For this Assignment, you will use the template to create a training program for the employees of Goodwill hospital, which was recently acquired by the larger Rocky Mountain Hospital Region.
You will focus on the first of a series of training courses with the goal of bringing these employees into the new organizational culture. The content should cover changes in the mission, vision, and goals of the organization.
Include a title and reference page. Support your work with a minimum of 2–4 references.
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Create a human resource training program to address the acquisition of the Goodwill hospital in the larger Rocky Mountain Hospital Region
essay sample for this assignment is provided For this assignment, you should be interviewing a person who has expertise about a topic you are interested in. Please note that you should be conducting an actual interview; you should not be summarizing an interview conducted by someone else.Part #1: Choose a Research Topic and an IntervieweeYou do not need to submit this portion in writing, but you do need to accomplish this in preparation for your research assignment. In preparation for your research proposal letter in the next topic, you will need to choose a topic for your proposal. This research proposal letter will be directed to an audience who can create change (Congressperson, business administrator, or other similar audience). In the proposal, you need to suggest a change or a solution to a current problem. Examples of strong proposal topics would be things like funding ideas for an animal shelter, starting a recycling program in a community, suggesting a better plan for public transport, or another idea that interests you. You will be proposing solutions for these issues. Choose a topic that you are passionate about and for which you will be able to develop at least one solution. While this information should be enough for you to choose a topic, please consult the assignment sheet within Topic 7 if you have more questions about this assignment. Once you choose a topic, it’s time to choose a credible expert to interview on that subject. In other words, you should avoid choosing an interviewee who is a close friend or family member unless that person truly is an expert in the field. This credible expert should have 10+ years of experience in his or her discipline. Choose an interviewee who not only could offer some specific details about the problem but one who may also be able to offer suggestions of a plausible solution. Use the information contained in the lesson presentation to secure and conduct a successful interview.Part #2: Summarize and Synthesize Your InterviewWhen you summarize and synthesize, you take the smaller pieces (the sections of the interview) and develop them into one cohesive piece. Doing this exercise will help you prepare for the research proposal letter, where you will need to incorporate at least a few ideas from the interview.To successfully summarize and synthesize, you might find it helpful to follow this sequence for your essay:1) Provide Background Information:In your introductory paragraph, introduce your audience to your interviewee. What is his/her name? What is his/her experience? if relevant, where is the interviewee employed?2) Summarize the Interview:While you want to avoid the all-too-predictable question and answer format, you should provide information about what you learned from the interview. Take a look at your original questions, group them into categories, and use those categories to build your body paragraph(s). Also, you may note the interviewee’s reactions in your summary as well. Was the interviewee nervous about answering a question? Did he/she seem knowledgeable in the subject matter? Make this summary work for you by including whatever details and responses you feel are important and will help you when you write the research proposal.3) Synthesize the Interview:In the conclusion, synthesize the interview. To synthesize just means that you should consider all of the information you gathered from this interview and draw conclusions. What did you learn from the interview? How did the interviewee and/or the interview help you gain a deeper understanding of your topic? Other findings?No source citations are required for this assignment, but please review the rubric to get a better idea of how you will be assessed.The guidelines for this assignment are as follows:Length: This assignment should be a minimum of 350 words.Header: Include a header in the upper left-hand corner of your writing assignment with the following information:Your first and last nameCourse Title (Composition II)Assignment name (Interview Summary)Current Date Format:MLA-style source documentation and Works Cited1Your last name and page number in the upper-right corner of each pageDouble-spacing throughoutStandard font (Times New Roman, Calibri)Title, centered after heading1″ margins on all sidesSave the file using one of the following extensions: .docx, .doc, .rtf, or .txtUnderline your thesis statement in the introductory paragraph.
