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Creating the Hotel Database

Creating the Hotel Database.

Week3 Assignment1 – Creating the Hotel DatabaseThe following tables form part of a database held in a relational DBMS:- Hotel (hotelNo, hotelName, city) Room (roomNo, hotelNo, type, price) Booking (hotelNo, guestNo, dateFrom, dateTo, roomNo) Guest (guestNo, guestName, guestAddress)whereHotel contains hotel details and hotelNo is the primary key;Room contains room details for each hotel and (roomNo, hotelNo) forms the primary key;Booking contains details of the bookings and (hotelNo, guestNo, dateFrom) forms the primary key;andGuest contains guest details and guestNo is the primary key.Create, using SQL data definition language, the Hotel table using the integrity enhancement features of SQL.Now create the Room, Booking, and Guest tables using the integrity enhancement features of SQL with the following constraints: (a) Type must be one of Single, Double, or Family. (b) Price must be between £10 and £100. (c) roomNo must be between 1 and 100. (d) dateFrom and dateTo must be greater than today’s date. (e) The same room cannot be double booked. (f) The same guest cannot have overlapping bookings.Deliverables:Your answers should be 2-3 pages in length, follow the APA format, and free of grammatical and spelling errors.Once complete, post your paper in a Word Document in the assignment dropbox.
Creating the Hotel Database

Case Study This is a report. It should be typed as such with full and well thought out sentences. Present your answer in paragraph form. Diane Bledstoe is a 38-year-old woman with known history of hypertension on medication under good control. She works as a desk clerk. Her mother died from a heart attack at age 62. Her physical results just came back and shows a body height of 1.58 meters and body weight of 135 lbs, whereas blood test showed total cholesterol was found to be 8 mmol/L and fasting glucose of 5.4 mmol/L. You are going to suggest Diane to perform regular aerobic and muscle-strengthening exercises to improve her health. Before that, you would like to stratify her risk to see if she should need further medical workup or exercise testing before increasing her physical activity level. What are her risk factors? What risk stratification category is Diane in? Based off of this information would you need to perform extensive cardio testing pre exercise? Under what circumstances would you perform a cardio test? What exercise intensity would you train her in? What is her specific heart rate zones for cardiorespiratory exercise?

Efficacy of Medical Cannabis for the Treatment of Chronic Pain

Introduction Chronic pain has been defined as pain that persists past normal healing time. Pain is usually classed as chronic when it lasts or reoccurs for more than 3 to 6 months.(1) Chronic pain has been found to be a very common condition. One study estimated that in the UK, the prevalence of chronic pain was 43% which is approximately 28 million people. This study also found that the prevalence of chronic pain increases with age, affecting 62% of the population over the age of 75. However, only 10.4 to 14.3% of patients reported pain that was either moderately or severely limiting.(2) The high prevalence of chronic pain has a significant impact on healthcare recourses. For example, the management of therapy in these patients accounts for 4.6 million GP appointments per year at a cost of £69 million.(3) Chronic pain also has an impact on the economy due to work absences, reduced levels of productivity and leaving work and moving into long term disability. In 1998, back pain alone was estimated to cost the UK economy between £5 and £10.7 billion through indirect costs.(4) Management of chronic pain can be very challenging due to the current analgesics available often providing limited pain relief and the side effects associated with these medications. For example, one study found that 50% of patients with neuropathic pain do not obtain clinically meaningful pain relief from current therapeutic options.(5) These problems highlight the need for new therapeutic options for the management of chronic pain. In the past few years, there has been an increase interest in the use of cannabis for the management of chronic pain. For example, in America chronic pain is the most commonly cited reason for accessing medicinal cannabis.(6) The cannabis sativa plant is known to contain over 400 different compounds. However, the majority of research into cannabis has focused on two main compounds. These compounds are delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol.(5) Some research has suggested that THC, which is the psychoactive component of Cannabis sativa, has beneficial analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and anti-emetic effects. Research has also suggested that cannabidiol, which is the primary non-psychoactive component of Cannabis sativa, has anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective, anxiolytic, and anti-psychotic actions.