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Country Case Study Final Report essay

This research paper is for my Global Health course, towards my degree in Public Health. The country is Nigeria

Include a cover page with name, date, chosen country, class title and number. Font size is 12 pts and text must be double spaced. Page length is 5-7 pages.

Students will be penalized 10 points for each page under or over page requirements. References, tables and figures will not be counted towards the page total.

A list of references is required. Tables and figures are not required but recommended. Include a running header or footer with your name and the page number.

Start page numbering at 1 on page after cover page.

INTRODUCTION & CONTEXT (1-1.5 pages)
Begin with a short summary of the country, including location and relevant demographic indicators from Table 1. Describe the burden of disease in this country citing supporting evidence. Then, provide the reader with background information describing the political, economic, geographic, ethnic and historical context of the country that is relevant to the public health situation.

HEALTH PRIORITY (1.5-2 pages)
Select and defend the top public health priority to analyze more in-depth. Using information from the tables, explain why that is the most important at this time. Students are expected to defend their choice by appealing to criteria such as being one of the top causes of mortality and morbidity, as a leading cause of lost disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) currently or in the future, as a primary contributor to inequity, etc.

HEALTH ANALYSIS (2-4 pages)
Investigate the domestic and international policy context in your country surrounding your chosen health priority. What is the policy context of this public health issue in the country? Who are the domestic stakeholders in this issue area? Which non-governmental or multinational organizations are active in this issue area? Do international trade or treaties impact on this issue area? Then, present analysis of the current efforts to address the issue in the country and the major challenges/ limitations of these efforts. Be sure to give specific examples.

Then, discuss future steps and present an argument for why more attention needs to be given to this issue. Lastly, write a conclusion paragraph that summarizes the content of the paper.

