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Country Of Origin Effect Marketing Essay

This chapter will focus three major concepts of this dissertation, which is country of origin effect, product quality, and product evaluation. In this part, academy literatures and business empirical of country of origin effects will be reviewed in order to have a closer look on the association between country of origin effect and product quality evaluation. The chapter will present a number of critical reflections on the two concepts, directly and indirectly. This part will also try to identify the characteristic of these critical literatures and special attention will be given to the alcohol beverage related country of origin researches. More particularly, this part will take a closer look at Malaysian consumer behaviour in order to have better understanding Malaysian consumers’ product evaluation on the one hand and their attitude towards developed and developing countries on the other. In the first instance, the research will collect secondary data from internet, journal, book and newspapers to proceed the research, country of origin, nation image, consumer behaviour, product evaluation, brand image were found related to purpose of the research and the author will limited the focus on these aspects while all articles and books selected are related to these aspects. The concept and theories of country of origin effects will be mentioned in this chapter briefly. Some of the important characteristic of country of origin effects will be expressed while a few critical reflections on country of origin studies will be described. The author will try to prove Malaysian consumers use country of origin as an important cue for alcohol product evaluation prior buying decision. However, the relationship between country of origin effect and medicated liquor remained unexplored as no direct literature can be referred. A summary will be presented sum up for this chapter. 2.2 General View of Country of Origin Effects The study of country of origin effect can be traced back to 1960s, an empirical study conducted by Schooler (1965) for 200 students in Guatemala and found that consumer will evaluate product according to its country of origin label when all the products attributes are similar in all aspects. In 1970s, Nagashima (1970) has defined the country of origin phenomenon as “the picture, the reputation, and the stereotype that businessmen and consumers attach to products of a specific country”. This concept has been supported by other scholars’ researches (Parameswaran and Yaprak, 1987; Han, 1989; Samiee, 1994), that is, how consumers perceive product sourced from particular country and how the information pertaining where the product is made influence consumers’ evaluation, attitude and purchase intention. After the findings of Schooler and Nagashima, many country of origin effect study conducted by researchers from different countries ever since. Past researches which have examined the country of origin in the form of product types and attribute (e.g. Nagashima, 1970; Han, 1989; Roth and Romeo, 1992; Watson and Wright, 2000; Laroche et al., 2005; Chryssochoidis et al., 2007), brand image (e.g. Gaedeke, 1973; Feng and Xie, 2006; Hui and Zhou,2003, Kuobaa, 2008), brand equity(e.g. Pappu et al.,2006; ), reputation (e.g. Maronick,1995; Lyden, 2005; Leonidou, 2007; Torres and Gutierrez, 2007), purchase intention (e.g. Piron, 2000; Vesile, 2008), price (e.g. Dodds et al., 1991; Chen, 2004; Fan, 2007) , product quality and life cycle (e.g. Bilkey and Nes, 1982; Niss, 1996; Thakor and Lavack, 2003) as well as information (e.g. Hong and Wyer, 1989; Liefeld, 2004; Paswan and Sharma, 2004 ) from house hold consumer and organization buyers. Much of the studies indicated that country of origin effect influence consumers’ product evaluation. Consumers weigh the product based on information and individual experience before purchase decision. Obviously, it is considered that most of the researchers agreed that consumer use country of origin to stereotype product from particular country (Bilkey and Nes, 1982; Erickson et al., 1984; Wall et al, 1991; Roth and Romeo, 1992). Researchers believe consumers use individual subjective preference to evaluate product quality rather than impersonal knowledge and information on the product. Thus, country of origin image can be considered as a very important extrinsic cue for consumers during the product evaluation process. Consumers’ perception towards a product’s country of origin can influence their purchase decision. More broadly, Country of origin has been developed as “Halo effect” and “summary effect” (Han, 1989). It also partitioned into cues such as “country of manufacture”, “country of design”, “country of assembly” and “country of brand” (Chao, 1993; Ulgado and Lee, 1993; Roger et al., 1994). Researchers also found that country of origin had been used as an extrinsic cue that acts as a risk mitigant or quality cue for consumers, particularly when it is not easy to assess the intrinsic value of a product (Samiee, 1994; Thorelli et al., 1989; Cordell, 1992). Based on the development mentioned on the above, definition of country of origin can be interpreted as “any influence that the country of manufacture, assembly, or design has on a consumer’s positive or negative perception of a product” (Insch and McBride, 1998). For customers who have limited product knowledge and less involvement of the product information, they often make simple and quick judgment about product quality on the basis of extrinsic cues, which including country of origin. Country of origin image helps them to simplify the purchase decision process and reduce purchase decision risk, so that easier for them to make “a subjectively reasonable decision” when they have no experience or information with the product (Muhlbacher et al., 2006). However, when consumer are educated and be informed, country of origin effect will be reduce and become weak (Czinkota and Ronkinen, 2004). This is because there are so many brands in the market and when the product is unknown, making decision is difficult and painful (Pfister, 2003). Some consumers are preferred to use “short cut” as key reference for buying decision (Duhan, 1999; Chaney, 2002). Country of origin has been used as a cue to help consumers to reduce dissonance during the purchasing progress and being an indicator for product quality (Lockshin and Rhodus, 1993; Lascu and Babb, 1995) as well as to lower purchase risk (Akaah and Korgaonkar, 1988). Consumers evaluate a product on the basis of intrinsic and extrinsic cues (Bilkey and Nes, 1982). However, when consumers’ product knowledge is limited and unable to evaluate product quality by intrinsic cues, extrinsic cues, for instance, country of origin, brand name, and price; will be used as key reference on quality evaluation. The finding of use of country of origin as major extrinsic is consistent with Ahmed and Johnson’s (2004) study. However, when the product information is accessible and adequate, where the product manufactured is doesn’t matter (Erickson et al., 1984). Moreover, difference level of product knowledge or product experience will influence or bias consumer’s purchase intention (Park and Lessig, 1981). It was found that when consumer are not familiar with a country’s product, country of origin image will serving as a”Halo Effect” to consumers to infer product attributes and influence product’s their brand attributes indirectly. However, when consumers are familiar with a product from particular country, country image will de served as a “Construct” so that they will summarize their belief towards product attributes and directly affects their brand attitude (Han, 1990). Brand from countries that having favourable image are generally well accepted by consumers compare to those from less favourable countries. A positive national image can reduce cost of marketing and a poor national image may multiple the cost of operation (Ramo Cooper, 2007). However, if a brand is strong enough, the influence of the country of origin effects may be able to overshadowed (Ahmed and d’Astous, 1993). Nonetheless, some consumers tend to have or bias about product and countries that have been influenced by rumours, myths, subjective perception and personal experience (Cateora and Graham, 2002). Especially when information or quality of product is unavailable or unknown, consumer’s evaluation toward product will based on information that they guess, know and remember (Monroe and Lee, 1999). At the point of purchase, consumer needs product knowledge, information, and experience to be able to evaluate product quality. When product knowledge, information, and experience about a product are limited, country of origin is more likely to be taken as a key reference for product evaluation. Literatures have identified that the linkage between product evaluation and country of origin effect is tend to be direct and strong. Scholars found that developed countries are having a positive nation image, while products made in less developed countries were not evaluated as quality products (Schooler, 1965). A positive nation image will influence consumer to make a favourable evaluation on a product from the particular country. In construct, the images of developing countries are relatively poor. A negative nation image will convey a negative message on consumers’ product evaluation, so that stereotype or bias is created. In other word, when a particular country’s nation image is becoming more remarkable, no matter positive or negative, consumers are more easily to generate a correlation between a product made by the country and its nation image. If consumers accepted quality or performance of a product from particular country, they will extend their individual perception or subjective perception to other products made by the same country. 