Writing Exercise: Interview Summary/Synthesis
Leadership and Culture as seen in Tech Mahindra Limited
A human being right from birth is associated to various people including parents, relatives, and so on. As he/she grows old, the pool of associations become stronger and complex as his/her needs tend to grow such as: The need of friends, education, and other sociocultural aspects of human life. The child thus becomes part of many organisations catering to needs of each other in the organisation. Organisation, as defined by ‘Oxford Advanced Learner Dictionary’ is “A group of people who form a business, club, etc. together in order to achieve a particular aim”. All the organisations irrespective of their nature are headed by a Leader. Leader is often seen as a person who guides the organisation to achieve a common goal by setting up practices and creating a positive environment with the organisation. As said by Fullan (1992) in his notes, that “â€¦the only thing of real importance that leaders do is to create and manage culture. The leadership of an organization has the primary responsibility for identifying the need for, and fostering, cultural change and for sustaining a sound safety culture once it is established.” In the following essay, I have tried elaborating some leadership skills and organisational culture taking into consideration Mr Vineet Nayyar who heads (Vice Chairman, MD
Analysis Of Psychological Egoism Philosophy Essay
essay order Psychological egoism is the empirical doctrine that the determining motive of every voluntary action is a desire for ones own welfare. On this view, even though all actions are regarded as self-interested actions, the egoist readily points out that people usually try to conceal the determining motives for their actions because such concealment is usually in their self-interest. Psychological egoism is a theory about motivation that claims that all of our ultimate desires are self-directed. Whenever we want others to do well (or ill), we have these other-directed desires only instrumentally; we care about others only because we think that the welfare of others will have ramifications for our own welfare. As stated, egoism is a descriptive, not a normative, claim. It aims to characterize what motivates human beings in fact; the theory does not say whether it is good or bad that people are so motivated. “Ethical Egoism purports to tell us how to live”. As such, it is a consequentiality theory; that is, it maintains that the rightness or wrongness of acts depends on their consequences. More specifically, it says that right actions promote self-interests and wrong actions detract from self-interest. Besides, Ethical egoism claims that it is necessary and sufficient for an action to be morally right that it maximize one’s self-interest. It makes claims about what one ought to do, rather than describe what one does do. One of the problems with this position is that it might not be in one’s self-interest to have everyone act from the perspective of self-interest. This ‘state of nature’ would not be desirable (in Hobbes’ terms, life would be “beastly, brutal, and short”) and so it might ultimately be in one’s self-interest to enter into a contract with others that would place restraints upon self-interested actions. Teleological Theory The teleological theory of ethics has broad appeal to many because it explains the rightness or virtue of action in terms of the good realized by it. The word “teleology” is derived from the Greek word “telos” that means “ends.” In this theory, you would consider the ends, or the outcomes of your decision. Teleology was explored by Plato and Aristotle, by Saint Anselm around 1000 A.D., and later by Immanuel Kant in his Critique of Judgement. It was fundamental to the speculative philosophy of Hegel. Since this theory is concerned about the consequences of the decision, it is also referred to as consequentialist. For example, a moral theory that maintains that the rightness of an action is one which achieves the goal of maximizing happiness counts as a teleological theory. The two main types of theory brought under the rubric of teleological ethics are Utilitarianism and Ethical Egoism. Utilitarianism is clearly the most widely accepted teleological theory. Some however, have accepted another teleological view–ethical egoism. Thus, in what follows we state and evaluate ethical egoism and different form of utilitarianism, in that order. Utilitarianism is a moral theory according to which welfare is the fundamental human good. Welfare may be understood as referring to the happiness or well being of individuals. Utilitarianism is most commonly a theory about the rightness of actions; it is the doctrine that, from a range of possibilities, the right action is the action which most increases the welfare of human beings or sentient creatures in general. Of the many moral theories now called Utilitarian, all share this claim that morality ought to be concerned with increasing welfare. The sense of utilitarianism can be started in this way: the rightness or wrongness of an act or moral rule is solely a matter of the nonmoral good produced directly or indirectly in the consequences of that act of rule. Utilitarianism has its historical origins in seventeenth century Britain although its central ideas may be traced back to Plato and ancient Greek discussions of eudaimonia. The most important developers and proponents of utilitarianism are Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832); He first attained attention as a critic of the leading legal theorist in eighteenth century England, Sir William Blackstone. Bentham’s campaign for social and political reforms in all areas, most notably the criminal law, had its theoretical basis in his utilitarianism, expounded in his Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation, a work written in 1780 but not published until 1789. In it he formulated the principle of utility, which approves of an action in so far as an action has an overall tendency to promote the greatest amount of happiness. In its historical context, utilitarianism aspired to be a movement of social reform. It was closely tied to its political aspirations, promoted a new conception of morality which eschewed references to God and religion, and took morality to be fundamentally an attempt to bring about as much happiness of pleasure, to achieve the “greatest good for the greatest number.” Utilitarianism is divided into two branches which are Act Utilitarianism and Rule Utilitarianism. The type of utilitarianism outlined to date is termed ‘act utilitarianism.’ Every single act is judged by its individual consequences and decisions on morality reached. Act utilitarianism is entirely situational and consequences in terms of happiness cannot be applied across situations. Rule utilitarianism removes this tension. The maximising happiness principle is applied not to an individual situation, but rather to that set of circumstances in general and the moral rule is then created. For example it is generally the case that murdering innocents does not maximise happiness for the majority therefore it is immoral on all occasions. Whilst this gets around certain unpalatability with utilitarianism, it does remove the true consequential nature of the system. Judgment on general consequences is not the same as judging the consequences of a specific circumstance. The other main branch of Teleology theory is Egoism. In philosophy, egoism is the theory that one’s self is, or should be, the motivation and the goal of one’s own action. Egoism has two variants, descriptive or normative. The descriptive (or positive) variant conceives egoism as a factual description of human affairs. That is, people are motivated by their own interests and desires, and they cannot be described otherwise. The normative variant proposes that people should be so motivated, regardless of what presently motivates their behaviour. Altruism is the opposite of egoism. The term “egoism” derives from “ego,” the Latin term for “I” in English. Egoism should be distinguished from egotism, which means a psychological overvaluation of one’s own importance, or of one’s own activities. The most plausible form of ethical egoism, embraced by such philosophers as Ayn Rand and John Hospers, is called universal or impersonal rule egoism: each person has a moral rule that will be in the agent’s maximal self-interested over the long haul. For the ethical egoist, one has a duty to follow “correct” moral rules. And the factor that makes a rule a “correct” one is that, if followed, it will be in the agent’s own best interest in the long run. Each person ought to advance his/her own self-interested and that is the sole of foundation of morality. Ethical egoism is sometimes confused with various distinct issues. First, there is individual or personal ethical egoism, which says everyone has a duty to act so as to serve my self-interest. Here, everyone is morally obligated to serve the speaker’s long-term best interests. Second, there is psychological egoism, roughly, the idea that each person can only do an act that the person takes to maximize his or own self-interested. Psychological egoism is a descriptive thesis about motivation to the effect that we can only act on motives that are in our own self-interest. Psychological egoism is sometimes used as part of an argument for ethical egoism, but the two are distinct theses. Psychological egoism is also called the “pleasure principle”. It is the most famous descriptive position, claims that each person has but one ultimate aim: her own welfare. Psychological egoism insist that people are capable of desiring the happiness of other only when they taken it to be acting unselfishly and disinterestedly when they take the interests of others to be means to the promotion of their own self-interest. Furthermore, it allows for weakness of will, since in weakness of will cases I am still aiming at my own welfare; I am weak in that I do not act as I aim. And it allows for aiming at things other than one’s welfare, such as helping others, where these things are a means to one’s welfare. On the other hand, Ethical egoism is a normative theory that states that our actions ought to be done from the perspective of self-interest. Besides, it also claims that it is necessary and sufficient for an action to be morally right that it maximize one’s self-interest. In the strong version, it is held that it is always moral to promote one’s own good, and it is never moral not to promote it. In the weak version, it is said that although it is always moral to promote one’s own good, it is not necessarily never moral to not. That is, there may be conditions in which the avoidance of personal interest may be a moral action. There are three distinct types of ethical egoism: Personal ethical egoism, Individual ethical egoism and Universal ethical egoism. Personal egoists maintain that they are going to act in their own self-interest and that anything else is irrelevant to them. They actually have no interest in telling other people how to act all, and in this sense, their position is hardly a moral theory at all. () In fact, the only things which they concern in life is to further their own self-interest. Second, Individual Ethical Egoism is a belief that can’t be consistent unless it applies to just one person. In other words, this belief is not universalizable. The different between personal egoism, which is hardly an ethical theory at all, and Individual ethical egoism is that latter does make a claim about how other people ought to act. Lastly, the Universal Ethical Egoism. Whereas individual ethical egoism think everyone ought to act in their own self-interest, universal ethical egoists think that each individual ought to act in his or her own self-interest. Each person, universal ethical egoists maintain, ought to be out for himself or herself. Egoism The term “egoism” is ordinarily used to mean “exclusive concern with satisfying one’s own desires, getting what one wants.” Dictionaries tend to support this. They call “egoism,” for instance, “1. selfishness; selfâ€interest. 