Impact of the Decline of US Hegemony on World Economy Governance

Subject: What will be the consequences of the decline of US hegemony for the governance of the world economy? In the discipline of international relations, the concept of “hegemony” is used to define a powerful state that has the ability to lead the international order with political-diplomatic, military, economic and cultural instruments. In history, some states and empires have obtained this status. The Ottoman Empire between the 15th and 17th centuries and the British Empire in the 19th century and the United States since the end of the second world war are the closest examples to the model of the hegemonic state. Many authors discussed on the topic of hegemony, any of them arrived at the conclusion that in an anarchic world, there is a need of a “hegemon” or a “leader” in order to provide a stable international system, especially in terms of economics. it was at the beginning of the seventies that the renewal of the theories took place. At the crossroad between political science and economics, the question of the emergence and the stability of an international economic order have been largely discussed. This will be the content of our first part, explaining how hegemonic order is associated with economic stability. Thereafter, we will talk about the critics and the alternatives to a hegemonic power with the case study of the decline of the US. The theory of hegemonic stability The purpose of this part will be to clarify the theoretical debate about hegemony, we will see that a lot of them share a number of common features. The first author to have written about hegemony (that he preferred to call “leadership”) is the American economist Charles Kindleberger[1]. Indeed, in his book “An explanation of the 1929 depression”, he argues that the monetary and financial instability during the interwar was due to the lack of hegemonic power. he claims that one of the conditions to reach a stable international economy is the presence of a global hegemonic power. Kindleberger notes that the crisis of 1929 coincides with the absence of a dominating country (between Pax Britannica during the 19th century and Pax Americana after the second world war). For him these two actors have been unable to maintain an open market, ensure the long-term capital flows, implement a stable currency and acting as a “lender of last resort” to help smaller countries during the financial crisis. Indeed, according to him, without a hegemonic power the international order will be weakened as the economic world need a set of rules and norms to maintain the liberal economic order. (British hegemony was a success as a result of free trade and tariff reduction). This emphasis the stabilizing role of the Hegemon. After Kindleberger, neorealist developed the theory and asserted that the presence of a hegemonic state in the political system can create a more stable order – especially in economics – against the anarchic nature of international relations. Even if Kindleberger is considered as the precursor of the theory, the most complete analysis was made by Robert Gilpin[2] (according to him Kindleberger was too “states centered”[3]). In his book The Political Economy of International Relations, he emits a series of hypothesis allowing to understand the functioning of the hegemony in the international system. In this sense, the theory of hegemonic stability can be summarized by saying that a single actor more powerful and dominant than the others is collectively desirable for all the states of the international system. This actor, by promoting free trade and producing an international public good for this purpose, takes responsibility for the stabilization of the international system. These assumptions therefore make the state the central actor of the international system, considered to be rational and able to measure the scope of its actions. For a State to be a hegemonic it needs to provide a safe and liberal economic international order. First of all, he needs to provide basic public goods at the international economic level. Gilpin cites in particular free trade and a stable international monetary system as two particularly valuable public goods internationally. He considers that the leader, while being benevolent, is also the only one to have the power necessary to assume the costs of supplying such goods, to mobilize its partners and to impose on them the respect of the rules. More technically, the International Political Economy theorized this role of hegemon as the power that can create and maintain “international regimes”. However, the state faces the recurrent problem of public goods: free riders. “cheaters benefit from the collective goods but refuse to pay their “faire” share towards providing it” (Frey, 1984b, ch7)[4]. Indeed, states usually seeks to ensure their own self-interest, however in the long-term cooperation is way more beneficial for them. The interests of weaker or dependent States are thus better protected in a centralized international system than in a decentralized international system. Keohane distinguishes several material sources of power that allow a state to be hegemonic. The first concerns the control and production of basic materials, including energy production. He also devotes a large part of his work. Then, the hegemon must have control over the sources of financing, thus on the movements of global capital. Thirdly, it must be large enough to be a large import market and thus to control the global supply and demand of goods. Finally, it must have competitive advantages in the markets of products with high added value. Theory of international regimes The Hegemonic theory received many critics and some alternatives, one of the most significant and accurate is Keohane’s, with his “regime theory”, he defines a regime as “those arrangements for issue areas that embody implicit rules and norms insofar as they actually guide behavior of important actors in a particular issue area (Keohane 1980: 133). This theory is very important as it is based on state cooperation which is an essential characteristic in order for the global governance to be stable. This cooperation is not only the result of the leadership of a hegemon, as the neorealist claim, but of the convergence of state interests that encourages them to create international regimes. According to Stephen KRASNER[5], an international regime is “a set of implicit or explicit principles, norms, rules, and decision-making procedures” that states adopt on a voluntary basis to manage their relationships and resolve their conflicts in a particular area of ​​activity. Robert KEOHANE defines the schemes as institutions of cooperation in specific areas, such as “trade, the environment, disarmament or human rights”. Regimes signify” agreements of principles, norms, conventions, decision-making procedures” governing the interactions of international actors in specific areas. They set the rules of the game and thus provide a framework for the foreign policy of states, making their behavior predictable on the international scene. Indeed, Keohane[6] gives a central function to institutions (organizations, international regimes) to