(5) However, even though some reviews have reported moderate to large effect, others have reported low to no beneficial effects.(7) There has also been several adverse events reported from cannabis medications. These include dizziness, drowsiness, gastrointestinal issues and dry mouth.(8)(9) Evidence from previous studies have shown the NNTH for 1 person to experience any adverse event was 6.(7) On the 1st November 2018, the UK government changed cannabis based products for medical use from a scheduled 1 to a scheduled 2 drug.(10) This means that cannabis based products can be prescribed medicinally where there is an unmet clinical need. However, NHS England has advised that “cannabis medications should only be prescribed for indications where there is clear published evidence of benefit or UK Guidelines and in patients where there is a clinical need which cannot be met by a licensed medicine and where established treatment options have been exhausted.” (10) UK guidelines currently recommend that cannabis can be used in three conditions. This includes treatment resistant epilepsy, chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting and MS-related muscle spasticity.(11) The royal college of physicians current guidelines do not recommend the use of cannabis in chronic pain.(12) One reason for this recommendation was because of findings from a recent Cochrane review. This review by Mucke et al concluded that “the potential benefits of cannabis-based medicine in chronic neuropathic pain might be outweighed by their potential harms”.(13) Therefore, the aim of this review is to look at research released following the review by Mucke et al in 2018 to examine the efficacy of cannabis for the treatment of chronic pain. Methods Aim The aim of this review is to analyse new research considering the efficacy of cannabis for the management of chronic pain to see if cannabis should be offered as a treatment option for chronic pain. Search Strategy Searches were conducted in the database Pubmed. The following search term were used; ‘chronic pain cannabis’. Hand searches were also conducted of the reference lists from relevant articles for any more potential studies. Inclusion Criteria Studies were included in this review if they met the following criteria; (1) analyse the efficacy of cannabis based medications, (2) sample comprised of patients with a diagnosis of chronic non cancer pain, (3) sample comprised of patients who were over the age of 18 years, (4) published between July 2017 and May 2019, (5) published in English. Data Extraction The investigator conducted the extraction of data through scanning the titles and abstracts of identified studies to determine the articles which fit the criteria. Full texts were then gained of all potentially relevant studies, if full texts were unobtainable then the study was excluded. Information from these studies fulfilling the inclusion criteria was then extracted and placed in the data extraction table (Table 1). A total of 7 papers were identified which fit the inclusion criteria. Results The researcher’s literature search found 7 randomized controlled trials or observational reviews since July 2017 looking at the effectiveness of cannabis in chronic pain. 4 of these studies analysed the effect of cannabis on specific groups of patients with chronic non-cancer pain including fibromyalgia, failed back surgery syndrome and chronic abdominal pain. 2 of the studies where randomized controlled trials using a placebo. Varies et al analysed the effectiveness of a THC tablet against placebo in patients with chronic abdominal pain. They found no significant difference between placebo and THC tablet in pain scores after 52 days of treatment. The other placebo controlled trial analysed the effectiveness of a single inhaled dose of cannabis on fibromyalgia pain. Spontaneous, electrical and pressure pain was analysed pre-and post cannabis administration. They found that none of the treatments had an effect greater than placebo on spontaneous pain scores or electrical pain responses However they did find However they did find that the cannabis variety that contained high doses of both THC and CBD caused a significant increase in tolerance to the pressure. Another study identified also analysed the effectiveness of cannabis for the treatment of fibromyalgia pain. This study analysed the effect of smoked medicinal cannabis over an average 10.4 month period. They found that after commencing treatment with medicinal cannabis all patients reported a significant reduction in all areas of the Revised Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire. They also found that 50% of patients stopped taking any other medications for fibromyalgia. Medello et al research the