2. conceit” (Webster’s New World Dictionary). The term “egotist” is often a substitute, although it’s defined differently, for example, as “excessive reference to oneself.” The ego is the self. But we should distinguish first between “selfishness,” “selfâ€interest,” and “interest of the self.” They usually mean, respectively, “Concern exclusively and for indulging one’s desires,” “consideration based first on what is good for oneself without the exclusion of others,” and “that which motivates an autonomous person.” These will help us appreciate what follows Philosopher opinions about egoism “Every individual serves his own private interestâ€¦The great Saints of history have served their ‘private interest’ just as the most money grubbing miser has served his interest. The private interest is whatever it is that drives an individual” (Friedman, 1976). “But whatsoever is the object of any man’s Appetite or Desire, that is it which he for his part called Good: and the object of his Hate and Aversion, Evilâ€¦For these words of Good and Evilâ€¦are ever used with relation to the person that used them: there being nothing simply and absolutely so; nor any Common Rule of Good and Evil” (Hobbes, 1968: 120). Criticisms Egoism is sometimes criticized for attributing too much calculation to spontaneous acts of helping. People who help in emergency situations often report doing so “without thinking” (Clark and Word 1974). However, it is hard to take such reports literally when the acts involve a precise series of complicated actions that are well-suited to an apparent end. A lifeguard who rescues a struggling swimmer is properly viewed as having a goal and as selecting actions that advance that goal. The fact that she engaged in no ponderous and self-conscious calculation does not show that no means/end reasoning occurred. In any case, actions that really do occur without the mediation of beliefs and desires fall outside the scope of both egoism and altruism. People jerk their legs when their knees are tapped with hammers, but that refutes neither theory. Classical Egoism A more promising ethical egoism states that each person should live so as to achieve his or her rational selfâ€interest. (I have called this “classical” egoism to indicate its pedigree in Aristotelianism. It is also captured by the term “eudaimonist ethics.”) Accordingly, as living beings we need a guide to conduct, principles to be used when we cannot assess the merits of each action from the start. As living beings we share with other animals the value of life. But life occurs in individual (living) things. And human living, unlike that of other animals, cannot be pursued automatically. We must learn to do it. And the particular life we can pursue and about which we can exercise choices is our own. By understanding who and what we are, we can identify the standards by which our own life can most likely be advanced properly, made successful, become a happy life. Business Ethics and Egoism Egoism is of concern in the examination of business ethics, both when we use the latter to refer to how people in commercial and business endeavors ought to act, and what kinds of public policy should govern business and industry – to whit, capitalism, which arises from a legal system that respects and protects private property rights, and is an economic system that is closely linked to versions of egoism. Adam Smith, the founder of modern economic science, advanced something like a psychological egoist position about human motivation (although arguably Smith was not thoroughgoing in this – for example in his Theory of Moral Sentiments he advances a different position). Arguments for Psychological Egoism There are several arguments which are strongly supporting the psychological egoism which is the empirical doctrine that the determining motive of every voluntary action is a desire for one’s own welfare. Firstly, the arguments which favor in psychological egoism argues that people are ego and selfish because people always act as what they desire to. This arguments state that people always act according to self-interest and every voluntary action are selfish. For example, a shopkeeper who is being honest and returned the changes that left by the customer after purchasing good is defined as an act which is ego and self interested because the shopkeeper knows that being honest will help the business and maintain the good name of the shop. Thus, psychological egoist said that people are acting what they want due to their desire and also self-interest, therefore, people are ego and selfish. Besides, psychological egoist states that people are ego and selfish because they always act to get the pleasure and satisfactory. This argument indicates that every action of the people is aimed to get a good feel or being satisfied or in simple words, people acted to get the good feeling which may be gained after doing this action. For example, one who participates in the donation of blood do so due to the satisfactory and the good feeling which one may gained by donating his own blood. One might feel that he can help the people who need the blood and hence he feels satisfied by the action of donation of his own blood. Hence, this action which are acted to get the pleasure and satisfactory is pointed out by psychological egoist as the statement of people act are always ego. Apart from that, one of the arguments in favor of psychological egoism indicates that people act is ego because they wanted to gain benefits from their action. This argument argues that people’s actions are done to get benefits such as fame, becomes popular, liked by others and so forth. For instance, from the perspective of the argument, a soldier who saved his comrade’s life acted bravely to get an award or a reward such as a medal. Arguments favor in psychological egoism also states that those who donates money to the poor, beggar or charity acting generous and donates money to the charities because they are enjoying the feedback from their action as they will get a good fame, becomes more popular and also being liked by the people due to their generous action. As a conclusion, arguments for psychological egoism states that each of the human’s voluntary actions are being acted due to their desire to gain satisfactory, benefits and also because of their self-interest. Thus, these arguments agree the view of psychological egoism which states that people are ego because they are acting for their own good. Arguments against Psychological Egoism Many of the arguments oppose the theory of psychological egoism which states that human acts are selfish because people act according to their own desire. These arguments strongly disagree on the view of psychological egoism due to the consideration of several factors and using counter-evidence. Firstly, the arguments