ensure coordination. This conception is based on a theory of rational choice in international relations. Multilateralism allows states to share resources, reduce transaction costs and gather the expertise needed to deal with the complex new areas of international interdependence. If the collective preferences of the different countries diverge, the strengthening of institutions and the development of new frameworks of dialogue are there to overcome these differences. Delegation of power to independent authorities or multilateral institutions generates collective benefits. Agencies, such as the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund, or institutions, such as the WTO, are able to correct market failures, reduce asymmetric information, and guarantee the production of public goods (Keohane 1984, Krasner 1983). Decline of the United States One of the other major proposition concerning hegemony in the international system is of a dynamic nature: it is that of the existence of hegemonic cycles. Indeed, since the theory of hegemonic stability shows that the hegemon unintentionally causes its own decline on the one hand, and that the stability of the system depends on the existence of hegemony on the other hand, we can see that In history there is a succession of phases of stability interspersed with phases of instability. This succession then forms a positively binding cycle of hegemonic power and stability of the international system: this is the hypothesis of the hegemonic cycle. Many authors have sought to dismantle the existence of hegemonic cycles. To name only the most famous, we can give the example of the work of Paul Kennedy, or that of Mancour Olson. They rely on statistical evidence that the relative weight of the United States in the global economy tends to decline over time. For example, the 1973 oil shock is often interpreted as calling into question the post-war oil order and as a sign of the obvious decline of the United States in this sector. They also rely on the fact that more and more international problems require answers at this level, and that therefore cooperation becomes more and more important in the stabilization of the system. This vision is confirmed for example in the monetary field with the introduction of the G7 in the seventies, and its management of monetary instability in the eighties. In fact, Keohane, like Gilpin, are preoccupied by the present decline of the American empire which raises the possibility of the dislocation of international relations and war. According to Keohane, this can be avoided because, given the long-term national interest of the states and the relative autonomy of international institutions, the interstate co-operation created under American auspices can continue. By this prism, the American military and economic power appears, since the end of the Second World War, at the base of a model of global governance, for example through the control of a set of institutions (a, such as the United Nations (UN), the International Monetary Fund (IMF) or more recently the World Trade Organization (WTO), a semblance of universality and certain standards (certain norms) worldwide, by the so-called “Washington consensus”. However, after the cold war the American Power started to decline, indeed two key events have questioned the US hegemony: the 9/11 terrorist attack and the 2008 crisis. Therefore, if we listen to the theory of Gilpin, the international order is about to collapse due to the lack of hegemon. However, just like the regime theory, Adam Posen, in his text The post American Hegemony, Globalization in the Trump era, meets Keohane saying that institutions that he called “club” will lead the global governance when the United States won’t be able to. According to Krasner, there is some relative autonomy between the evolution of the distribution of power within the system and the international institutions or regimes responsible for maintaining hegemonic stability and order. Indeed, he thinks that “the change in the international configuration is developing underground pressure but [that] the institutions are maintaining their inertia”[7]. In other words, there would be two stages in the hypothesis of the hegemonic cycle: that of the change and distribution of power within the system, and that of the international Adam Posen, in his text The post American Hegemony, Globalization in the Trump era, gives an insight of the world with the president Donald Trump that is very attached to his slogan “America First”.” The Trump administration has begun attacking international institutions from NATO to the UN. By blocking the appointment of new trade-dispute judges to sit on the WTO’s seven-member appellate body, the administration is preventing the WTO from functioning normally”. Some authors are optimistic in the future, however Posen wrote: “A world in which the United States ceases to lead—or, worse still, attacks—the system it built will be poorer, nastier, less fair, and more dangerous for everyone.” At the end of this study of hegemony in the international political economy, several elements emerge from the analyzes. At the end of this study of hegemony in the international political economy, several elements emerge from the analyzes. The first one is the acknowledgement that a hegemonic power is (if not necessary) recommended in order to live in a stable economic world. However, institutions that have been created by the United States have a big influence on the world economy and global governance. Therefore, if the hegemonic power that is the United States disappeared the international organizations, with the help of the new emerging countries such as China, take over the duty of “leader”. References KINDLEBERGER C.P.[1973], The World in Depression, 1929-1939, Londres, Allen Lane : rééd, Londres, Penguin, 1987. AZUELOS M.[1999], Pax Americana: de l’hégémonie au leadership économique, Paris, Cervepes, Presse de la Sorbonne Nouvelle. COX R.W.[1995], “ Critical political economy ”, in HETTNE B.(éd), International Political Economy- Understanding Global Disorder, Firmwood Publishing, Sapes, University Press, Zed Books. GILPIN R.[1975], U.S. Power and the Multinational Corporation : the Political Economy of Foreign Direct Investment, New York, Basic Books. GILPIN R.[1987], The Political Economy of International Relations, Princeton, Princeton University Press. GILPIN R.[2001], Global political economy : understanding the international order, Princeton, Princeton University Press. KEOHANE R.O.[1980], “ The Theory of Hegemonic Stability and Changes in International Economic Regimes, 1967-1977”, in HOLSTI O.R., SIVERSON R., GEORGE A.(éd), Changes in International System, Boulder, Boulder Westviewpress. KEOHANE R.O.[1984], After Hegemony : Cooperation and Discord in the World Political Economy, Princeton, Princeton University Press. KRASNER S.[1983], International Regimes, Ithaca, Cornell University Press. [1] Kindleberger (1988) [2] Gilpin (1981) et Gilpin (1987) [3] Gilpin (1981) et Gilpin (1987) [4] Frey (1984) [5] KRASNER International Regimes [6] KeohaneThe Theory of Hegemonic Stability and Changes in International Economic Regimes, 1967-1977”, [7] Kébabdjian (1999, page 189).