effectiveness of cannabis for patients with failed back surgery syndrome who have already tried and failed using a Spinal cord stimulator. They found that in 11 patients studied a THC and CBD suspension had a significant effect in the reduction of pain over a 12 month period. Three of the studies studied patients with various different types of chronic non-cancer pain. One of these was a large 4 year cohort study. They found that patients who used cannabis illicit reported greater pain severity and pain interference, lower pain self-efficacy, and higher levels of generalized anxiety disorder than those not using cannabis. Even though cannabis users reported that the mean effectiveness of cannabis on pain was 7 out of 10 they found no evidence that cannabis use reduced prescribed opioid use or increased opioid discontinuation. Another study analysed the effect of 338 patients with chronic non-cancer pain taking medicinal smoked cannabis for 12 months in addition to pharmacological therapy. They found a statistically significant reduction in pain intensity, pain disability and anxiety and depression at 12 months when compared to baseline. Finally, Crowely et al found that cannabis lozenges used for 12 weeks found a reduction from baseline in self-reported pain assessment score. They also found that 84% of patients using opiate medication voluntarily reduced or discontinue their opioid medications. Study Patient group Study design Placebo control Type of cannabis studied Number of participants Conclusion Habib et al(14) Fibromyalgia Observational review No Smoked or inhaled medical cannabis 26 After commencing MC treatment, all the patients reported a significant improvement in every parameter on the Revised Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire de Vries et al (15) Chronic Abdominal Pain Randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled, study Yes Namisol (oral Δ9-THC tablet) 65 No difference was found between a THC tablet and a placebo tablet in reducing pain in patients with chronic abdominal pain. Mondello et al (16) Failed back surgery syndrome with SCS which had not be effective Observational review No Oleic suspension of THC (19%) and CBD (<1%) 11 Pain perception decreased from a baseline by the end of the 12 month study duration Van de Donk et al (17) Fibromyalgia Double-blind, placebo-controlled, 4-way crossover study Yes Inhaled cannabis with THC and cannibidiol 25 Single vapor inhalation of cannabis did not have an effect greater than placebo on spontaneous or electrical pain. Cannabis varieties containing THC caused a significant increase in pressure pain threshold relative to placebo. Campbell et al (6) Chronic non-cancer pain 4-year prospective cohort study No Mixed 1514 People who used cannabis had greater pain and lower self-efficacy in managing pain, and there was no evidence that cannabis use reduced pain severity or interference or exerted an opioid-sparing effect. Poli et al (18) Chronic non-cancer pain Observational review No Cannabis Flos 19% decoction for 12 months 338 Our study suggests that Cannabis therapy, as an adjunct to traditional analgesic therapy, can be an efficacious tool to manage chronic pain more effectively. Crowely et al (19) Chronic non-cancer pain Observational review No Trokie® lozenges (buccal) 49 The use of Trokie® lozenges is associated with a self-reported pain reduction. Table 1: Summary of research studies used in the guideline review Discussion The research in this review has been published since the Cochrane review by Mucke et al in 2018. The results from the studies included in this review vary significantly with some showing little to no benefit and some showing moderate to high benefit. This is consistent with the studies in previous reviews on the use of medicinal cannabis for the treatment of chronic pain.(7) The studies included in this review looking at patients with a diagnosis of fibromyalgia did show a benefit to cannabis treatment. This includes single use of cannabis improving pressure pain threshold and long term use of smoked cannabis having a beneficial effect on Revised Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire scores. However, both studies only had a small sample size (25 and 26 participants) and therefore more research with a larger sample is required in order to improve the validity of these results. The three studies analyzing all patients with chronic non-cancer pain also had varied results. With studies from Poli et al and Crowely et al reporting significant improvement in chronic pain symptoms with cannabis medication. This suggests that there may be some benefit on chronic pain with the use of cannabis. However, they did not separate types of chronic pain, making it difficult to produce specific guidelines on what patients would benefit from chronic pain and when they should be prescribed. Campbell et al found that those patients reporting the highest pain scores where most likely to access illegal cannabis. These people did report that cannabis helped with pain management however they were unable to reduce their opioid medication and they had lower self-efficacy for managing symptoms of depression and anxiety. This suggests that cannabis medications may not be an effective alternative to opioid medications or useful in helping to reduce opioids as previously suggested.