against the psychological egoism states that human has genuine benevolence and genuine malevolence. This argument argues that human acts may be due to the capable of genuine benevolence and genuine malevolence which is the kind and the evil that planted in the human’s mind or spirit. For example, Mother Teresa who helped a lots of poor, sick, old and also children lent her hand to those needy because of her genuine benevolence, neither because of her own self-interest nor benefits. Hence, the opponents pointed out that the psychological egoism is false because there will be people who act voluntarily upon the genuine benevolence. Besides, opponents of psychological egoism said that self-interest and interest in the welfare of others are not necessarily incompatible. This argument states that people may be acting due to the completely self-interest and welfare of others. For instance, a business man never cheats his clients and customers because he knows that this action is good for businesses. From the point of view of the psychological egoism opponents, the business man does not cheat his clients and customers had take care the welfare of them and the business man did this for the good of his business which is the self-interest. The psychological egoism opponents hence state that people act not only for their self-interest but also may contain the interest in others’ welfare. Apart from that, the argument against psychological egoism also states that human motives are oversimplified according to the psychological egoism. The opponents of psychological egoism state that one can has many motives when one is doing an action and only one of the motives may be the self-interest or benefits. For example, a father who gave his seat to an old lady on a bus may act so due to multiple reasons. From the perspective of opponents of psychological egoism, he may wanted to be the model to teach his son a lesson on giving a seat or lending a hand to the needy, he may wanted to get the satisfactory or good feeling after helping the old lady, he may also helped the old lady because of compassion and he may thought that it is dangerous for an old lady standing on a moving bus. Among the several reasons that are listed out, there are only one reason states that this father helped the old lady due to his self-interest. Thus, the opponents believe that human’s act is not solely due to the egoism but there might be other factors which are taken into the consideration before a human act. As a conclusion, opponents of psychological egoism indicates that human acts are not solely because of self-interest nor benefits but can be causes by other factors such as the genuine benevolence, compatibility of self-interest and other’s welfare and also multiple of motives. These opponents believe that there will be some human actions which are acted against ego and truly out of a kind heart which is altruism as what have been done by Mother Teresa. Arguments For and Against Ethical Egoism Ethical egoism is the prescriptive doctrine that all persons ought to act from their own self-interest. It differs from psychological egoism, which claims that people can only act in their self-interest. Ethical egoism also differs from rational egoism, which holds merely that it is rational to act in one’s self-interest. These doctrines may, though, be combined with ethical egoism. Ethical egoism is divided into three branches which are individual ethical egoism, personal ethical egoism and universal ethical egoism. One of the arguments for ethical egoism is looking out for others are self-defeating. We ought to do what will promote the interests of everyone alike. The interests of everyone will be best promoted if each of us adopts the policy of looking to our own interests exclusively. Therefore, each of us should adopt the policy of looking to our own interests exclusively. The other argument for ethical egoism is the Ann Rand’s argument. According to Ann Rand’s argument, we each ought to regard this one life as of supreme importance or ultimate value to us since we each have just one life. Ethical egoism and only ethical egoism allows each individual’s life to be of supreme importance or ultimate value to them. Other moral theories all directly or indirectly enjoin altruism. Altruism regards the individual life as something one may be required to sacrifice for the sake of others. So, altruism does not allow each individual’s life to be of supreme importance to them. Therefore, we all ought to be Ethical Egoists. The third argument in favour of ethical egoism is egoism can account for ordinary morality. Egoism provides one fundamental principle from which the rest of morality can be derived. However, there is a problem with this argument since other moral theories arguably do an even better job of this. According to Kurt Baier’s argument, morality is supposed to help us resolve conflicts of interest. Ethical egoism gives no help in this regard so ethical egoism is not an acceptable morality. The other argument against ethical egoism is the self-contradictory argument. People will often have conflicting duties. For instance, according to ethical egoism, it is in A’s best-interest to kill B so A has a duty to do so and it is in B’s best interest to avoid being killed so B has a duty (by ethical egoism) to prevent it. It is wrong to prevent someone’s doing their duty. So ethical egoism entails a contradiction, it is not wrong for A to kill B since it is in A’s best-interest to kill B but it is wrong for A to kill B. B has a duty to avoid being killed and it’s wrong for A to prevent B from doing B’s duty. Therefore, ethical egoism is false. Other than that, the third argument against ethical egoism which is Rachels’ argument discuss that we can justify treating people differently only if we can show that there is some factual difference between them that is relevant to justifying the difference in treatment. Ethical egoism says we should treat others and ourselves differently but there is no factual difference between self and others that justifies this difference in treatment so ethical egoism is unacceptably arbitrary. Rachels’ comments on this argument shed light on why we should care about others interests. For the very same reason we care about our own because they are in all relevant respects like us.