CA 105 Park University Physician Assisted Suicide Persuasive Speech & Presentation

write my term paper CA 105 Park University Physician Assisted Suicide Persuasive Speech & Presentation.

Purpose: The purpose of the persuasive speech is to persuade your audience about a topic of your choice using the public speaking format we are learning about (introduction, body, conclusion with transitions and supporting information). You will speak to your immediate audience of at least six (6) adults physically present but keep in mind that your intended audience is your class of peers (the immediate audience you have with you can be consider “stand-ins” for your classmates).Assignment: Prepare a five to seven (5-7) minute persuasive speech in which you prepare a speech with the overall goal of persuading our audience of a topic of your choice. You will provide the instructor your topic for this speech in a discussion for approval.You may use Monroe’s Motivated Sequence organizational pattern from chapter 13 for this assignment.You will use at least five (5) pieces of evidence from chapter 12 (statistics, testimony, examples) of which two may be the same (for example: you could use two stats, two testimonies, and one example).You must use at least five (5) outside sources (three of which may be from the Internet; sources from Wikipedia may not be used). At least two sources must be physical sources such as books, magazines, newspapers, etc.A visual aid is required for your persuasive speech. The object(s) you choose must be large enough for your immediate audience to see and for the instructor to see on the speech video. You may use a Power Point slide on a large screen, enlarged photos, etc. However, if the object is not large enough to be seen in detail on the video the instructor will not be able to provide feedback or points (due to the lack of ability to view the visual aid object).Your speech will include the following: Introduction (Attention)Attention getter statement (consider a quote, short story, fun fact, etc.)Central IdeaCredibility StatementPreview of Main PointsBody3 Main Points (Need, Satisfaction, Visualization)Transitions (between all sections of your speech)You can choose your own transition or consider using: “Now that I have told you about _________, I’m going to tell you about _________.”Conclusion (Action)Review of Main PointsClincher Statement (consider a quote, an idea you want your audience to remember, etc.)Use paper note cards for your speaking notes – do not read your speech word for word like a script (those reading from a script will be deducted points). 8. Use eye contact with your audience and vocal variety to enhance your speech. 9. Minimize distractions (vocal distractions, such as “um” and physical distractions such as swaying)You MUST have an audience of at least six (6) adults for all speeches (including this one) for this course. This is a university requirement. To earn credit for any speech you must either show your audience before and after your speech OR prop your video recording device in such a way that I can see the audience AND you clearly throughout the entire speech.HELPFUL TIP for Video Submissions: Consider zipping or condensing your video file before submitting. Give yourself enough time before the module ends (11:59:59 p.m. CT on Sunday) to submit/ upload your speech video. Another option: create a public youtube.com channel and upload your speech video there, then submit on a word document the link to your public youtube.com video for me to view. Creating a youtube.com channel and uploading it to the web is NOT a requirement, just an option. (Note: This information is also provided on the speech assignment information).Submission Details:Submit two items: 1) Speech; 2) OutlineMake sure to submit an unedited speech video or link to your video and your speech outline that you use to prepare for your speech (the outline will be the most up to date outline you use after editing it from initial instructor feedback and peer feedback in this module).**LATE SUBMISSIONS NOT ACCEPTED**RubricPersuasive Speech RubricPersuasive Speech RubricCriteriaRatingsPtsThis criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeIntroduction25.0 ptsExcellentAn excellent introduction outline contains all of the following well-developed elements: 1. Attention getter 2. Thesis Statement/ Central Idea 3. Established credibility 4. Previewed main points20.0 ptsAcceptableAn acceptable introduction outline contains all necessary elements but they may all not be well developed: 1. Attention getter 2. Thesis Statement/ Central Idea 3. Established credibility 4. Previewed main points0.0 ptsUnacceptableAn unacceptable introduction outline does not contain all necessary elements: 1. Attention getter 2. Thesis Statement/ Central Idea 3. Established credibility 4. Previewed main points25.0 ptsThis criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeBody60.0 ptsExcellentAn excellent body outline contains all of the following well-developed elements: 1. Speech appears well organized and appropriate for topic. 2. Ideas were understandable. 3. Speech included 2 sources. 4. Speech included 3 types of evidence. 5. Speech included visual aid. 6 Main points were well supported. 7. Language was clear, concise, and appropriate. 8. Transitions were used.45.0 ptsAcceptableAn acceptable outline body outline contains all of the following elements but they may all not be well developed: 1. Speech appears well organized and appropriate for topic. 2. Ideas were understandable. 3. Speech included 2 sources. 4. Speech included 3 types of evidence. 5. Speech included visual aid. 6 Main points were well supported. 7. Language was clear, concise, and appropriate. 8. Transitions were used.0.0 ptsUnacceptableAn unacceptable body outline does not contain all necessary elements: 1. Speech appears well organized and appropriate for topic. 