2.3 Malaysian Consumer Behaviour and Country of Origin Effects Researchers in the area of international marketing have suggested that country of origin has influence consumers’ products evaluation (Bilkey and Nes, 1982; Samiee, 1994). However, does country of origin effects matter in a developing country such as Malaysia? Studies had found that country of origin has significant effects in both less developed and developing country such as Bangladesh, China and Malaysia (Rahman, 2001; kaynak et. al. 2000; Sohail, 2005; Balestrini and Gamble, 2006; Yasin et al., 2007, Ghazali, 2008). Some studies show that country of origin does not transform to purchase intentions (e.g. Rahman, 2001), other studies indicated that consumer pay much more intention to country of origin when they purchase products for special occasion (e.g. Balestrini and Gamble, 2006; Ghazali, 2008). It is reported that Country of origin effect significantly influenced consumers’ perception of product in less developed country such as Bangladesh. Less developed countries’ consumers generally perceived that products from developed country is stand for good quality and products from developing countries will be seen as less desirable in quality (Rahman, 2001; kaynak et. al., 2000). Indeed, the impact of country of origin on Malaysian consumers’ perception of product has not been widely study until the recent years. Several researches from Arab Saudi and Malaysia have extended their effort to have a clear picture of country of origin effect towards Malaysian consumers in evaluating product from different country sources. Is country of origin important towards Malaysian consumers’ purchase intention? Studies had shown that Malaysian consumers are more likely to use the country of origin of a product as a cue when they evaluate automobiles (Sohail, 2005). Malaysia consumers tend to use different sources of information for product evaluation, such as newspaper and television. Malaysian consumers are more likely to use the origin of a product as a cue for evaluating products from different countries based on different product dimensions (Sohail, 2005). Malaysian consumers have different preferences for product based on country of origin. It is reflected that Malaysian consumers accepted quality or performance of a product from particular country, for instance, German car is perceived as good quality. Malaysian consumers are believed will extend their individual perception or subjective perception to other products made by the same country (Sohail, 2005). These findings is consistent with Han’s (1989) “Halo effects”. Similar to Sohail (2005), another country of origin effect study conducted by Ghazali et al. (2008) had indicated that Malaysian consumers attach the country of origin information to the quality of a product. They are inclined to attribute higher quality to product made in developed countries. Country of origin would be considered as an important cue during Malaysian consumers’ purchase decision. It is believed that Malaysian consumers believe development of social and economy determine the quality of a product. However, the average Malaysian consumers are not likely to take country of origin as cue to assist purchase decision making as other product attributes take precedence, such as quality, price and technology. (Ghazali et al., 2008). This is because Malaysian consumers are considered very price sensitive. They are more concerned with the price rather than the quality and performance of the product. However, when all product attributes become similar and less differential, they may take country of origin as a cue to judge the quality of a product. The research also found that Malaysian believe developed countries are having a positive nation image and the images of developing countries are relatively poor. They prefer product produced in developed countries rather than developing and less developed countries. This is consistent with Schooler’s (1965) findings. Apart from taking country of origin as single cue, Yasin et al. (2007) study Malaysian’s perception toward country of origin in different way. They attempt to explore the effects of brand’s country of origin image on the formation of brand equity. Their study had argued that country of origin is having significant influence on brand loyalty and brand awareness/associations, which mean country of origin plays an important role in Malaysian consumers’ purchase decision, particularly those countries with positive image helps create positive attitude towards the brand. Yasin et al. (2007) findings have given a strong support to Sohail (2005) and Ghazali et al. (2008). However, there is no direct research of country of origin effects on alcohol beverage conducted in Malaysia. Although the studies mentioned on the above has drawn a clear picture on Malaysian consumers’ perception of country of origin effects, but experiment products are limited to industrial products such as household electrical appliances, electronic devices and automobiles, alcohol beverage product, especially medicated liquor are no included. Due to religion reason, the researchers mentioned on the above are Muslims. They are too sensitive to research “non-halal” items. Thus whether country of origin effects may influence medicated liquor would greatly depend on how well the non-Muslim consumers realize the effects of country of origin when purchasing medicated liquor. This research therefore to explore Malaysian Chinese consumers’ medicated liquor purchasing behaviours and investigating the effect of country of origin on they liquor quality evaluations. 2.4 Alcohol Attributes and Country of Origin Effects As mentioned on the previous section, the effect of country of origin on medicated liquor has not been examined in the business and marketing literature yet. However, two of the alcohol products, red wine and beers, has been experimented by few researchers (e.g. Balestrini and Gamble, 2006; Li et al., 2006; Wang et al., 2006, Schaefer, 1997). These empirical studies shown that country of origin can affect alcohol product consumer’s perception of a product’s quality. In addition, consumers’ attitudes toward a alcohol beverage products and their purchase intentions were influenced by country of origin effects significantly. Although country of origin effects on wines and beers have not direct relation with medicated liquor, however there are considered as very good empirical reference for this dissertation. When consumers buy product they are not just buying the simple functional aspect a product offer, there are other complexities involved in the purchase (Baines et al., 2008). Consumers may vary their cognition towards different products from same country (Halfhill, 1980; Han and Terpstra, 1988). For example, consumer esteem French fashion as very high quality products, however they may not do the same evaluation on French electronic products. This is because of influence of product attributes are playing a critical role in the interaction between the country of origin image. In terms of alcohol beverage product, taste, quality and the image of drink is the major concerned for Chinese consumers (USDA, 1998). Studies conducted by USDA (1998, 2005) indicated that alcohol beverage purchases by Chinese fall largely into two categories: private home consumption or gift purchases. Historically, liquor and wine have played a critical role in Chinese society and culture (USDA, 2008). When choosing an alcohol beverage as gift for special occasion, Chinese consumers are generally concern about its social and gratitude value as this mostly presented to relatives and friends as well as business partners for purposes of build up good relationship or to show off. A wine studies conducted by Yang (1989) showed that Chinese consumers buy a product for its social, symbolic value. In other words, gift giving is a extent of “Guanxi” or “relationship”, which is refers to generating or building strategic connection or delivery of commitment between two parties (Yan, 1996; Mauss, 1954). In terms of purchasing of alcohol beverage, researches shown that product attributes interactive with country-of-origin image significantly. Balesttrini and Gamble (2006) indicates that Chinese wine buyers attach much more importance to country of origin information when wine is purchased for special occasions rather than private consumption. The research also showed that country of origin information is much more important than the price whilst slightly more important than the brand when consumers evaluating wine quality. Their findings are supported by Wang et al. (2006) as they found country of origin and price influenced Chinese consumers’ wine evaluation significantly. Another studies conducted by Li et al. (2006) also confirmed that Chinese customers consider country of origin as the most important factor in their wine evaluation when single-cue is applied. In addition, the study indicated that country of origin is more important than brand as a wine quality indicator for product evaluation. It is playing an important as well when Chinese consumers evaluating wine for give giving than own consumption (Li et al., 2006). In general, country of origin image is important than other cues such as price for beverage evaluation before a purchase decision. It is true that medicated liquor is different from wine, but medicated liquor is similar to wine as its quality only accessible after consumption (Chaney, 2000). Medicated liquor is difficult to be accessed in presentation prior purchase, thus consumers must rely on extrinsic cues, such as worth and mouth communication, brand name, advertisement or country of origin image (Balesttrini and Gamble, 2006). USDA (1998, 2009) and Chaney (2000) indicated that the country-of-origin of wines can also be a key element in affecting consumer decision-marketing. Malaysian are sharing similar gift giving culture with the mainland Chinese. Medicated liquor is one the important item of Malaysian gift giving culture as it enjoys an ever-growing reputation as a sophisticated, high-end product that should be indulged in as part of a modern, healthy and affluent lifestyle. It is also refers to wishing people being in good health and express good wishes for long life. This dissertation suggested that Malaysian consumers’ behaviour and product attitude towards medicated liquor may be similar to Chinese consumers’ behaviour and product attitudes towards wine. Thus this research proposes that country of origin effects may influence Malaysian medicated liquor consumers on product quality evaluation when they purchase the product for social occasion or self consumption. 