic science. Therefore, in certain situations the verdict is dependent on forensic factors such as DNA typing, fingerprints, bloodstain pattern analysis and ballistics. Mann, 2006 discusses the development of forensic evidence in comparison to the prosecution’s traditional reliance on witness testimonies and statements. The media’s concentration on the infallibility of forensic science has resulted in juries affording the professional opinions and testimonies of expert witnesses more probative value. Due to the CSI-Effect, jurors seek ‘slam-dunk evidence’ (Podlas, 2009, p. 432) in criminal trials and proceedings, as conveyed in relatively all crime dramas. ‘[The CSI-Effect] focuses on the way that CSI elevates scientific evidence to an unsupported level of certainty thus bolstering the prosecution’s case.’ (Podlas, 2009, p. 433) In reality, a large amount of obtainable evidence is difficult to achieve in certain criminal investigations. In the absence of material forensic evidence, jurors now perceive the arguments presented by prosecution to be invalid or inapplicable. The public is continually inundated with stylized portrayals of forensic science as flawless and precise. Accordingly, this has similarly affected the juries’ approach in demanding substantial and viable forensic evidence in order to successfully convict an individual. ‘Everyone’s an Expert’ The existence of the CSI-Effect has remained a highly contentious and controversial issue in the contemporary legal system. In specific regards to heightened acquittal rates amongst juries, Tyler (2006, p.74) hypothesised that, ‘[I]t is equally plausible to argue that watching CSI has, in fact, the opposite effect on jurors’increasing their tendency to convict defendants.’ Tyler claims that crime television programs, such as CSI aim to deliver certainty through the achievement of justice and ‘the ability of investigators to catch the bad guy.’ Tyler suggests that the juries’ aspirations for justice may also lead to leniency in conviction, rather than acquittal. (Tyler, 2006) However, Tyler failed to address the principal issue of forensic science and evidential proof within his criticisms of the CSI-Effect. The CSI-Effect has led to jurors with inflated perceptions of his/her own expertise in the field of forensic science. As supported by Wise, 2010 ‘ jurors consider themselves somewhat educated and informed in the forensic discipline through regular observation of the techniques and practices displayed in televised crime dramas. Consequently, jurors are highly likely to acquit a defendant if prosecutors fail to obtain reliable, probative forensic evidence to support the case. Juror ignorance: limitations As a consequence of the CSI-Effect, juries now hold unrealistic, impractical expectations of the field of forensic science in the existing legal system. The CSI-Effect is partially generated by the juries’ failure to appropriately consider the various limitations and restrictions placed on forensic testing facilities and resources. In many criminal proceedings, juries may demand forensic testing on particular evidence articles without regard to time availability or government financial expenses. This can directly influence the judicial deliberations made by juries in relation to reaching acquittals, based solely on the lack of forensic evidential proof. As supported by Heinrick, 2006, juries can demand unnecessary and costly testing for fingerprints, DNA and handwriting analyses. If such requirements are not fulfilled in criminal proceedings, jurors may be more willing to acquit accused individuals. Dissimilar to the fictional forensic techniques and procedures portrayed in crime dramas, forensic tests can take extended periods of time to complete and evidence analysis is an extremely long, time consuming process. (Heinrick, 2006) The Maricopia County Attorney’s Office (MCAO) recently conducted an extensive study into typical juror behaviour in relation to the CSI-Effect. MCAO conducted interview-based surveys on approximately 102 prosecutors with professional experience with juries in criminal trials. Each prosecutor was assessed on their previous experiences with juries whom they considered to ‘exhibit signs of the CSI-Effect’. (Heinrick, 2006) MCAO concluded that, ‘More than half (61%) of prosecutors who ask jurors if they watch forensic crime television shows feel jurors seem to believe the shows are mostly true.’ (Maricopia County Attorney’s Office, 2005) Conclusion The existence of the CSI-Effect in the contemporary legal system can be observed through juries’ obscured perceptions and understanding of credible forensic evidence. The ascending popularity and public appeal of fictional crime-orientated television programs has resulted in a heightened standard of proof for prosecution to obtain actual evidence in criminal proceedings. Consequently, acquittal rates amongst current juries have increased since the development of the CSI franchise. (Cole