2. Ideas were understandable. 3. Speech included 2 sources. 4. Speech included 3 types of evidence. 5. Speech included visual aid. 6 Main points were well supported. 7. Language was clear, concise, and appropriate. 8. Transitions were used.60.0 ptsThis criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeConclusion25.0 ptsExcellentAn excellent conclusion outline contains all of the following well-developed elements: 1. Reviewed main points. 2. Clincher/closure.20.0 ptsAcceptableAn acceptable outline conclusion outline contains all of the following elements but they may all not be well developed: 1. Reviewed main points. 2. Clincher/closure.0.0 ptsUnacceptableAn unacceptable conclusion outline does not contain all necessary elements: 1. Reviewed main points. 2. Clincher/closure.25.0 ptsThis criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeDelivery40.0 ptsExcellentExcellent delivery includes all of the following: 1. Maintained eye contact. 2. Speaker used effective vocal delivery . 3. Speaker used effective physical delivery. 4. Speech was completed within time limit. 5. Five pieces of evidence were implemented correctly. 6. Five sources were used, cited correctly, and no more than two sources were from the Internet.25.0 ptsAcceptableAcceptable delivery does not include all necessary requirements: 1. Maintained eye contact. 2. Speaker used effective vocal delivery . 3. Speaker used effective physical delivery. 4. Speech was completed within time limit. 5. Less than five pieces of evidence were implemented. 6. Less than five sources were used and/or more than two sources were from the Internet.0.0 ptsUnacceptableUnacceptable delivery does not all necessary requirements: 1. Maintained eye contact. 2. Speaker used effective vocal delivery . 3. Speaker used effective physical delivery. 4. Speech was completed within time limit. 5. Zero pieces of evidence were implemented. 6. No sources were used or cited in the speech.40.0 ptsTotal Points: 150.0Speech OutlineIntroductionPhysician-assisted suicide (PAS) is among the contemporary and sensitive issues in society todayFor this reason, people have different views towards itAttention Getter: Do you know that 27% of the patients think that PAS is beneficial and should be legalized?Central Idea (thesis statement): The speech analyzes why people are against PAS in society.Credibility Statement: Having studied PAS’s ethics in the past, I believe I have the knowledge required to tackle this topicPreview of Main Ideas:Assisted care involves secrets and deceptionsIt is against the doctor’s code of ethics and consequence-based reasonsHuman life is sacred.Transition: “Now that I have told you about the introduction of PAS, I’m going to tell you about the first main point which is the drawback of PAS.”Main Point 1: Assisted care involves secrets and deceptionsSub PointIn most cases, the doctor and patient carry out this act in secretsSub-subpoint for AThey do not involve the family members, or when they do, they are convinced to take part in these unethical actsSub-subpoint for AIn other cases, the doctor may not mention all the consequences that come with this decisionSub PointThis is an illegal act, and that is why it is carried out in secretsSub-subpoint for BIf PAS were legal and permissible, the involved parties would involve the attorneys or other essential individuals from the criminal justice systemSub-subpoint for BThis is a critical issue, and thus, the involvement of the law ensures that the patient has no other option but to go for the procedureTransition: “Now that I have told you about the deception and secrets in PAS, I’m going to tell you about the consequences and ethics surrounding PAS.”III. Main Point 2:PAS undermines the doctor’s code of ethics and goals, resulting in some consequences (Lagay, 2003).Sub PointThis act undermines the code of ethics and doctors goalSub-subpoint for AThe code of ethics requires doctors to act ethically and follow these codes whenever they face an ethical dilemma (Frost, Sinha, & Gilbert, 2014).Sub-subpoint for APAS undermine the goal of the doctor which is to save livesSub PointMany consequences follow after the patient decide to go for PASSub-subpoint for BThe consequence that accompanies PAS is that the doctor may face a lawsuitSub-subpoint for BThe family may live to regret and suffer because of the decision made by the patient.Transition: “Now that I have told you about code of ethics and consequences, I’m going to tell you about the sacred nature of human life.”Main Point 3:Human life is sacred, and no one should take it away (Lagay, 2003).Sub PointGod is the giver of life, and he alone should take itSub-subpoint for AMost of the religions are against this act as they believe that human life is sacredSub-subpoint for AFor instance, the Bible Strongly condemn the actSub PointThe law and society are against the act of PAS because a human life must be treated with dignitySub-subpoint for BThe law prosecutes those who kill, and doctors who take part in this act are not immune from the lawSub-subpoint for BSociety believes that those who take away life for whatever the reason are wickedTransition: “Now that I have told you about sacred nature of human life, I’m going to tell you about the conclusion of the speech.”ConclusionPAS is a critical issue which requires comprehensive researchReview of Main Points:Because PAS undermines the code of ethics and human life, it is perceived as detrimental. It also comes with some consequences, and some deceptions and secrets are involvedClincher Statement: Thus, PAS must not be tolerated in healthcare settings to protect the patients and doctors
CA 105 Park University Physician Assisted Suicide Persuasive Speech & Presentation