2.5 Product Evaluation and Country of Origin effects Country of origin is believed has positively influence consumer’s perception of product quality (Han and Terpstra, 1988). Consumers’ view of country of origin is equated to attitudes towards product evaluations (Nagashima, 1970). In existing literature, there are a lot of studies on the mutual effect of product evaluation and country of origin effect. Questions related to relationship between product quality and country-of-origin effects have been approached in depth (Wall et al. 1991; Ahmed and d’Astous, 1993; Ettenson et al., 1988; Hastak and Hong, 1991). It seems widely accepted that quality perception and country-of-origin are correlated and as major reference factors for consumer prior purchase decision when they are unable to manage true information of unknown products. Past researches also found that country of origin effects influence consumers’ preference differently in the case of high and low involvement products (Saffu and Scott, 2009). Consumer will rely on country of origin cue when evaluating low involvement product than evaluating a high involvement product (Schaefer, 1997). Quality perception was also directed affected by country image. When a country’s image includes a strong effective component, its direct influence on product evaluation is stronger than its influence on product beliefs. Alternatively, when a country’s image has a strong cognitive component, its direct influence on product evaluations is smaller than its influence on product beliefs (Laroche et al., 2005). In other words, the structure of country image influences product evaluations both directly and indirectly through product beliefs (Laroche et al., 2005). For instance, U.S. consumers are willing to pay more for made-in-USA products over Chinese products across 11 product categories and they willing to pay premium to the products from developed country rather than less developed country. This is because consumers feel that products and brands from developed countries with good image are more reliable than brands and products manufactured by developing countries with less favourable image (Drozdenko and Fensen, 2009). A study conduct by Quester et al. (2000) on Australian and New Zealand purchasing agents also shown similar phenomenon, that is, country of origin was found to influence product quality perceptions. When the purchasing agents source products internationally, country of design and country of assembly information will influence them in judging quality. On the other hand, gender group and income group also plays important role in perception of country of origin effect towards product quality. Hoffmann (2000) conducted a research on country of origin effect toward Swedish consumers’ perception towards fresh meat. A very interesting finding of the study is that, women use country of origin as a quality cue than men in terms of evaluating food quality and food safety. Furthermore, the study found that consumers with low incomes tend to use country of origin more extensively than consumers with high incomes. For those high incomes group, a product’s country of origin has a stronger effect when considering luxury products (Piron, 2000). Some finding in the extant literature indicated that product evaluation also affected by country of origin through product information and consumer knowledge. When product information is clear and accessible, consumers who have experience with a product will evaluate the product based on the product’s information. When consumers have limited information about the product, country of origin will be taken as critical cue for product quality evaluation (Maheswaran, 1994). Han (1989) modelled country of origin image and beliefs as operation independently on product attitudes, depending on the consumer’s knowledge state. Previous research concluded that when consumers have high level of product knowledge, stereotyping will not be used by them as a cue for product evaluation as they understand the quality of the product very well (Alab and Hutchinson, 1987; Rao and Monroe, 1988). Thus, intrinsic cues will be used for quality evaluation, while influence of country of origin effect is weak. Schaefer (1997) has conducted a research to investigate how knowledge affects consumers’ use of country of origin in evaluating an alcoholic beverage. It is indicated that brand familiarity and objective product knowledge has significant influence on use of country of origin cue in product evaluations. In addition, product country knowledge can increase consumers’ reliance on country of origin in judging a product. Nonetheless, stereotyping process will affect consumers’ evaluation of products when consumers’ product knowledge is lacking while other product-specific information is not easily available. Therefore, extrinsic cues will be taken as key reference and influence of country of origin will become strong. In other words, consumers may consider country of origin as important cue for their product evaluation when they are not familiar with the product categories and are less involved with the product they are evaluating (Jpsiassen et al. 2008). Furthermore, Chattalas (2008) findings supported Alab and Hutchinson (1987) and Rao and Monroe (1988) arguments. His study shows that computer expert or highly computer science knowledgeable consumers were found to use a country hierarchy but placed a greater importance on brand name and quality. Computer novices are more relied on country of origin image and used the brand name to counteract a poor country image. This argument also supported by Schaefer (1997) study. However, a few researchers do not agreed with the statement of country of origin influence product evaluation. Wong et al. (2008) conducted a research on the effect of country of origin subcomponents (e.g. design, assembly and parts) on young Chinese consumers with regarding to product quality and purchase intention. He found that country of origin did not influence young Chinese consumers’ evaluation of product quality or purchase intentions because they perceive a hybrid product with multiple countries of origin sources as a norm for high involvement products. Kim (2006) conducted a country of origin research on Samsung and found that it is very hard to differentiate the product image from the country image while country image did not showcase any significant impact on brand image and purchase intention. D’Astous and Ahmed (1999) also pointed out that country of origin is a much less important attribute for both shoppers of video cassette recorders and consumers than brand reputation on design and assembly capabilities. In addition, country of origin is much less important attribute than brand reputation. Besides, Piron (2000) confirmed that a product’s extrinsic cues, such as country of origin, are less important then intrinsic cues, such as reliability and performance. Since marketers believe that consumers’ perception to certain country image may influence their evaluation of the quality of the product come from that country of origin, the arguments mentioned on the above seems challenging the effect of country of origin and controvert country of origin effect is acting as a key factor on influencing consumer perception towards certain brand from that country of origin and become one of the major reference in determining consumer’s purchase intention. Research on the relationship between country-of-origin and the evaluation of quality in medicated liquor is very scanty. However, Lockshin and Rhodus (1993) found that country-of-origin is referred as an indicator of quality of wine when consumers are unable to detect the true quality of a country’s wine. These findings are later supported by Elliot and Cameron (1994) and Duhan (1999). Balestrini and Gamble (2006) also found that Chinese wine consumers use country of origin to evaluate wine quality. These empirical researches might be a very good support to this study as it is proven that alcohol products are influenced by country of origin effects. However the effects on medicated liquor are yet to be justified. 2.6 Summary Literatures reviewed in this section have indicated that country of origin effects influence consumers’ product evaluation. Researches have shown that consumers use country of origin as major for evaluating product quality when they are not familiar with product categories, low product involvement and lack of product knowledge. It is generally agreed that consumers from less developed and developing country are perceived product produced in developed country are higher quality then product from developing country. It is confirmed that Country of origin effects has significant correlated with alcohol beverages’ quality evaluation, such as wine and beer. However, a still unsolved issue in the study of country of origin is whether the country of origin effect is the major cues for Malaysian consumers to evaluate medicated liquor quality and buying intention.