(20) It also suggests that people seeking cannabis medications are less able to manage symptoms associated with chronic pain such as anxiety and depression. Conclusion The recent evidence found in this study shows that cannabis may have a beneficial effect on chronic non-cancer pain. However, there is not enough current research to show what patients would benefit from cannabis treatment, the best way to deliver cannabis medications and at what line therapy should be introduced. Additionally, research has shown there are several adverse effects of cannabis and it has been found that the number needed to harm for cannabis is low. Therefore, the researcher agrees with the current guidelines that cannabis should not be used for the management of chronic pain. References 1. Treede R-D, Rief W, Barke A, Aziz Q, Bennett MI, Benoliel R, et al. A classification of chronic pain for ICD-11. Pain [Internet]. 2015/03/14. 2015 Jun;156(6):1003–7. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25844555 2. Fayaz A, Croft P, Langford RM, Donaldson LJ, Jones GT. Prevalence of chronic pain in the UK: a systematic review and meta-analysis of population studies. BMJ Open [Internet]. 2016 Jun 1;6(6):e010364. Available from: http://bmjopen.bmj.com/content/6/6/e010364.abstract 3. Belsey J. Primary care workload in the management of chronic pain. A retrospective cohort study using a GP database to identify resource implications for UK primary care. J Med Econ [Internet]. 2002 Jan 1;5(1–4):39–50. Available from: https://doi.org/10.3111/200205039050 4. Phillips CJ. The Cost and Burden of Chronic Pain. Rev pain [Internet]. 2009 Jun;3(1):2–5. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26526940 5. Casey SL, Vaughan CW. Plant-Based Cannabinoids for the Treatment of Chronic Neuropathic Pain. Med (Basel, Switzerland) [Internet]. 2018 Jul 1;5(3):67. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29966400 6. Campbell G, Stockings E, Nielsen S. Understanding the evidence for medical cannabis and cannabis-based medicines for the treatment of chronic non-cancer pain. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2019 Feb;269(1):135–44. 7. Stockings E, Campbell G, Hall WD, Nielsen S, Zagic D, Rahman R, et al. Cannabis and cannabinoids for the treatment of people with chronic noncancer pain conditions: a systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled and observational studies. Pain. 2018 Oct;159(10):1932–54. 8. Romero-Sandoval EA, Kolano AL, Alvarado-Vazquez PA. Cannabis and Cannabinoids for Chronic Pain. Curr Rheumatol Rep. 2017 Oct;19(11):67. 9. Lee G, Grovey B, Furnish T, Wallace M. Medical Cannabis for Neuropathic Pain. Curr Pain Headache Rep. 2018 Feb;22(1):8. 10. Department of Health

Intial discussion board post

professional essay writers Intial discussion board post.

Your post should be at least 250 words in length and should extend the discussion of the group supported by your course materials and/or other appropriate resources.The mental status exam is based upon your own observations of the client while he or she is in your office. Review the mental status exam outline (Chapter 18, Figure 18.2), as well as the information about DSM diagnosis from Chapter 17 before you complete this discussion.View the following: National Institute of Mental Health (2015) NIH join with women’s organization to debut postpartum depression video. Retrieved from http://www.deltasigmatheta.org/mhal/postpartum.htm…After viewing the video, research how depression is diagnosed using the DSM. It might also be helpful to research postpartum depression. You can use the Library and the DSM Library Database. Remember if you use the DSM Database, you will need to scroll down to find the DSM Library link. You can also review information about postpartum depression from the National Institute of Mental Health’s website.Complete a mental status exam based on Janelle from the video. Imagine that you are meeting with her after the birth of her child. Describe your observations of the different areas listed in the outline in Figure 18.2 (pages 339–340). You will have to imagine how Janelle would have presented herself to you based on the information that Janelle shared during the video and based on the research that you conducted on postpartum depression.Share with your classmates how it felt to complete your first mental status exam. Was there anything that you struggled with or felt that you need more practice with?