Instructions Unit IV focuses on the development of policymaking models. Using the domestic policy examples of health care and education, examine the framework of a policy process at the national level

Using the domestic policy examples of health care and education, examine the framework of a policy process at the national level. Provide at least two references for your paper, ensuring that your textbook is one of the references used for this analysis. Select a policy initiative that references the healthcare or education field at the national level. Identify, describe, and provide a rationale for the chosen policy. Provide relevancy and its effect on the chosen industry. Describe any deviation from the current policy that would improve its effectiveness. Distinguish how the national policy objectives affect local behavior and political viewpoints. If your recommended changes are implemented, would there be ways to measure policy improvements? Examine what level of oversight national government should provide to the chosen policy. Your essay must be at least three pages in length, not including the title and reference pages. Be sure your paper is double-spaced and uses one-inch margins. Use your own words, and include citations and references as needed to avoid plagiarism. All sources used must be referenced; paraphrased and quoted material must have accompanying citations and be cited per APA guidelines. For additional guidance on APA style, refer to the APA Paper Examples in the Learning Resources found in the Resources tab of the Student Portal.

Defining And Understanding Holography Physics Essay

Holography, method of obtaining three-dimensional photographic images. These images are obtained without a lens, so the method is also called lensless photography. The records are called holograms (Greek holos, “whole”; gram, “message”). The theoretical principles of holography were developed by the British physicist Dennis Gabor in 1947. The first actual production of holograms took place in the early 1960s, when the laser became available. By the late 1980s the production of true-color holograms was possible, as well as holograms ranging from the microwave to the X-ray region of the spectrum. Ultrasonic holograms were also being made, using sound waves. Holography is one of the remarkable achievements of a modern science and technology. Holograms have unique property to restore the high-grade volumetric image of real subjects. The word “holography” originated from the Greek words holos – whole and grapho – write, that means complete record of the image. Holography represents photographic process in a broad sense of this word, essentially differs from a usual photo because there is a registration not only intensity in a photosensitive material, but also phase of light waves, scattered by the object and carried the complete information about three-dimensional structure of the object. As the medium of mapping of the reality, hologram has unique property: unlike usual photo, the holographic image can reproduce exactly three-dimensional copy of the original object. Such image with set of views, varied with change of supervision, has amazing realness and often looks like the real object. Unlike photography or painting, holography can render an object with complete dimensional fidelity. A hologram can create everything your eyes see – size, shape, texture and relative position. However, if you try to touch a holographic image, all you’ll find is focused light. History of holography Holography is known from 1947 when British (native of Hungary) scientist Dennis Gabor produced the theory of holography while he was trying to improve the resolution of electron microscope .Gabor coined the term which we know today i.e. holography by the greek word holos, which means “whole” while gramma means “message”. Further development in the field was during the next period because light sources available at that time was not truly “coherent” . This problem was overcome in 1960 by Russian scientists N. Bassov and A. Prokhorov and American scientist Charles Townswith by the invention of the laser, whose pure, intense light was ideal for making holograms. In that year the pulsed-ruby laser was developed by Dr. T.H. Maimam. This laser system (unlike the continuous wave laser normally used in holography) emits a very powerful burst of light that lasts only a few nanoseconds (a billionth of a second). It effectively freezes movement and makes it possible to produce holograms of high-speed events, such as a bullet in flight, and of living subjects. The first hologram of a person was made in 1967, paving the way for a specialized application of holography: pulsed holographic portraiture. In 1962 Emmett Leith and Juris Upatnieks of the University of Michigan recognized from their work in side-reading radar that holography could be used as a 3-D visual medium. In 1962 they read Gabor’s paper and “simply out of curiosity” decided to duplicate Gabor’s technique using the laser and an “off-axis” technique borrowed from their work in the development of side-reading radar. The result was the first laser transmission hologram of 3-D objects (a toy train and bird). These transmission holograms produced images with clarity and realistic depth but required laser light to view the