Autoglass: Business Strategy Analysis. Autoglass summary Present day Autoglass has its foundation in two separate organisations. One part was a small family business in Bedford started by Tony Bates called Windshields. The company became well talked about for its innovative approach. Back then windscreens were made from fortified glass, which could break when hit with plenty force. The other organisation was Autoglass its-self. Established in 1972, the company was initially based in Manchester providing service throughout the North of England. Autoglass was mainly branch-based though mobile technicians were also available. Then in 1984 a merge with Windshields happened turning into a nation-wide business across the country and increasing in mobile operation. The company was called Autoglass Windshield however, the latter name was later dropped keeping only the first one. Fast forward to today and Autoglass is the lead company windscreen replacement and repair in the UK. Its open 24/7, 365 days a year, serving over a million customers. Though Autoglass are successful, they are part of the Belron Umbrella who are the world’s leading vehicle glass and repair replacement organisation. What is business strategy? A business strategy is the combination of all decisions made and actions taken by the business in order to achieve business objectives, so a competitive position is secured in the market. Strategy helps to address the following questions: Where are we now? What is the situation we face? Where do we wish to be? What business should we be in? How did we get to this? What went well/wrong? How can our position be improved? What options are available to us? What may hinder us from achieving How do our customers see us? Autoglass previous objectives To collect reliable and meaningful data in order to quantify and justify exploits as well as initiatives. Look at ways to continuously reduce carbon emissions across operations including energy efficient technology for our taskforce and office blocks. Constantly manage our waste by recycling our glass waste disposed on behalf of customers. We take in consideration approaches that are innovative in order to achieve this. Autoglass Mission Autoglass is committed to delivering first class service to every single customer as well as becoming first choice for glass repair and replacement across the world. The company is also dedicated to reducing accidents in UK and often launches campaigns to raise road safety awareness including the importance of driving safe. Autoglass Vision Autoglass would like to expand and be the leading provider of AI/touch windscreen manufacturing for all vehicles. The company has a strong understanding of the key role technology has played over the years. And has ensured to capitalise on it too. Recently, it has been announced by Autoglass that they have had a successful trial based on AI to aid in windscreen repair. The tool is already in use by customers, handling over 2000 images a week with more than 80% accuracy helping to determine what kind of service is required prior to book an appointment. More applications for technology are being taken into account, such as the use of AI to assess ADAS (Advanced Driver Assistance Systems) calibrations after a repair or replacement. Another tech that tool that is growing in population is Augmented Reality (AR) in windscreens. Many car manufacturers have already begun to build and integrate their new vehicles with this technology however, it will be more visible within the next years. It is Autoglass aim to be able to penetrate that market and increase their share without compromising their established reputation. Autoglass core competencies The business core ability is being able to replace or repair windscreen anywhere in the UK at any given time with the work carried out by highly trained technicians throughout the country. Strategic intent The intention for Autoglass is to stand out from its peers and continue to be industry leaders ahead of their competition. Autoglass Strategy The role of strategy in Autoglass is to provide clarity on how to generate more revenue by remaining market leaders. The company’s current strategy has been able to provide continuous success for the company however, in order to stay ahead and remain market leaders, Autoglass cannot afford to become distracted and be overtaken by their competitors. Hence why, an implementation of a new strategy will help proper the business further and ahead of their rivals. Goals and objectives To maintain the trust obtained from customer and remain a respectable organisation ensuring responsible behaviour. To ensure that technicians are all ADAS trained To invest in AR technology Building the business with great people who deliver great performance. SWOT/PESTLE analysis In order to understand how the macro environment could potentially have an impact on Autoglass, a SWOT analysis will be conducted. This is an important technique that gives the actual understanding about the current performance of organization. By using this technique, Autoglass management will be able to develop sustainable business strategy that will overcome the impact on weakness and threats that identified in SWOT analysis. Moreover, it will help to gain the information about the opportunities and strengths to consider them for developing the plan and meet the goals and objectives. In addition to this, SWOT analysis helps to evaluate the internal business function effectiveness and use of resources for developing the new business strategy to encourage the outcome of business. Strength Leading glass repair and replacement company Serves at least 1 million customers per year Has fleet of over a thousand technicians Strong relations with most insurers in the UK Multichannel Repairs or replaces and type of glass, make, model or age Have a repair first philosophy. High gross margins Weakness Competitors offer similar product promptly Hardly advertised There is no promotion on prices Opportunities Increased growth rate because few competitors are able to provide the same exact service Introduction of new products Threats Changes to government laws could affect how the organisation operates Another tool that can help examine the macro environment is a PESTLE analysis. Political Various taxation policies could have an affect on how Autoglass operates its business Environmental In the recent years the weather has not been the best in England. This could pose a threat to Autoglass technicians trying to reach customer on time thus impacting the service. Sociological Since the government is encouraging people to be greener by swapping vehicles for bicycles or public transport, it could mean less vehicles being driven therefore less need for a repair or replacement. Technological Advancements in products such as ADAS (Advance driver -assistance systems) Augmented Reality windscreens are talks of the near future Legal Regulation 461/2010 enables choice and convenience. What this means is that businesses owning fleets and single drivers are not restricted to whom or where they get their vehicle windscreen repaired or replaced. Economical Consumers are not purchasing vehicles the way that they used to. Should this trend continue, it could pose a threat to Autoglass as the business is focused around vehicle windscreen repair and replacement. Strategic Positioning Ansoff Matrix Autoglass is the leading provider of windscreen repair and replacement in the UK. Over the years they have gained a large share in the market due to the service offered. As Autoglass continues to expand, it is in the company’s best interest to analyse their competitive advantage. To do so, Autoglass management can make use of the Ansoff Matrix. The Ansoff Matrix is a strategic planning tool that proposes four alternatives and they are: Market penetration- How to sell more products or service to existing customers. Market development – This is focused on how to penetrate new market. Product development – This is based on how to develop current products and or services. Diversification strategy – How to navigate in the new market with new product or service to increase sales as well as customer base. Since Autoglass increased market share derives from having the ability to serve over a million customers needing a repair or replacement, the company should focus on Market Penetration and Product development. For market penetration, management at Autoglass can seek to increase market share by adding a new service to the existing roster. This can be done by proposing free tire check with each repair or replacement in the winter months. With product development Autoglass can introduce a new product such as AI windscreens into an existing market. Currently AI is being used to aid with the windscreen repair and replacements processing up to 2,500 images a week with more than 80% accuracy (Fleetnews.co.uk, 2018), helping to determine what kind of service is required prior to booking the appointment. There are already talks of augmented reality – intelligent car windscreens providing real-time visual information to drivers. The good thing about Ansoff Matrix is that it is quite easy to use and understand even to those with limited knowledge in the marketing department. Another advantage is that Ansoff gives the Autoglass the opportunity to observe all possible alternatives, so the right decision is made helping the company increase sale and profit. Furthermore, it analyses all the risk attached to each strategy as a result ensuring that the organisation is prepared accordingly. On the other hand, there is lack of focus on the competitors as well as lack of cost benefit analysis. Strategic Capabilities RBV/VRIN Framework Resource-based view (RBV) is a way of looking at the organisation in order to help determine strategic resources that can be exploited so sustainable competitive advantage is achieved. Instead of looking at the competitive environment, RBV encourages the organisation to take into consideration at the available resources and potential within the business. Within RBV there are two kinds of resources: Tangible and Intangible assets. Tangible assets. Often these are physical things such as property, products and capital which can be bought with ease offering little competitive advantage as other businesses can acquire the same. Autoglass has a fleet of vans which is a tangible asset that any other company can attain too. Intangible assets. This implies to products and notion that carry no physical value, however, can still be owned by the business. Intangible assets could include things such as trademarks, reputation or intellectual property most of which are acquired over a period of time and is something competitors cannot purchase on the market often being the business main source of competitive advantage. For Autoglass an intangible asset would be their reputation for being able to replace or repair windscreens anywhere and anytime throughout the UK. RBV can also be utilised in order to look at the VRIN framework. VRIN is short for Valuable, Rare, Imperfectly Imitable and Non-substitutable. Valuable- This regards the resources that are available that bring the business value thus creating competitive advantage. In Autoglass case, it is the fact that they are UK leading glass repair and replacement services with over 1000 trained