Intial discussion board post

Hospital Expansion Analysis

Share this: Facebook Twitter Reddit LinkedIn WhatsApp Case Study 1: The Case for Open Heart Surgery at Cabarrus Memorial Hospital- Chemplavil Brief Introduction: Cabarrus Memorial Hospital (CMH) is a large, public hospital located in North Carolina, that prides itself in cultivating a never wavering commitment to its community. Having first opened in 1935, over time CMH has found powerful allies in both Mr. Cannon, owner of Cannon Mills with considerable political and financial influence, and Duke University Medical Center, with who they have formed an educational affiliation and unique teaching arrangement. Due to the board’s failure to foresee several front-hand issues, CMH finds itself at a crossroad of sorts. Currently CMH does not have their own open heart surgery program, compelling patients to seek open heart surgery or coronary angioplasties elsewhere. Concerned with the tremendous burden placed on the members of their community and their families to travel to such far lengths to receive adequate care, the board of trustees is considering adding a program of this caliber to their repertoire of cardiac services. A SWOT analysis and service area structural analysis (Porter) was performed to determine if CMH should apply for a certificate of need (CON) to open a new cardiovascular service program moving forward. Discussion of Key Issues: The potential implementation of a full-service cardiac surgery program in CMH required careful consideration of its existing service area, opposition from competition, need for cardiovascular surgeries, the role of Duke in the proposal, relevant costs, and the likeliness of acquiring approval from North Carolina’s DHHS for the CON. Evaluation of CMH’s current service area was primarily based upon zip code analysis of current cardiac catheterization and radiation oncology patients, pinpointing Concord and Kannapolis as major sources of patient coverage. With Mr. Cannon’s help, extensive market development strategies should promote their newly enhanced cardiovascular care and help CMH expand their territory to include farther communities like Rowan County and Stanley County, shaking off bordering service area competition like University, Stanly, and Memorial Hospitals. Study of the population epidemiology points to an inevitably growing need for expanded cardiovascular services, namely open heart surgeries and angioplasties. Projections indicated the at-risk population growth over the next ten years will grow by 31.2% in Cabarrus county, location of CMH. The growing rate of the target, at-risk service area population (45-64) will likely lead to higher rates of open heart procedures (1.39 in North Carolina currently). Proposed costs of the program would total at $2.87 million for year one, $3.81 million for year two and $6.24 million for year three. However, it is known that CMH has sufficient reserve cash to finance the whole project without even acquiring a loan! Based on these projections alone, CMH will reach their break-even point rather quickly, likely sometime after year three, making the addition of a cardiac unit a profitable endeavor. The existing open heart surgery programs in Charlotte, Winston-Salem, and Greensboro are 25 to 60 miles from the service population. This incredulous distance has created confusion and an immense burden for many patients who seek continuity of care as travel times may take up to two hours. It may be wise to consider swiftly bring on home town hero, Dr. Christy, as part of the new cardiovascular surgery medical staff to embolden the community’s support of CMH and put its patients at ease. Duke can continue its educational affiliation with CMH, and cases needing specialized care would still be referred to Duke. The DHHS of North Carolina awards the CON to centers that achieve an 80% utilization rate for the cardiac surgery suite. Unfortunately, open heart cases from Cabarrus County and Rowan County currently however around only around 73% utilization. CMH will need to make use of adaptive strategies such as the expansion of scope planning that would include market development, product development and market penetration strategies to substantially increase their current volume to hit that threshold. Situational Analysis: SWOT analysis provided detailed findings of the strengths and weaknesses of the internal environment, in addition to the opportunities and threats of the external environment, regarding the current cardiac care CMH provides (Ginter, Peter). Exhibit I: SWOT Analysis Recommendation: CMH’s status as a “modern, well equipped facility” implies that it has the necessary infrastructure to build a cardiac unit, pending a few structural additions. CMH’s renovation project would total $3,273,180, and no loans will be needed due to its sufficient reserve fund. Pending a two-year trial run, CMH should track the added comprehensive care that would result from the opening of one heart surgical suite for adult patients, while moving angioplasty to the current cardiac catheterization laboratory. The proposed duration of this project would likely take 3 years and would require the assignment of three dedicated cardiac surgical ICU beds as well as seven telemetry beds to support the open heart program with an almost overwhelming 400 proposed procedures per year from the onset of the program. Benchmarks for Success and Contingency Plans: Implementation of this new program will complicated, but justified. The board should create and follow an action and strategic plan to oversee the creation of this new surgery program. Timelines, benchmarks, and a balanced scorecard will be used to monitor the progress of the plan, and to ensure the standards are being met (Bloomquist P, Yeager). Written reports, like a GANTT chart, which may plot the incurred heart operations against time, can also be used to monitor planning, costs, effectiveness, and resources used by the program (Cellucci L, 2009). Taking corrective action will be dependent on evaluation criteria that will be created by the board and redirection will take place if necessary. If added