holographic image. Their pioneering work led to standardization of the equipment used to make holograms. Today, thousands of laboratories and studios possess the necessary equipment: a continuous wave laser, optical devices (lens, mirrors and beam splitters) for directing laser light, a film holder and an isolation table on which exposures are made. Stability is absolutely essential because movement as small as a quarter wave- length of light during exposures of a few minutes or even seconds can completely spoil a hologram. The basic off-axis technique that Leith and Upatnieks developed is still the staple of holographic methodology. Also in 1962 Dr. Yuri N. Denisyuk from Russia combined holography with 1908 Nobel Laureate Gabriel Lippmann’s work in natural color photography. Denisyuk’s approach produced a white-light reflection hologram which, for the first time, could be viewed in light from an ordinary incandescent light bulb. Another major advance in display holography occurred in 1968when Dr. Stephen A. Benton invented white-light transmission holography while researching holographic television at Polaroid Research Laboratories. This type of hologram can be viewed in ordinary white light creating a “rainbow” image from the seven colors which make up white light. The depth and brilliance of the image and its rainbow spectrum soon attracted artists who adapted this technique to their work and brought holography further into public awareness. Benton’s invention is particularly significant because it made possible mass production of holograms using an embossing technique. These holograms are “printed” by stamping the interference pattern onto plastic. The resulting hologram can be duplicated millions of timesfor a few cents apiece. Consequently, embossed holograms are now being used by the publishing, advertising, and banking industries. In 1972 Lloyd Cross developed the integral hologram by combining white-light transmission holography with conventional cinematography to produce moving 3-dimensional images. Sequential frames of 2-D motion-picture footage of a rotating subject are recorded on holographic film. When viewed, the composite images are synthesized by the human brain as a 3-D image. In 70’s Victor Komar and his colleagues at the All-Union Cinema and Photographic Research Institute (NIFKI) in Russia, developed a prototype for a projected holographic movie. Images were recorded with a pulsed holographic camera. The developed film was projected onto a holographic screen that focused the dimensional image out to several points in the audience. Holographic artists have greatly increased their technical knowledge of the discipline and now contribute to the technology as well as the creative process. The art form has become international, with major exhibitions being held throughout the world. The commonly and widely used way of imaging of the reality is the photography. A photograph is basically the recording of the differing intensities of the light reflected by the object and imaged by a lens. However, information about dimensions of the object contained not only in amplitude (intensity), but also in a phase of light waves. A great difference between holography and photography is the information recorded. This difference is why photographs are two dimensional (2-D) images while holograms are three dimensional (3-D) images. Photographs contain only one view point of an object. Our eyes need a minimum of two view points in order to see depth. Vision using two viewpoints of an object is called stereoscopic vision. Each eye receives a slightly different view point of an object, our brain combines the two and we perceive depth. We can fool our eyes into seeing photographs in three dimensions by taking two slightly different views of an object and allowing each eye to see only one image, the right image for the right eye and the left image for the left eye. We can do this with a stereoscope (for pictures) or with polarized glasses (for movies). The shortcoming of stereoscopic images is that when we move our head from side to side or up and down, we still only see the same two view points, whereas we should be seeing continuously changing viewpoints of the object. The image therefore doesn’t quite appear to be three dimensional. In order to make a record of a three dimensional object we need to record this continuous set of viewpoints of the object. Estimating sizes of the objects and considering shape and direction of shadows from these objects, we can create in our mind general representation about volumetric properties of the scene, represented in a photo. But, if sizes of the objects are identical and there are no shadows, volumetric content of the photographed scene is completely lost. For example, we can not define in the photo of snowflakes on a dark background, which of them is closer, and which of them is farther. Holography is the only visual recording medium that can record our three-dimensional world on a two-dimensional recording medium and playback the original object or scene to the unaided eyes as a three dimensional image. The image demonstrates complete parallax and depth-of-field and floats in space either behind, in front of, or straddling the recording medium.

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