technicians available. And also, the company itself has become a household name in the UK which means customers are more inclined to make use of their services as they are very familiar with them. Rare – This eludes to a business having a unique strategy that will enable competitive advantage over its peers. For Autoglass this would be the fact that they are part of Belron which operates globally. This enables them to receive financial backing should they want to venture into a new direction/market. They also have a dedicated R D Centre that provides a one of kind accreditation to its technicians in the UK. Inimitable – This is when an organisations actions are difficult to imitate. For instance, with Autoglass serves over a million customers a year. This is because the business is open 24/7, 7 days a week throughout the year. This gives Autoglass a huge competitive advantage as their competitors are not able imitate this. Non – Resource that cannot be replaced by any other resource. Autoglass hold a Certification of Quality Assurance which gives them and advantage over their competitors as they are sure of their workmanship providing a lifetime guarantee for as long as the customer still owns the vehicle. Cost Benefit Analysis Cost Benefit Analysis or CBA for short, is another tool that Autoglass can make use of in order to measure their strategic capabilities. It is a process that organisations use in order to evaluate decisions. Prior to making any decision, managers will conduct a CBA, so all potential cost and revenues are determined. The result of the analysis will conclude if a project is practical financially or whether the business should consider another project. When it comes to Autoglass, they are in a good position to move forward with augmented reality (AR) as the benefits over runs potential cost. As they are part of the Belron company, Autoglass will have access to funds that will enable them to invest and start creating AR windscreen of their own. Porters Five Forces Porters five forces is a framework that identifies and evaluates five competitive forces that moulds every industry and helps finding out an industry’s strengths and weaknesses. It is often used to pinpoint an industry’s formation to clarify a business strategy. Autoglass Porters Five Force’s Analysis Threat of new entrants Since the upfront cost of starting a windscreen replacement service is low, it is not difficult set up a business in this industry therefore, the threat of new entrants is quite high. There are many small businesses who operate through online platform such as Facebook or Gumtree. The only thing they will not able to compete against is the financial foundation that Autoglass has. Bargaining power of suppliers When it comes to bargaining power, Autoglass will have the upper hand as majority of their suppliers will be relatively smaller in size. Bargaining power of buyers When it comes to buyers and power of bargaining, consumers are advantageous because of various alternatives presented to them. They could opt for going directly to the car manufacturer to purchase their AR windscreen. Threat of substitute products or services Strong force. This is a strong force as they are many alternatives. Many others will offer the same service for a cheaper price. Autoglass need to ensure they are not undercut by their competitors thus they need to correctly price their service to avoid this Rivalry among existing competitors Weak force. This is a weak force as they are not many companies that can go toe to toe with Autoglass. Autoglass are the leading vehicle and glass replacement in the UK, this makes rivalry low although they need to stay ahead of their competitors. Strategic Direction In order for Autoglass to achieve newly set objectives, diversification can be implemented. Diversification Diversification is a strategy is practise where a business enters an industry or market which differs from its core operation. The reason why organisations diversify is: To reduce the risk of being reliant on a singular income source. To avoid fluctuation by producing goods/service that vary in demand cycles To accomplish greater growth rate. To invade the competitor core industry/market Diversification can be classed under the following; Forward, Full, Backward, Vertical and Horizontal. Forward integration happens when an organisation stays a step ahead in their process and becomes involved with things such as logistics, distribution and or transport. For Autoglass this could be in the form of distributing AR windscreen to car dealerships for a fraction of a price opposed to what original manufactures may charge. Backward integration is the opposite of forward integration. Instead of taking a step forward, the business takes a step back in their processes and expands its activities to acquiring their own inputs such as suppliers of raw materials, machinery amongst others. When it comes to Autoglass, they can manufacture and supply their own AR windscreens rather than having to rely on external suppliers. Full integration is when a company enters a new market/industry or introduces a new product entirely. This approach is seen as the riskiest as offering or new product/service to an unknown market can either go really well or fail. Hence why full integration takes a long time to accomplish. Autoglass could fully integrate by introducing windshield repair and replacement for airlines. Vertical integration is the merging of two organisations that are at a different life cycle stage. Autoglass could merge with a tech company that specialises in Augmented Reality in order to evade spending unnecessary money outsourcing tech for their windscreens. By doing this, Autoglass will have better access and control regarding the windscreen quality. Horizontal integration is the merging of two businesses that are at the same level of life cycle. Though this is could be an option for Autoglass, it is not best suited as the company is already part of Belron. Merging with another business on the same level could cause harm than good. Although most diversification are suitable for suitable for Autoglass, Vertical integration would be the better suited one. Since technology is at the forefront of daily life, it is imperative to make use of it in the business world. Autoglass has always been keen on taking innovative direction celebrating over 40 years in innovation. Merging with a tech company that specialises in AR could help Autoglass cut cost on research for augmented reality windscreens. Together combined with the company’s knowledge and eye for innovation, Autoglass could make the provision of AR windscreen more accessible to consumer at cheaper price. References: Autoglass.co.uk. (n.d.). [online] Available at: https://www.autoglass.co.uk/fileadmin/user_upload/uk/our-way-of-working.pdf [Accessed 2 Mar. 2020]. Autoglassnews.co.uk. (2012). Autoglass® News – Autoglass® celebrates 40 years and 30 million customers with innovative stop-motion video. [online] Available at: https://www.autoglassnews.co.uk/index.php?id=pree-release-displayAutoglass: Business Strategy Analysis
Historical Influences on Architecture of Süleymaniye Mosque. How has diverse cultures and architecture throughout history influenced the architecture of the Süleymaniye Mosque? The main issue that will be covered by the author in this thesis is the question of how different cultures and architectural styles have influenced the Süleymaniye Mosque’s design and structure. The reason for this investigation is to identify features, which have been acquired from other cultures, and also the way in which Architect Sinan developed an architectural style that was also influenced through the use of other landmark buildings around him such as the Hagia Sophia. Having said this, it is important to identify his engineering expertise, which will be discussed further in the second chapter of the thesis. It will be useful to also have a look at the influence that Architect Sinan acquired during his lifetime through other architectures and whether he has reflected these onto the making of the Süleymaniye Mosque. The initial section of the thesis will be centered on familiarizing the reader with the history of Mosques respectively and how they have transformed over time up until the Ottoman Empire, as well as during the age of Sinan; where his style and works will be discussed. This will give the reader an understanding of how the stylistic and structural characteristics of traditional forms have developed over time and evolved into Ottoman Mosques and consequently the Suleymaniye. Which brings us onto the second chapter of the thesis. As mentioned, the second section will largely cover the Süleymaniye Mosque’s history, function and structure. It is important to note that the Süleymaniye Mosque has been through restoration many times due to earthquakes (which are a common occurrence in Istanbul) and wars, and how this has changed certain aspects of the building. The author will also look into whether or not the mosque has adapted to the changing times and social needs which the passing of time has brought with itself. Further, as seen from the table of contents, the functionality of the mosque will also be explored. As part of a larger complex, also known as the ‘Suleymaniye complex’, the Suleymaniye is a small but important part of this complex which also bears with it different functionalities. These will be described, as it will also give more of an insight into the possible changing nature of the Süleymaniye Mosque through the acquisition of different functionalities within the complex itself. The structure is a major feature within the mosque, as it was influenced over time by many cultures and architectures such as the Hagia Sophia again, and Palladio, as well as influencing other architecture such as Michel angelo’s dome found above the roof of St Peter’s, Rome. The third chapter will initially look into the influence of other cultures such as the Islamic influence, the influence of the Byzantine Empire as well as the Barque-Style. However, as Turkey is wholly an Islamic country, and has been an Islamic country for many years pre-dating the Ottoman era, it is clear that the main influence will be the Islamic culture. However, it is important to also look into other cultural influences especially since people from other cultures also populate Turkey. Istanbul itself has been a city which seen the presence of people from different countries and or cultures brought by war etc. The issue of diverse cultural influences will arise within this study when we talk about the structure of the Süleymaniye Mosque and its characteristics as different parts have been influenced or attained from a variety of different cultures. The Mosque has merged Islamic and Byzantine architectural elements. Within the final chapter of the thesis, the author will consider the influential effect of other architecture on the Süleymaniye Mosque. Again, culture will be prevalent in this chapter too in order to understand how architecture is of an influence. For example, Architect Sinan has combined tall, slender towers with large domed buildings reinforced by half domes in the style of the Byzantine churchHagia Sophia. Many other styles from other cultures are evident within the Mosque, for example when the Süleymaniye Mosque was destroyed by afire in 1660and