comprehensive care progress is not being met according to the action and strategic plans, program strategies will be outsourced to an outside consultant. If Dr. Christy is not satisfied with CMH’s offer and relocates elsewhere, CMH may be pressed to ask the two surgeons from Duke Medical Center to act as interim on-call heart surgeons or even come on full time to continue the program. If the program’s restraining forces continue to outweigh its driving forces, and fails to provide the proposed benefits, termination of the program may be likely. References: Bloomquist P, Yeager J. Using Balanced Scorecards to Align Organizational Strategies. Healthcare Executive; Jan/Feb 2008. pp.24-28. Cellucci, L. W., Wiggins, C. (2010). Essential Techniques for Healthcare Managers. Health Administration Press: Chicago. Ginter, Peter M. Strategic Management of Health Care Organizations. San Francisco, Calif: Jossey-Bass, 2015. Print. Share this: Facebook Twitter Reddit LinkedIn WhatsApp

Strategic Planning Theories and Methods

Strategic Planning Theories and Methods. LITERATURE REVIEW Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory: This theory is most suitable for the company that faces hard to retain their employees and wanted to better work from their employees. It is based on the two factors that are hygiene and Satisfaction. Hygiene is work for that job security, promotions, salary etc. These helped to retain their employees as the employees get the wages that for he/she perform or the company as he worked extra for company than he must get extra from company as well (Jordan, 1994). Satisfaction consists that the employees should get motivation at workplace that comes with the opportunities and responsibilities as well. It does mean that the factors of Herzberg theory gives the employees task with the options of achievements. For example: company gives the incentives on the every sales of their business to their salesmen (Maidani, 1991). Maslow’s hierarchy theory Maslow’s hierarchy theory is one of the theories that the work to fulfill the basic needs to esteem level. These help to motivate employees with provide the employees satisfaction level at work as they get better opportunities and fell happy at work place. (Bridwell, 1976)This theory is developed by Maslow in 1946 and it is still in work in many businesses as the success rate of this theory applies in work place get increase (Chand, 2017). McClelland’s Need Theory This is one of the most useful theories of strategic management that work on the need based of theory. This is opposing to hierarchy of needs of satisfaction-dissatisfaction. It is developed by McClelland and his associates (Pardee, 1990). In this theory, work on motivation according to need of the employees. As the way of diversity is increasing in world that must need to apply motivation with this theory, as same reward get motivate employee and de motivate another (Conger, 1988). Expectancy Theory: This theory is based on the purpose that people’s behaviours are focused on the outcome. For example: a company offers the employees extra hours so that they can get extra money. It can be happen that employees feel happy as they get extra wages, or some might feel demotivated as they have to work extra (IIgen, 1981). It is true that employee’s behaviours get affected positively or negatively as they do get rewards. It is very important that strategic management work on tangible and no tangible rewards that help to motivate employees rather than demotivator (Pinnington, 2007). Strategic management is very important and crucial part of any business. The whole department of workplace is depending on that as they made the employees motivate that they do perform better on the every department. Expectancy is the confidence that better efforts will result in better execution. Hope is affected by components, for example, ownership of proper aptitudes for playing out the activity, accessibility of right assets, accessibility of crucial data and getting the required help for finishing the activity Resource based theory: The resource based theory has been a critical advance in vital administration, as it has given another perspective to clarify a company’s prosperity. As indicated by the attention on assets, an association’s prosperity is because of joint assets and capacities which a venture claims and which makes it not quite the same as its competitors (Grant, 1999).Competitive advantage emerges when individuals are differently and begin with forms they can control in an industry – anyway it might be hard to versatile crosswise over firms. Creating a progressing competitive advantage is restricted to particular assets and capacities inside an association that challenges rivalry in its condition. (Barney, 2001) Porter five forces model 1) Competition in the industry – Now a day’s everywhere is a competition even in studies, business, and sports. If any new company want to make a space in the market then they will require creating a unique and best product in affordable prices so once customers will think about their products. (Pollastri, 2004) 2) Potential of new entrants into the industry – The threat of new entrant porter created effects the competitive environment for the existing business and impact the ability of existing organisation to achieve profitability (Mandere, 2014). 3) Power of suppliers– In this factor, supplier power refers to the pressure supplier can exert on organisations by raising price, lowering quality or reducing availability of their products. (Waalewijn). 