An examination of analogue and digital tools utilized in the creation and animation of Gorgon Medusa in Clash of the Titans (1981) and in Clash of the Titans (2010). This essay aim to discuss, compare and bring forth an understanding of the tools and techniques implemented in the creation of the Medusa Creature in Clash of the Titans (1981) using the technique of stop-motion animation and miniatures and in the use of digital computer generated model and motion-capture in Clash of the Titans (2010). Clash of the Titans (1981) is a Greek Epic which was directed by Desmond Davis and Produced by Ray Harryhausen and Charles H. Schneer. Ray Harryhausen, the most successful, innovative and leading animator and Visual Effects artist. He is the landmark for the stop-motion animation. “A man who has inspired us all, one frame at a time.” (THE SECRET LAB DISNEY FEATURE ANIMATION AND WALT DISNEY COMPANY). He was inspired by King Kong (1933) which was animated by Wills O’Brien, first Stop-Motion Animator, and it changed his life. Ray Harryhausen and Charles H. Schneer are long-time colleagues. Their first combination movie was “It Came from Beneath the Sea (1955)”. Both decided to produce Clash of the Titans (1981), a low budget product with a predictable and dependable margin of profit but it happened to develop into a big-budget production (Cinefex, 1981). Because of big-budget Ray produced extra dose of stop-motion effects. Movie took nearly three years of development and preproduction and its budget was $16 million and become the 11th highest grossing film of 1981 (CG World, 2010). He did lot of work for creating city of Argos miniature, puppets of winged horse Pegasus, Calibos, snake-tailed Medusa, Dioskilos, Scorpions and the Kraken. This was Ray’s last film; he took retire after the Clash of the Titans. It’s been 29 years since Ray Harryhausen and Desmond Davis released the original Clash of the Titans (1981). Now the Greek Gods are back again for another battle in Warner Bros. Pictures remake of the original Clash of the Titans, directed by Louis Leterrier. Louis Leterrier was a fan of the original Clash of the Titans and he wanted to make sure this new ‘Clash of the Titans’. Nick Davis, the visual effects supervisor divided the visual effects work into three main parts because of 900 visual effects shots and short postproduction. Postproduction completed in 25 weeks by artists at The Moving Picture Company, Framestore and Cinesite (Cinefex, 2010). “A colossus of stop motion goes head to head with the new giants of CG, as Jim Thacker discovers how three VFX houses re-imagined Ray Harryhausen’s final creature feature for the digital era (3D World, 2010)”. “We divided it into three main parts, playing to the strengths of the different houses, and locking together those sequences that, logically, would stay together. Whoever did the Kraken, for example, would have to do the city of Argos. So that block of work stayed together and went to MPC. The Scorpioch battle was very much a stand-alone sequence, and we felt it lent itself quite well to the skill sets of Cinesite. That left everything else – Hades, Medusa, Calibos, and all of the other environments – to Framestore.” By Nick Davis (Cinefex 2010) CLASH OF THE TITANS (1981) GORGON MEDUSA, terryfying female creature in Greek Mythology, She is one of the three Gorgon sisters. Medusa had once looking good, but after a assault in Athena Temple the goddess, Aphrodite, turned her into a weird creature having serpents on the head instead of hair and her lower body look like snake, upper body is albeit green and covered in reptilian scales and her curse of turning human life that looked at her into stone. Ray Harryhausen developed Medusa into a dynamation( it is the name of the technique used by Ray Harryhausen used to combine stop-motion footage with live action by means of split screen and rear projection) character. He researched about the Medusa creature how the art and literature painted and he discovered two paintings by Caravaggio’s Medusa and Leonardo da Vinci’s Testa di Medusa (An Animated Life, page 272). By watching the portrait of Caravaggio’s Medusa Ray realised that this look attractive rather than Gorgon. He saw an attractive statue of Perseus holding frightening Medusa’s head by Cellini in Florence and decided to design Cellini’s Medusa in his film. The torso of her should give the ugliness to her face so he decided to give her a non – human body. After a long debate Ray opted to twelve snakes on the head, instead of arise from the skull he laid them on head to take more space and for the lower body added a rattlesnake tail for the interesting opening sequence. When he was setting up for animation he had no idea about how the Medusa is going to move because of her lower snake body and the heavy weight of her top. He took a reference image from the 1932 Tod Browning Film Freaks, in this film a handicapped man move forward by the support of hand (An Animated Life, page 272). The model of Medusa is 14 