was restored on the command of sultan Mehmed IV by architect Fossatı. However the restoration changed the mosque into a more baroque style architecture. Taking elements from foreign cultures and religions and combining them into something original can be recognized in the Süleymaniye Mosque. The originality of the great Ottoman mosques did not develop by removing all the foreign influences; instead it is a mixture that developed by the procedure of integration of foreign culture by the Turks of Byzantine culture. This is the symbol of the Ottoman Empire, a multiracial, multilingual, and multicultural empire. This will cast an understanding on the history of the Mosques and Ottoman Architecture that will hence lead to a conclusion of the influences on the Süleymaniye Mosque. The sources mentioned in the bibliography will be of great use in acquiring the relevant information. These can be accessed through the web. The thesis will also require looking beyond these articles and books, as a site visit is required. The Süleymaniye Mosque The Süleymaniye mosque was built in Istanbul between 1550 and 1557. It is the largest of the Ottoman building enterprises and is regarded as one of Architect Sinan’s (Mimar Sinan) most famous masterpieces, as well as one of the most important examples of Ottoman architecture. Sinan was born in the last decade of the sixteenth century. Being enrolled as a teenager into the Janissary Corps that is a school for apprentices, he advanced his, carpentry, aarchitectural and engineering skill. Sinan served in various military roles during the reign of Suleyman the Magnificent, where he gradually developed approval for his engineering skills and achievements. During the Moldavian campaign was when Sinan was chosen to be the chief architect by the Prime Minister, Lutfi Pasha. Sinan was the chief architect for almost fifty years and was responsible for the design, construction and restoration of over 400 buildings, of which the Suleymaniye being one of the most important. During his time as chief architect, he contributed to the
formation of an architecture that
is now recognized as ‘Ottoman Architecture’. His most innovative blends and
interpretations of forms were reserved
for the mosques he built for Sultans. [1] Due to the experiences he gained through the practical aspects of his architectural life as well as his travels, he developed a reputation of an innovative designer of mosques and domed structures, which he then applied to the Süleymaniye Mosque. Out of all of Sinan’s works, the Süleymaniye Mosque aimed to exceed any other imperial mosque in beauty and size, which in most people’s opinions was a success. In the late 1540’s, the Sultan Suleyman the Magnificent ordered Sinan to build a mosque within a kulliye (complex of buildings adjacent to a mosque). Just like most imperial mosques, the Süleymaniye Mosque is more than just a place of worship. The complex consisted of various social, religious and educational functions such as schools, a hospital, a caravanserai, Turkish baths, and more.[2] The mosque is located on the Old Palace, on a hill overlooking the Golden Horn. The mosque is symbolic in the city of Istanbul, as it sits on the highest hill, thus implies the power and strength of the Turkish Ottoman Empire. The complex was planned as a great centre of learning comprising of madrasas (a School for Islamic instruction) for studies in theology and holy law and medicine. Wide walkways surround the complex, where the outer sides consist of two rows of madrasas on the longer sides and social service buildings along the third side. Over time their has been additions of further buildings into the complex such as the hadith college, which have resulted in a lack of symmetry within the complex by attempting to adapt the buildings into older street networks. The mosque is located at the centre of the complex positioned towards the qiblah (direction of the Mecca, south-east). Around the mosque is a spacious courtyard measuring 44 by 58 meters, which has a fountain in the middle and a minaret in each corner, with a colonnaded peristyle with columns of marble, granite and porphyry.[3] The courtyard surrounded by an arched colonnade is a standard feature of Ottoman imperial mosques. Some of the marble and granite columns used for the Suleymaniye were collected from an old Byzantine Hippodrome, and from other locations in the city. In addition many materials where also collected from Roman and Byzantine buildings in Greece, Egypt, and other parts of the Ottoman Empire. This shows the diversity of cultures involved in the aesthetical and structural features within the mosques design. The courtyard is enclosed on three sides by stonewalls, through the windows of which the sanctuary and funerary garden may be viewed. The fourth side has no wall built, allowing a panoramic view of the city and Golden horn. The minarets of the Suleymaniye have a total of 10 balconies; this was due to Suleyman the Magnificent being the 10th Ottoman sultan. Two taller minarets both frame the forecourt and mark the entrance to the interior space of worship where the sidewalls of the forecourt meet the mosque.[4] The mosque has many structural characteristics that resemble the Hagia Sophia. Sinan knew the Hagia Sophia well as he contributed to its preservation. For almost 500 yearsByzantine architecturesuch as the church of Hagia Sophia functioned as models for many of the Ottoman mosques including the Süleymaniye. [5] Although both were constructed in very different times, one representing the Christian-Byzantine Empire and the other representing the capability of the architect Sinan and the Islamic-Ottoman Empire, they have similarities as the Hagia Sophia influenced the Suleymaniye. Similar to the Hagia Sophia four giant piers hold up the main domes over a square plan. However the reinforcement system is much more complex ‘two half-domes stand on the axis of qiblah and hugearched walls filled with windows stand on the cross-axis’. The multiple domes and the arches supporting them also help to strengthen and distribute the weight of the massive central dome.[6] As well as the columns being an essential part of the complex dome and support system of the mosque, it also had significant symbolic value religiously, symbolically and also architecturally. Although this supports the idea of influence of Hagia Sophia on the mosque, it also shows that the Süleymaniye Mosque remains a unique piece of architecture due to its complexity, from the clashing aspects Sinan applied to the mosque. Taking elements from foreign cultures and religions and combining them into something original can be recognized in the Süleymaniye Mosque just by examining at the structural qualities and materials. The originality of the great Ottoman mosques did not appear by removing all the foreign influences, nor can it merely be reduced to the Byzantine style. It is a mixture that developed by the procedure of integration of foreign culture by the Turks of Byzantine culture. This is what Ottoman Empire is, a multiracial, multilingual, and multicultural empire, which is what will be explored further throughout this study. Bibliography: 1. Cansever, Turget. “The Architecture of Mimar Sinan.” Architectural Design. V. 74. n. 6. Nov/Dec 2004. pg 64-70. 2. Celebi, Sai Mustafa. Book of Buildings: Memoirs of Sinan the Architect. Kocbank: Istanbul, 2002. pg. 68. 3. Freely, John and Augusto Romano Burelli. Sinan: Architect of Suleyman the Magnificent and the Ottoman Golden Age. ThamesHistorical Influences on Architecture of Süleymaniye Mosque

Health Care Policy

Health Care Policy.

Discussion: Health Care PolicyIn this week’s media presentation, Dr. Trautman, Dr. Wakefield, and Ms. Coyle discuss how public policies initiated at the national or state level ultimately influence what occurs at the institutional and local level of nursing practice and health care delivery. Health care policy usually is developed to address health care cost, quality, or access, or a combination of the three. Due to the nature of their interaction with patients, nurses are well situated to be effective, knowledgeable advocates for their patients.In this week’s Discussion, you will examine how current policies impact how you as a nurse provide health care. You will then select an issue of interest and determine how you could advocate for policy in that area.To prepare:Select one public policy that currently is impacting you and your practice. Consider the following:What health care driver was the policy designed to address: cost, quality, access, or a combination?Does the policy appear to be achieving its intended results? On what data are you basing your assumption?What have been the effects (adverse or positive) of this policy on health care cost, quality, and access?How is this policy affecting your nursing practice?Next, select a health care issue—something you see or experience on a daily basis—about which you would like to influence a practice change through the policy process.Review the Learning Resources, focusing on Kingdon’s Model. How would you utilize this model to guide your policy development?
Health Care Policy

ENG: OUTLINE “miss evers boys”

best essay writers ENG: OUTLINE “miss evers boys”.

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OUTLINE ONLY NEEDED FOR “MISS EVERS BOYS” USE ATTACHED FILE FOR ASSIGNMENT DETAILS. here is some other material that may assist:Center your argument on the idea that the doctors in the Tuskegee experiment deal with their patients in a paternalistic way–that means they act as though they know everything and the patients know nothing (they also don’t want patients to ask questions about their illness or treatment). On top of this paternalism comes the problem of race: Dr. Douglas, the only white character in the play, is in charge from the beginning. He talks Dr. Brodus and Nurse Evers into going along with the experiment although both are very uncomfortable (look around p. 40 for the conversation about studying the effects of untreated syphilis). So, the combination of paternalism and racial prejudice leads to the violation of biomedical ethics: the doctors deny patients autonomy over their bodies, and they violate the principles of non-maleficence (which means to do no harm). I would structure the essay as follows:Section on the paternalistic attitudes of Douglas and, to a lesser extent, BrodusSection on the racial dimension of that paternalism: Douglas looks at his Black patients as nothing more than objects to study, not human beings. Even Brodus (although he’s Black) adopts that outlook, although by the end of the play, he voices his objections more loudly. Section on what the result of racist paternalism: discuss what doctors do to patients exactly (not treating them but essentially watching them die). There are plenty of places in the play you can work with. And focus on the way in which the experiment takes away bodily autonomy. You can devote one paragraph to each of the men who are in the study. Only Caleb manages to regain power over his own body when he walks away from the experiment. Devote a paragraph or two to the point that the Tuskegee experiment is at the heart of African Americans’ distrust of the healthcare system. There are several short and useful newspaper articles on our website. Go to “Content” and then to “Secondary Material.”