4) Power of customers – In this factor bargaining power of the customer can bargain for the price with the shop keeper or salesmen. (Bichanga, 2014) 5) Substitute– This factor is an alternative option for anything. LITERATURE REVIEW (METHODOLOGIES OF STRATEGIC PLANNING) Bench marking Bench marking is the process of comparing your results with competitors or best practice. It is an essential business activity that is key to understanding competitive advantages and disadvantages. This method is a way of discovering what is the best performance being achieved. It is also a gain insight to ensure that benchmarking is in alignment with the company’s management objectives. This method will help to company for the future analysis like what they have to do, what they need to change in the product and how they have to represent the product in the market (Sekhar, 2010). Assessing the overall methodology looks at how industries compete and how their focused needs line up with their procedures. If the general system goes for expanding benefit, it isn’t predictable with going up against an organization on cost. Benchmarking focus on the execution of industry leaders and enhance the execution by demonstrating the arrangement of necessary needs (Zack, 1999). Swot Analysis SWOT analysis is the best tool for understanding the assess issues within and outside the organization. This is a powerful way of evaluating the company or project. It helps us to get the exact or the nearby information about the company. It helps us to know about which of the company’s strength can be used to maximise the rate of opportunities. (Ommani, 2011). It also helps to use the company’s strength to minimise the threats you identified. And helps you to take the immediate actions in minimises the company’s weakness using the opportunity as strength. Strength at organizational level involves properties and abilities by which an organization gains an advantage over other organizations and competitor organizations that are revealed as a result of the analysis of its internal environment. In other words, organizational strength defines the characteristics and situations in which an organization is more effective and efficient compared to their competitors. An organization can be described as strong, equal or weak compared to their competitors based on five criteria’s. For the organization, it is as important to know its weaknesses as its strengths. The reason is that no strategy can be built upon weaknesses. The organizational weaknesses that have the potential to lead the organization to inefficiency and ineffectiveness should be known and improved. Solving the existing problems that would cause difficulties and limitations for long-term plans and strategies, and foreseeing potential problems are obligatory. All environmental factors that can impede organizational efficiency and effectiveness are threats. The new world order formed as a result of globalisation involves both opportunities and threats. This system enhancing opportunities as well as threats directs organizational managements to be careful of and act more strategically on the developments in and outside their environments (GUREL, 1994). ANALYSIS Strategic planning must has to understand the need of their employees as they would recognize the talent of their employees as they would offer the recognize. They should give extra to their employees at company to work extra for the company. For example: employees get opportunities to get work with the team to put CCTV camera on the building as they did with perfect they would get rewards for them. This kind of things helps to motivate the employees and build better work environment as well. Maslow’s needs theory: – There might be distinctive progression or request of needs for various representatives. Basically, order of needs may not stay same for workers at all levels. – Workers whose lowest level needs have not been met will settle on choices will decide on the basis of pay, security, or dependability concerns. – Permit social associations that introduce of feeling of having a place in the premisis, recognize achievements to induce confidence and give chances to workers to satisfy their possibilities. McClelland’s Need Theory: Each individual has one of three principle driving motivators: the needs for achievement, affiliation, or power.Achievers always find a solution and achieve their goals. For e.g. those with a solid requirement for connection don’t prefer to emerge or take risk, and they esteem connections above everything else. Those with a solid power motivator get a kick out of the chance to control others and be in control. Herzberg’s two factor theory: It is less demanding to really apply Herzberg’s Theory combined with Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs. This serves to reinforce Herzberg’s Theory as it improves its application as a system to motivate workers. By distinguishing the requirements in Maslow’s order, the motivational elements can be acquired and in this way satisfied. Herzberg perceives that genuine motivation originates from inside a man and not from the environment, or outside variables. Herzberg’s Theory can be connected by directors to motivate employees. By identifying the hygiene factors, directors can satisfy the essential needs of workers and evacuate any component of disappointment. At the point when workers have no disappointment emerging from the activity condition, they are in a superior mode to be motivated. Expectancy theory: Increased efforts would lead to expanded execution, given the individual has the correct tool to take care of business. The normal result depend upon regardless of whether the individual has the correct assets to take care of business, has the correct aptitudes to do the job requirements to be done, and they must have the help to take care of business. That help may originate from the supervisor or by simply being given the correct data or instruments to complete the activity. Although many individuals associate high rewards. It is additionally identified with different parameters, for example, position, exertion, obligation, training, etc. It is vital to recollect that there is a distinction among incentives and motivators. Motivating forces are non-material articles. They are controlled by directors and pioneers with the end goal to motivate representatives to do desired tasks. Synthesise of analysis This activity is related to strategic planning and company methods; meaning of strategy is a first stage of learning business things. So in this whole assessment I learned about different strategic methods, some methods that I read or understand first time like Boston matrixStrategic Planning Theories and Methods