inches high and 24 inches long from the tip to the head of the Medusa. The Medusa contains 150 armature joints (the kinematic chains used in computer animation to simulate the motions of virtual characters). Initially Ray planned to build two Medusa characters one with full body and another with only head for the close – up shots. But for the close – up shots with big head had to use bag filters to look good so he decided to manage with the single Medusa it is enough to shoot her face, tail and lower body individually. The animation of Medusa took days for the simple movement like moving her hand to reach the bowstring and few more days to pick the arrow and few more days to release the arrow. And also animating the general movement of the mouth, eyes and fingers and the realistic movement of her tail took more time to complete the perfect animation. Including this he had to animate the twelve individual snakes at every point on the head and the head and tail of the twelve snakes are separate and he had to move them separately, so totally twenty four movements plus one more around her wrist (An Animated Life, page 274-275). In the film the Medusa sequence is six minute and it contains fifty-three stop-motion cuts (The Stop-Motion Filmography, Page 139). The most successful achievement of the medusa sequence is it doesn’t appear like composite photography. The whole shots of medusa were shoot on a full size set of chamber except some steps and the pillar is constructed in miniature. To show the creepy in the scene the opening sequence of the medusa is seen only in the part of shadows, the raising tail on the wall and the head with snakes on her hair writhe, in this part of the sequence the wall and the column are the miniatures set, placed in front of the rear-projected with flaming braziers ( The Stop-Motion Filmography, page 140). Miniature is a representational model which are built, operated and photographed so as to appear to be genuine in character and full-scale of size ( Special Effects of Cinematography, page 322). Rear-Projection and Miniatures were the common tool for the visual effects artists in early history. Miniatures presents three -dimensional, lighting can be changed from shot to shot. In long shot Medusa drags herself along with her arms enter into the scene. This is the scene which was composited by rear-projection technique. A rear projector and camera positioned on either side of a central assembly consisting of a rear process screen and an intermediate pane of glass between it and the camera. Small areas of live-action footage to be projected onto the screen and then surrounded with elaborate glass paintings. Background temple is a live action footage which was projected on to translucent screen by rare projector and camera is used to shoot on to the translucent screen, in between the camera and the translucent screen Medusa is placed and animated. To interact the character with background they used a brazier on the left of the rear projection. Fig. Dynamation by Ray Harryhausen Fig. Rear-Projection Technique In the next two shots, a composite of Medusa into the centre of shield of Perseus by using a matte technique. Matte is a technique of combining foreground and back ground image elements into one final image by compositing. In those days before computer graphic technology they used glass shots, mirror shots, travelling matte shots, in camera matte shots, optical printing and aerial image printing for matte. In this movie they used travelling matte to compose Medusa onto the Perseus shield. In travelling matte the compositing is done on a optical printer. Both the foreground and background scenes are printed onto a duplicate negative. While compositing the Medusa onto the shield the background image (Perseus with shield) looks like a still image it is used to avoid more complicate on the scene. Fig. Travelling matte Fig. Medusa on the shield of Perseus using matte. Another rear projection used in this movie is when the Medusa looks into the fallen soldier and he turned into stone because of her curse. This is a scene where the background is a live action shoot and the Medusa is composed onto background by using rear-projection. In the foreground the camera zooms in from the medium shot to close up of Medusa’s face to show her eyes more lighting and the skin with scaly green and her jagged teeth ( The Stop- Motion Filmography, page 140). In this scene her eyes are composed for lighting by using matte. Fig. Medusa with lighting eyes to show her power to turn into stone. In the next shot Medusa passes behind a statue. It shows the depth between the foreground, midground and the background. In the background is the live shoot and in the midground Medusa passes along on her tail and in the foreground a statue. The statue is actually a miniature and some brazier is used for lighting on a statue. This is a scene mixed of rear projection, miniature and matte techniques. The next scene Perseus is ready to cuts off the