The International Shipping Industry Economics Essay
Worldwide trade is strongly attached to the shipping industry. It is a fact that the vast majority of products are transported through seaborne trade. Nonetheless, China is regarded as the biggest global exporter. Therefore analyzing the impact of Chinese economic growth is of severe importance. Examining the recent history, Chinese growth rates were responsible for triggering the shipping crisis of 2008. Thus our analysis initially focuses on the components of the aforementioned crisis. Nevertheless our ultimate goal is to examine the relation between Chinese growth and the shipping industry, within a theoretical and a practical approach. Ntaraklitsis Christos 7/12/2012 Introduction It is a matter of fact that the world trade rates are facing a major slump, compared to the years before 2008. Nevertheless this predicament couldn’t leave the shipping industry unaffected. The majority of world trade in this day and age is conducted in the line between Europe and Asia. Not to mention that China consists the fundamental stone of the Asiatic economy. Therefore the Chinese aggressive promotion of growth in 2008 lead to an overwhelming burst in the shipping industry, justified by the estimation of further higher rates of growth. Nevertheless, this estimation proved wrong and lead the shipping industry into a great recession. By analyzing the hazardous impact of this crisis, we are driven to the conclusion that it was triggered by multiple factors. What are really worth examining though are the policies followed during, as well as after the burden of this crisis. Taking into consideration that the major players in this analysis are Europe and China. It is worth focusing on the impact of the implied strategies to each individual economy as well as in the international maritime sector. In this analysis, we examine how the Chinese economic growth affects the international shipping industry. The fundamentals of our analysis are based on theoretical approaches set by distinguished scientists, as well as people close related to the maritime sector. Furthermore a quantitative analysis is to be made, regarding predictions on prospective transport capacity related to economic growth. As earlier mentioned, the seaborne Asia-Europe trade is the major player, regarding the Chinese economy, and its trade line is constituted of many types of cargo. Although, according to Lloyd’s List the bulk and tanker sector appears to have the highest rates referring to Chinese trade. The sector which is more sensitive to the new market vacancies is the containerized products. Therefore in terms of simplicity and analytical reasons we will restrain our analysis in container transport. As far as the world trade economy is concerned, China plays a vital role as a major importer as well as exporter. Thus assaying its current strategies is of major importance, in order to estimate the influence the Chinese growth has on the international shipping industry. Chinese policies Based on a research provided by The Economist, situation in China is described as follows: ‘industrial output has slowed sharply; stocks of unsold goods are piling up; and Shanghai’s stock market is in a three year low’. However why these actions take place? Is China influenced by the world trade crisis or is it something deliberately done? The truth lies somewhere in the middle. China’s slowdown is not necessarily a problem. ICAP Shipping sees the situation as a “carefully engineered economic slowdown in order to avoid overheating’. Meaning that this recession is both understood and under control. The Chinese government has chosen not to aggressively promote growth as back in 2008, in the sake of rebalancing. According to Hou Zhenbo, a Chinese national and an economist working for the Nigerian presidency ‘China realized how important it is to emphasize the role of consumption-led growth as exports to EU/US continues to deteriorate in recent times’. Referring to this declaration, it is clearly seen that policies have started to re-orientate towards a consumer based economy. Especially by the time there is a steady and then accelerated appreciation of the remninbi before and after the crisis. Supplementing its previous policies, China imposes a set of export restrictions, including export quotas, export duties and additional requirements that limit the access to rare earths for companies outside China. Nevertheless, being aware of its major problems, China proceeded in more radical changes. According to the Lloyd’s List: ‘The country has cut its key interest rates twice since the start of June, bringing the benchmark lending rate down to 6%, and reduced reserve requirements. The Asian giant has other tools at its disposal – enviable fiscal leeway, for example, or policy options such as lifting restrictions on speculation in the property market to reverse sluggishness in the sector’. We should not neglect the fact that this slowdown in the Chinese economy still involves growth that the West would kill to obtain. Therefore we can easily reach a conclusion that their economy will avoid any prolonged recession. However according to Vivek Wadha, Centre