ENG: OUTLINE “miss evers boys”

Immanuel Kant’s Idea of Knowledge

Immanuel Kant is responsible for introducing the term “transcendental” to the philosophical discussion. By doing this it was his goal to reject everything that Hume had to say. His argument proved that subjects like mathematics and philosophy truly existed. One of his main arguments was the idea that gaining knowledge was possible. Without this idea of knowledge there would be no reason for a discussion. Since we know that knowledge is possible we must ask how it got this way. According to Kant, one of the conditions of knowledge is the Transcendental Aesthetic, which is the mind placing sense experience into a space and time sequence. From this we understand that the transcendental argument is an abundance of substances situated in space and time, with a relationship to one another. We cannot gain this knowledge from sense-experience (Hume) or from rational deduction alone (Leibniz), but showing how knowledge exist and how it is possible. Kant makes the claim in the Transcendental Aesthetics that space and time are ‘pure a priori intuitions.’ To fully understand what this means we must define what an intuition is. According to Kant an intuition is raw data of sensory experience. So basically intuitions are produced in the mind. Kant is saying that space and time are things that are produced in the mind and given before experience. Space is a necessary a priori representation, which underlies all outer intuitions. It does not represent something in itself or any other relationship. Space is only a form of appearance represented outside of the mind. Time, on the other hand, is a necessary representation that underlies all intuitions and therefore is a priori. Since time is only one dimensional there is no way that we could access it quickly. We know that space and time are both a priori because of all of our experiences. Kant also claims that space and time are ‘empirically real but transcendentally ideal’. When Kant says that space is ‘empirically’ real he is not presupposing external objects. There is no way for space to be an empirical concept. We cannot just come up with the idea of space; a representation of space must be presupposed. When we experiences things outside ourselves it is only possible through representation. For space and time to be ‘transcendentally’ ideal Kant is basically saying that “they are not to be identified with anything beyond – or anything that transcends – the bounds of possible experience or the a priori subjective conditions that make such experience possible in the first place.” Before Kant begins to explain the transcendental aesthetic he claims in the introduction that mathematical knowledge is synthetic a priori. This statement is based on Kant’s Copernican Revelation. According to Kant, time and space taken together are the pure forms of all sensible intuitions. This is our way of creating a priori synthetic propositions. These propositions are limited in how they appear to us but not present within themselves. We have a priori knowledge of synthetic judgements. According to Kant our judgements/statements can either be analytic or synthetic. An analytic judgement would be where the concept of the predicate is part of the concept of the subject. If it is denied then there would be a contradiction. A synthetic judgement, on the other hand, is where the concept of the predicate is not contained in the concept of the subject. So, if we denied it then there would be no contradiction involved. An analytical judgement would be “all bachelors are unmarried”. The concept of bachelor is defined as being unmarried. In analyzing this word we would say that it is an unmarried male adult. When we analyze concepts the parts come out. Therefore, when broken down our predicate concept of “unmarried” is shown. The mind is capable of finding this concept without going outside and experiencing it. If we tried to deny this statement there would have to be a contradiction, therefore making it false. An example of a synthetic judgement would be “the sun will rise tomorrow”. When we say this it is our way of taking two separate and distinct ideas and putting them together. There could be no contradiction in this statement because we can image that something like this could occur. In Section I of the Transcendental Aesthetic, Kant gives four arguments for the conclusion that space is empirically real but transcendentally ideal. As we know space is not an empirical concept. We cannot physically derive the idea of space. The only way that we can receive these outer experiences is through our representation. When it comes to space we cannot represent the absence of space but we can imagine space as being empty. In order to be given any content in our experience we must presuppose space. Knowing that space is not a general concept we can only discuss one space at a time and if we speak of diverse spaces we only mean parts of the same space. The parts cannot decipher the bigger space but only what is contained in it. Since space is seen as only one, the concept of spaces depends on a limit. Concepts containing an unlimited amount of representations cannot be contained within itself. All parts of space are given to us at once. Therefore it is an a priori intuition not a concept. All of the previous information is Kant’s way of showing that the synthetic a priori knowledge of mathematics is possible. As we know mathematics is a product of reason but is still synthetic. But how can this knowledge be a priori? The concepts of math are seen a priori in pure intuitions. This just means that the intuition is not empirical. If you do not have intuitions then mathematics would not even be a concept. Philosophy, on the other hand, progresses only through concepts. Philosophy uses intuitions to show necessary truths but those truths cannot be a consequence of intuitions. The possibility of math only occurs because it is based on pure intuitions which only occur when concepts are constructed. Like pure intuition, empirical intuition, allows us to broaden our concept of an object by providing us with new predicates. With pure intuitions we get necessary a priori truths. Synthetic a priori knowledge in mathematics is possible only if it refers to objects of the senses. The form of appearances comes from time and space which is assumed by pure intuitions. Doubting that space and time do not belong to the object in themselves would cause us to not have an explanation about a priori intuitions of objects. We have to come to the conclusion that in space and time objects are only appearances entailing that it is the form of appearances that we can represent a priori. Concluding that a synthetic a priori knowledge of mathematics would be possible. What is the Transcendental Deduction? This is the way concepts can relate a priori to objects. Kant says, “If each representation were completely foreign to every other, standing apart in isolation, no such thing as knowledge would ever arise. For knowledge is [essentially] a whole in which representations stand compared and connected.” Kant lays out a threefold synthesis about experience: a synthesis of apprehension in intuition, a synthesis of reproduction in imagination, and a synthesis of recognition in a concept. We should not divide these steps into one but they should all be intertwined as one. So what we see must occur consecutively. Therefore our idea of the Synthetic Unity of Apperception comes into play. This is where every possible content of experience must be accompanied by “I think”. Everything in your mental state should be able to be accompanied by “I think” if not then it will not matter at all. “I think” is not something that consists in sensibility. It is an act of spontaneity. It precedes all possible experience. The unity of this particular manifold is not given in experience but prior to it. Thinking substances can only perceive what is going on inside as perception goes on at all times. This is where our awareness of a manifold comes into play. We are aware of one thing after another. Each impression is different from one other. We must say that these impressions are mine. Basically accompanying them with the phrase “I think”. As for the Transcendental Unity of Apperception we are never aware of ourselves as the thinker but just the intuitions. All of our experiences must be subjective to this combination of things. I must actively pull them all together as them being a part of my experience. The only way that I can be aware of this “I” is if I am able to pull together all of these representations. In this we can see the idea of objective unification. There is a connection between transcendental unity of apperception and objective unification. When we speak of objective unification we believe that there is a right way to put things together. This concept basically comes from our categorical synthesis which involves a priori concepts. With the categorical synthesis it is our way of putting together intuitions in a category. We must be able to make a judgement. For example we must be able to say this is how things seem to me because of pass experiences. By saying this it would be a near judgement. Whereas a judgement would be us just saying this is how things are. To make a judgement is to say this is how things are out there; how they objectively are rather than how they appear subjectively. For a manifold to be complete the sensible intuitions have to be subject to the category. This is how we can have a categorical synthesis. We cannot have sense impression unless I can bring them together under a unified manifold by knowing they are objective rather than subjective. Any intuition that we have must be subject to the category. We could not have an awareness of one event coming before the other unless there is a manifold of “my”. Appearances are not objects in themselves. They are not just representations; they are separate intuitions therefore having no connection between them. Imagination is what connects the manifold of sensible intuitions. Nature is just appearance. Anything that appears to us must conform to law. We have to complete this synthesis in order to have experiences. It is presupposed that there is an objective to all of my experiences. Without it there would be no way to put them together and I would not be aware of them as experiences. Both the threefold synthesis and a transcendental unity of apperception are necessary to have ordered experience for any sort of theory of experience. Kant defines Idealism as “the theory which declares the existence of objects in space outside us either to be merely doubtful and indemonstrable or to be false and impossible.” Since I am conscious of my own existence, objects in space must also exist. Having knowledge, the only thing that we are aware of is our representations. These representations are only achievable through an object outside of me not by the representation of that object. Therefore I exist in time because I am capable of perceiving