Medusa’s head. In this sequence the foreground Medusa puppet is actually a far off and behind live action figures. In this scene they used a camera technique by using dollies to show the foreground puppet is beside the Perseus to create the depth in the scene. This type of technique is called “reality sandwich” , it fools the eye to think that a foreground puppet is actually far off and behind live – action figures ( The Stop-Motion Filmography, page 141). The sequence fallowed by cutting the head of the Medusa. This scene is shot by using wires for the animation of the separated head of Medusa. And one of the Medusa’s hand scratches with the fingernails onto the pillars. In this scene the pillar, it is actually a miniature and the scratches are drawn on a cardboard and they animated it after the Medusa’s hand. After the body fell down the red goo comes out from the neck, actually the goo was shot separately, it is mixed of red-tinted wallpaper paste. They cut a tube that would match the size of the neck and it is tied with the black velvet and it is poured it down the tube, it looks like oozed out. After that it is matted it into the scene ( An Animate Life, Page 274). The Medusa’s sequence ends with a final shot with static matte contains Perseus stands and holding the Medusa’s head on right and to the left the lower body of Medusa lying in a pool of red ooze ( The Stop-Motion Filmography, page 141). CLASH OF THE TITANS (2010) Warner Bros. Pictures remake original Clash of the Titans. Much as the fondly remembered 1981 feature is a reworking of the myth of Perseus, this 2010 release is director Louis Leterrier’s reimagining of the Harryhausen original (3DWorld, page 30). Aaron Sims Company (Production and Character Design Company) designed the variety of creatures based on the Greek mythology characters and the characters appeared in Ray’s original film. “We’ve seen so many Greek mythology characters done in films,” Aaron Sims. Sims team designed more than 1000 designs by the end of the project time. The team started with pencil designs, Photoshop paintings and 3D models, textured and rendered lot of 3D characters still images. These were given to the visual effects crews and previsualization team to utilize them in the production (Cinefex 2010). Fig: Medusa Designs of Aaron Sims company (Character Design Company) Because of the short time of post production and the 900 shots of computer graphics Nick Davis divided work into 3 parts and gave to three main visual effects houses in London. Framestore got the work of Medusa, Hades and Olympus. Framestore carefully distributed the snakes on Medusa’s head to convince the viewer that her head and neck are capable of bearing thier weight ( 3DWorld, page 30). Based on the designs of Aaron Sims Company visual effects artists made Medusa with a massive snake body on lower part and snakes replaced with hair on the head of the Medusa and her body slithers into a womanly shape. Medusa is a beautiful lady because of the curse by gods she turned into gorgon, so they took some reference photos of Natalia Vodianova to design the face of Medusa. ” We had to try to make the snake body merge seamlessly into a human body and still feel snake-like,” Webber says. ” The 50-foot snake starts changing into a human body and still hips. You see a slight bulge, a hint of stomach muscle, and the scales smooth out. She has metal armor a kind of metal bra with a snake design.”( CGWorld, ) In Clash of the Titans(2010) Medusa is completely designed and animated by using Computer Graphics. When compared to original movie Ray Harryhausen used a puppet Medusa and rear projection techniques for mixing the live footage and the Medusa character for the entire sequence. To animate snakes on her hair they wrote a plug-in for Maya (Autodesk’s) to manage the scales. Every snake is individually animated by using this plug-in. In the original movie Ray is the only person who animated the snakes individually by hand. Eventhough she doen’t have any dialouges, she had facial expressions based on the Vodianova, they had full-on facial animation rig to show creepy in the audience. They modelled two models in 3D, both are animatable. One with beautiful face and the another with scary snake. They used morph to change from beautiful face to scary snake. When she pertifies people, her head changes from beautiful women to a scary snake (CGWorld, ). In the morphing the model could change, the texture could change, and the skin surface could change. It is not possible to change all at same time. She again changes from scary snake to human, in this scene the animators managed the timing for the morph and for the snakes. Because of the individual behavior of the snakes procedural techniques are not worked and so the animation of snakes ended up a lot with a hand animation. Fig. Medusa’s head transform from scary snake to beautiful women
slide presentation of the hypothetical health promotion plan you developed in the first assessment.