for Entrepreneurs and Research Commercialization: ‘Chinas main disadvantage is that they haven’t cracked the nut yet of how to innovate’. Nevertheless, Chinese government aims in a ‘fully made in China era’. This arising era for exports involves starting designing and developing new products as well as manufacturing them. Nonetheless China aims on exploiting and evolving the technology factor in terms of long term growth. We are easily been driven to the conclusion that even if the economy of China runs with a lower growth rate, the situation is under control. However how these trends and policies are going to affect the shipping industry? Defining the model Trying to specify the impact of the Chinese growth rate to the shipping industry, two approaches are to be followed. First of all by following the theoretical approach, we aim to explain the impact of a restrain in Chinese growth rates would have on the shipping industry, using as a base the crisis of 2008. Nonetheless, our next step is to explain through a practical analysis the relation between the China-Europe trade volume and the quantity of TEU in the market. Last but not least, our goal is to set up a fixed relation between the Chinese GDP and the percentage of transport capacity available. Few assumptions have to be made: We examine only the category of containerships, since containerized products are the vast majority of transported goods within the Asia-EU trade line. All the data have been calculated through basic statistic tools; average, mean, simple-regression model We assume that containerships of 8000 TEU are effective for this specific shipping line. We sourced our data using the valid sources of Clarksons, Lloyd’s List as well as the World Bank. As per the regression analysis, we took as an independent variable the percentage of Chinas GDP growth and defined the percentage of growth of TEU available in the market as dependent, within 2002 and 2011 Analysis 4.1) Theoretical approach Taking a close look at the facts, by the time China started slowing down on growth on 2008 the results were hazardous. As earlier mentioned the shipping industry, misleaded by the tremendous rates of growth, raised a lot of building orders and investments that soon appeared hard to handle. Therefore having a rapidly developing younger fleet, scrapping has lost its importance. As a result by the time the growth pace slummed, already a surplus of transport capacity was created. Additionally the overwhelming transport supply, lead the freights to reach devastating low rates. Bearing with this situation shipping firms proceed with order cancelations in order to avoid acquiring ships which would involve making losses from the first day. Close related to shipping, the shipbuilding industry was heavily affected. Many of the well-known and well-respected shipyards faced major problems regarding their money flows. Most of them, even those with full order books, had difficulties to secure financial support. That was product of the shortage of liquidity in the banking market. As a result, shipyards did not have the proper amount of money for their operations and refund guarantee for their clients. With peculiar minimal inputs the shipping industry had to act efficiently. Therefore, radical decisions were to be taken. First of all many of the newbuilding orders were agreed to be delayed, in order for the excess supply and the freight rates to be controlled. Furthermore many ship-owners decided to change routes in their high volume ships, in terms of profitability. As an example vessels where discharged from the Europe-Asia line to the Europe-Africa. Another controversial issue is the implementation of slow steaming. Many firms decided to cut down on sailing speed, in order to gain from fuel expenses. This practice appeared detrimental for prosperity of the ships engines, in the long term. Furthermore it is a fact that triggered the shipbuilding industry to focus on more efficient and ‘green’ orientated projects. Nevertheless plenty of vessels were laid up in the essence of reducing costs and at the same time restraining the supply. However the most radical strategy was the one introduced by Maersk line. Their Triple-E project required building vessels of massive volume in order for economies of scale to be created. Furthermore the next step is to avoid moorage in numerous ports and follow a basic trade line within two or three ports. Additionally smaller vessels aparting an economy of hub and spoke would distribute the transported goods within smaller ports. This strategy would manage to deteriorate costs and increase efficiency. Nevertheless, the ambitious projects and strategies implied, the condition in the shipping industry in this day and age is slightly diversified. There is still overcapacity raging within the market and freight rates are low. Being trapped in this predicament, the more likely is for the affected industries to engage in manufacturing as more local enterprises, sharing on transport costs. As a result, raw materials will be sourced nearby (e.g. North Africa) and therefore supply chains will face structural changes. 