actual things outside of me. I am conscious of my existence in the same frame of time as I am conscious of those objects existing outside of me. When referring to idealism it is believed that our immediate experience is inner experience and from this particular experience we only receive outer objects. It is quite possible that these representations come from within. When considering the representation “I am” a subject is included. We do not know what that subject is though. So according to circumstances we do not have any experience of that subject. To fully understand the knowledge of the subject we must have intuition. But the only way to receive this inner experience is through our outer experience. To have the existence of outer objects we must be conscious of ourselves. This does not mean that our representation of them involve true existence because they could also be produced by our imagination. The representations of our outer objects come from our perceptions. According to Kant “all that we have here sought to prove is that inner experience in general is possible only through outer experience in general. Whether this is or that supposed experience be not purely imaginary, must be ascertained from its special determinations, and through it congruence with the criteria of all real experience.” According to Descartes, we really know only what is in our own consciousness. We are instantly and honestly aware of only our own states of mind. What we believe of the whole external world is merely an idea or picture in our minds. Therefore, it is possible to doubt the actuality of the external world as being composed of real objects. “I think, therefore I am” is the only idea that cannot be doubted. This is because self-consciousness and thinking are the only objects that can be experienced in the real sense. Descartes presented the main problem of philosophical idealism which was an awareness of the difference between the world as a mental picture and that of a system of external objects. Locke’s theory, on the other hand, encompasses the mind as the origin for modern conceptions of identity and “the self”. Locke was the first philosopher to define the self through a continuation of “consciousness.” He also speculated that the mind was a “blank slate” or “tabula rasa”. These two strategies are very different from the above strategies of Kant. At the beginning of early modern philosophy, in Descartes, we seem to see our familiar world slipping away. At the culmination of early modern philosophy, in Kant, however, we get our familiar world back through at a price. In the following essay I will discuss this process, beginning with Descartes, ending with Kant, and discussing two of the four philosophers we have examined this semester. In Meditation One Descartes gives three separate arguments. From these particular arguments one can conclude that we cannot claim to know with certainty anything about the world around us. Everything might seem probable but in reality that does not mean that it lacks doubt. If we can never be certain how can we know anything. This is the main reason for Descartes bring this issue up. Basically his entire argument is based on Scepticism. Scepticism is very important and is seen as an attempt for our knowledge and understanding of the world. It is really hard to doubt that someone really exists but there is no way that one could get rid of the idea of scepticism The one thing that we know is that Descartes does not just randomly doubt everything. He provides very concrete reasons for the things that he doubts. As he sets up this doubt he has to be very rational about it. If he does not then his argument is not going to work. The KK thesis that Descartes uses is to show how these arguments work. The KK thesis follows: if a knows that p, then a knows that a knows that p. basically this means that if I know that there is snow outside then I know that I know that there is snow outside. The problem with this argument is that if we are not sure about our senses then there is no way that we can be sure about the knowledge that we possess. In making this thesis work one must have a strong understanding of what “knowing” really means. But there is no way that one can actually have this understanding. One must have self-knowledge or basically one must really know himself/herself. Therefore if you do not have that notion of self then you do not possess any knowledge. As we can see the KK thesis works in favour with what Descartes is saying in all of his arguments. The only problem is that he does not believe that his argument about God is that strong. He feels that if there is an Omnipotent God then there is no way that he could ever deceive us. There is no way that he could be all knowing and make us doubt the things that we do. On the other hand there is no way that there could be no God because our senses had to be created by someone. Therefore there must have been an evil demon that has deceived us. But since he doubts everything then he is not mislead into the false believing of a demon. So, in a later meditation he proves that there is a God and that he is not a deceiver. We turn to Liebniz and we continue to see the world slipping away as he discusses the monad. In looking at the things that Liebniz said it is believed that monads (Entelechy) are not physical or mental but biological. Therefore, the ultimate cogs of the world are biological elements or Entelechies. In doing this there is no distinction made between inanimate and animate objects, which would make everything, animate. If these monads are really just biological there is no way that they can make changes in each other. The only way for this to happen is if God caused these changes to happen. The reason that monads cannot bring changes in bodies is because that is not what they were programmed to do. They were created so that compound substances could be made. The biological nature of Monads makes their essential qualities to be apperception and appetition and even motion itself. Their relation is more of a final cause than an efficient cause. This is why he considers final causes as the principle of efficient causes and gives priority to final causes. Therefore, this made it hard for a monad to bring change in a body. As we can see, God is the unifier of the monads but he also brings harmony. Leibniz came to the conclusion, by using metaphysics and the nature of monads, that God was the ultimate monad and the Creator of this world. We are now at a point where nothing is the same. We believed in one thing but now it is completely different. The first problem that Berkeley would have with this objection is the fact that ideas cannot exist if they are not perceived. If we cannot perceive of the idea then there is no way that we can truly conceive of the thing. For example if I do not have the idea of the sky being blue then there is no way that I am going to walk outside, look up, and say the sky is blue. I do not have the concept of blue in the first place. He says that we cannot say what reality is like without using language. You cannot use a word well if you do not know the meaning of that word. When we are describing an idea it is based on what we feel. There is no way that I can say what I mean if I have no conception of the word. According to Berkeley, ideas do not do anything so it cannot cause anything to happen. The mind is active; it is able to perceive of new ideas by imaging. The one thing that the mind cannot do is actually form ideas. It can perceive the ideas but cannot come up with ideas that will resemble the mind when it does this. So, therefore there is no way that we can perceive of any sensible things without knowing what the words mean in the first place. If you do not know what the words mean then you cannot come up with ideas and without the ideas you cannot perceive anything. As we continue we start to see some changes. Berkeley is bring us closer to what Kant has to say. We finally come to Kant and we get our world back through pieces. The way that we do this is through the Kantian price. The Kantian price is how we get our world back through space and time. We have to realize that we would not exist without a world of space and time. Space is not empirical; the idea of space cannot be conceived of. Space is of only one thing. It cannot be talked about in parts because parts are only contained in the overall bigger picture. All space is, is a form of all appearances of the outer sense. As for time it is a little different. Time is not something, which exist of itself. An intuition taking place within is what time is. Time cannot be removed from appearance even though it does not have to actually possess appearances. These appearances can come and go but time cannot be taken away. It is only suitable in conjunction to appearance not for objects preoccupied or taken in general. Time and space are the pure forms of all sensible intuition and so are what make a priori synthetic propositions possible. Therefore, bring back our world through a price. We get a chance to see how Kant breaks down what everyone is saying and shows us how the world is not really slipping away but it is just seen in a different way.

CBU Creating a Website on Wix for The Display of A Podcast with Different Pages

CBU Creating a Website on Wix for The Display of A Podcast with Different Pages.

I’m working on a wordpress spreadsheet and need a sample draft to help me study.

I create my own website on Wix I just need you to transfer all the work on WordPress because I don’t know how to use it this is the instruction for the assignment Please make sure to include the following: Header: LogoHeader imageMenu with the following pages: Home, About, Gallery, Podcast/Vlog, Contact Social media links – LinkedIn and one more social media outlet that is public and appropriateHome page: content is up to you About page:LinkedIn biophoto (can be headshot or other photo as long as its appropriate)Download resume button – resume must be a PDFResume: Name, email, phone number, LinkedIn Education (expected graduation date and major) Work Experience (reverse chronological order)Involvements/Community Service (if it applies) References – Available upon request Gallery page: can also be titled ‘portfolio’ or ‘work samples’1. Must include all images/videos from campaigns you worked on this semester.Vlog/ Podcast page: 1. Include the 5 episodes from your Vlog/ Podcast project. Contact page: Include a call to action and a link to your email. Note on formatting: Please make sure you update the formatting on each page to full width and remove the sharing options of “like and share”. The only page that should look like a blog (not be full width) is you Vlog/Podcast page. Additionally: Please make sure that your website link is working appropriately before submitting. this is the sample https://mariaca753312112.wordpress.com/this is my website https://salsa046.wixsite.com/my-site/gallary
CBU Creating a Website on Wix for The Display of A Podcast with Different Pages