Build a slide presentation (PowerPoint preferred) of the hypothetical health promotion plan you developed in the first assessment. Then, implement your health promotion plan by conducting a hypothetical face-to-face educational session addressing the health concern and health goals of your selected group. How would you set goals for the session, evaluate session outcomes, and suggest possible revisions to improve future sessions? ——————— You will resume the role of a community nurse tasked with addressing the specific health concern in your community. This time, you will present, via educational outreach, the hypothetical health promotion plan you developed in Assessment 1 to your fictitious audience. In this hypothetical scenario, you will simulate the presentation as though it would be live and face-to-face. You must determine an effective teaching strategy, communicate the plan with professionalism and cultural sensitivity, evaluate the objectives of the plan, revise the plan as applicable, and propose improvement for future educational sessions. To engage your audience, you decide to develop a PowerPoint presentation with voice-over and speaker notes to communicate your plan. ——— Prepare a 10-12 slide PowerPoint presentation with a voice-over and detailed speaker notes that reflects your hypothetical presentation. This presentation is the implementation of the plan you created in Assessment 1. The speaker notes should be well organized. Be sure to include a transcriipt of the voice-over (please refer to the PowerPoint tutorial). The transcriipt can be submitted on a separate Word document. Simulate the hypothetical face-to-face educational session addressing the health concern and health goals of your selected community individual or group. Imagine collaborating with the hypothetical participant(s) in setting goals for the session, evaluating session outcomes, and suggesting possible revisions to improve future sessions.
Hypothesis testing comparing two populations, confidence intervals, comparisons multiple proportions
best essay writers Hypothesis testing comparing two populations, confidence intervals, comparisons multiple proportions.
Please upload two documents 1- excel sheet with all calculations2- word document with interpretation of the results (ex. explain results of the test mean in the context of the problem.Data given is contains insurance classification, price and attributes of some cars in 1987. The aim of the study is to understand how insurance risk ratings and car attributes affect the price at which a car is sold. The variables in the data set are as follows: 1. Risk rating-3, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3. 2. Risk factorRisky, neutral, safe 3. makealfa-romero, audi, bmw, chevrolet, dodge, honda, isuzu, jaguar, mazda, mercedes-benz, mercury, mitsubishi, nissan, peugot, plymouth, porsche, renault, saab, subaru, toyota, volkswagen, volvo 4. fuel-typediesel, gas. 5. aspirationstandard, turbo. 6. num-of-doorsfour, two. 7. body-stylehardtop, wagon, sedan, hatchback, convertible. 8. drive-wheels4wheel drive (4wd), forward wheel drive (fwd), rear wheel drive (rwd). 9. engine-locationfront, rear. 10. wheel-basecontinuous from 86.6 120.9. 11. lengthcontinuous from 141.1 to 208.1. 12. widthcontinuous from 60.3 to 72.3. 13. heightcontinuous from 47.8 to 59.8. 14. curb-weightcontinuous from 1488 to 4066. 15. engine-typedohc, dohcv, l, ohc, ohcf, ohcv, rotor. 16. num-of-cylinderseight, five, four, six, three, twelve, two. 17. engine-sizecontinuous from 61 to 326. 18. fuel-system1bbl, 2bbl, 4bbl, idi, mfi, mpfi, spdi, spfi. 19. borecontinuous from 2.54 to 3.94. 20. strokecontinuous from 2.07 to 4.17. 21. compression-ratiocontinuous from 7 to 23. 22. horsepowercontinuous from 48 to 288. 23. peak-rpmcontinuous from 4150 to 6600. 24. city-mpgcontinuous from 13 to 49. 25. highway-mpgcontinuous from 16 to 54. 26. pricecontinuous from 5118 to 45400.We would like to understand how the variables interact with each other. Write a report that includes the following:Calculate and interpret 95% confidence intervals of the proportion of cars that have four doorsAuto world magazine published an article on car efficiency in Dec 1987. The article claimed that the average highway mileage of cars in 1987 was higher than that in 1985. Test auto world’s hypothesis assuming that the average highway mileage in 1985 was 26 mpg.Test the hypothesis that on average neutral-risk cars are more expensive than risky cars.Test for the independence of the risk factor and wheel drive (fwd, rwd and 4wd).