4.2) Practical approach It is a fact that China has become the second largest global economy and the biggest exporter worldwide. Not to mention EU’s biggest source of imports by far. Therefore we should first take a close look at the trade balance between China and Europe. Albeit the economic crisis, the imports as well the exports follow a slightly ascending trend. As a consequence a trade deficit of billions is created. However, as per the estimation on Lloyds List: ‘European imports of containerized products from Asia (China) plummeted in July, with an unprecedented 13,2% year-on-year reduction in westbound volumes’. Since the shipping industry is closely related to the world trade rates, analyzing the impacts of market trends along with Chinas growth rate is of major importance. Although the excess transport capacity available and the crisis raging within the maritime sector, the findings are quite remarkable. By interpreting the graph, it is clearly seen that there is a steadily upwarding trend regarding TEU available in the market. However this comes in contrast to the total amount of container vessels being ordered. This trend line follows a steeply ascending route, until it reaches the year of crisis in the shipping industry in 2008. Nonetheless, even if there are bumming numbers of transport capacity available in the market. Newbuilding orders fail to keep up with this trend, justified by the shortage of currency liquidity in the market. Nevertheless, which is the role of China in these budding trends? Based on the data provided by the World Bank and Clarksons, we are implementing a regression analysis. Our ultimate goal is to investigate whether the two variables are related or not. Proceeding in our analysis, we come up with the following regression line: Å· = 0,0166 0,0091x. This means that if Chinas GDP rate increases by one unit, there is going to be an increase of 0,0091 billion TEU in the shipping industry. This analysis involves a standard error: se = 0,0263. The low value of se allows as regard that our linear model is a relatively effective analytical and forecasting tool. Nonetheless, we come up with a surprising finding. The coefficient of determination in this model is low. By interpreting our findings only 28,39% of the variation of percentage growth of TEU available in the market is explained by the variation of Chinas GDP growth. Conclusion In conclusion, in this day and age China has become the biggest exporter worldwide, as well as EUs biggest source of imports. As per the estimation of secretary of ISOA, Mr. Tony Mason 85% to 90% of global trade is conducted by seaborne transport. Therefore it can be concluded that economic strategies followed from the Chinese government are of vital importance for the international shipping industry. Nonetheless, the major crisis of 2008 can highly be explained from the impact the false estimations of everlasting growth in the Chinese economy. Although shipping firms come up with solutions that deteriorated the burden of recession in the industry, the main components of the crisis are still to be solved. By closely examining the graphs, it is clearly seen that there is strong trade bond between China and Europe, which can be justified by the high volume of imports and exports. Taking into consideration that the Asia-Europe is the main trade line, as far as seaborne transport is concerned. This trade deficit can partially explain the continuously rising numbers of transport capacity offered. However a surprising finding appeared by analyzing the relationship between the percentage of Chinese GDP growth and the percentage. By implying the technique of regression analysis, we were brought to the conclusion that there is not a high rate of dependency between the two variables.
Genotyping ApoE Variants: For Early Diagnosis of ARC
Genotyping ApoE variants: Predictor of rare cancer in young adults According to Yamashiro (2017), The rare ApoE related cancer (ARC) occurs in mostly in young adults with 80% of all cases being in people between the ages of 20-30 years old. ARC is unbiased to gender and there is evidence that it is a hereditary disease linked to the inheritance of eight variants of the gene Apolipoprotein E (ApoE), that are spread out through the gene, including two that are in intronic sequences. These alleles seem to be recessive with some of them that when they are recessive homozygotes being strong predictors of ARC. It was also sometimes found that when there is heterozygosity of two recessive ApoE alleles, one being ApoE4, can act as recessive homozygotes. However, ApoE4 has the weakest association with cancer at less than 2%, but when another ApoE allele is present the ApoE4 allele pairs as a normal ApoE gene (Yamashiro, 2017a). The ApoE gene encodes for the apolipoprotein E which combines with fats in the body to form lipoproteins (US National Library of Medicine, 2017). The ApoE lipoproteins are responsible for maintaining normal cholesterol levels in the bloodstream and the brain by transporting cholesterol and other fats in the bloodstream and assisting deposition of amyloids “and the clearing of deposits from the parenchyma of the brain (Garg
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