Hypothesis testing comparing two populations, confidence intervals, comparisons multiple proportions
Purdue University Cultural and Ethical Perspectives in Nursing Inquiry Essay
Purdue University Cultural and Ethical Perspectives in Nursing Inquiry Essay.
write minimum 500 words based on the instructionsThis week, you will find three scholarly, peer-reviewed research articles on your topic. Remember that next week you will submit a paper on Cultural and/or Ethical perspectives of inquiry, so use this week’s assignment to prepare materials and collect information for that purpose.Use articles that will help you explain and describe cultural and/or ethical, legal or regulatory issues related to your topic. You will analyze and evaluate these articles in your submission, which should include:A brief introductory paragraphThree separate paragraphs, one for each of the three articles, each presenting:A brief 3–4 sentence summary of the article (use in-text citations)An explanation as to what makes this source credibleAn explanation of why the article will be useful in addressing your problem or issueA brief conclusory paragraphAn APA Style reference list on a separate pageYour paper should be 1–3 pages in length (including the References page). Adhere to APA Style throughout..doc file | Research Paper | 2 pages, Double spaced
Purdue University Cultural and Ethical Perspectives in Nursing Inquiry Essay
Political Science homework help
Political Science homework help. Periodic trends play a huge role in chemistry. Regular changes in atomic size and other variables across allow us to make systematic predictions about the behavior of similar .
Covalent radius is a convenient measure of atomic size. The figure below shows the covalent radii of metals in groups 4-10. Note that the row numbers refer to the transition series only, not to the Periodic Table as a whole.
What jumps out at us from this graph?
As we move down a group (from row 1 to 2), covalent radius increases.
The trend makes sense, for the simple reason that the principal quantum number increases and orbitals get larger as we move down a Group.
As we move across the periodic table from left to right, the covalent radius decreases.
This trend also makes sense. As we move to the right across the periodic table, protons are added to the nucleus but, because of shielding, the added electrons don?t exactly balance the proton?s charge. The net result is that effective nuclear charge increases as we move left-to-right across the periodic table.
But there is still something amiss. The atoms in row 3 are almost the same size as their counterparts in row 2! Normally, we expect atoms to get bigger row by row, as additional layers of electrons are filled in. Not so for the third row of transition metals. To see the probable reason for that, we have to look at the whole Periodic Table and remember that the lanthanides and actinides ? the two orphaned rows at the bottom ? actually fit in the middle of the periodic table. Let?s look at a complete Periodic Table.
The lanthanides, in particular lanthanum to ytterbium, go in between lutetium and hafnium. Now you can see why we put the lanthanides and actinides at the bottom of the Periodic Table. Including them gives a very long table.
As a result, the third row of transition metals contains many more protons in their nuclei, compared to the second row transition metals of the same column. Silver has ten more protons in its nucleus than rubidium, the first atom in the same row as silver, but gold has twenty four more than cesium. The third row “contracts” because of these additional protons. This effect is called the ?lanthanide contraction?.Political Science homework help