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Costal erosion college essay help los angeles Technology essay help

Movement of sand parallel to the coast by wave action, wind, and currents is known as long shore transport. 5. Sea walls, Jetties, and bulkheads may contribute to erosion because they affect natural water currents and prevent sand from shifting along coastlines to replenish beaches. 6. The first dune ridge or beach berm (if there is no dune present) are the “first line of defense” against coastal erosion from wind and waves. . Barrier islands re composed primarily of sand and are the most dynamic land masses along the open-ocean coast. 8. The impact of a storm on a barrier island is dependent on storm characteristics and the elevation of the barrier island when the storm makes landfall. 9. The Coastal Change Hazard Scale categorizes net erosion during storms into four impact levels or “regimes. ” 10. In the Collision Regime, waves cross the base of dunes, causing erosion and semi-permanent changes. 11.

In the inundation Regime, storm waves are high enough to completely submerge the island, allowing sand to be ransported over a distance of one or more kilometers toward the mainland. 12. In the Over-wash Regime, waves exceed the elevation of the dune or beach berm (if no dune is present), causing sand to be transported toward the mainland so the barrier island “migrates” landward. 13. In the Swash Regime, waves are confined to the beach. Sand may move offshore, but will be eventually returned so there is no net erosion. 14. Over the next 60 years, erosion may claim one of every four houses within 500 feet of the U.

S. shoreline. 15. Most of the damage from erosion over the ext 60 years will occur in low-lying areas that also have the highest risk from flooding. 16. When the Cape Hatteras lighthouse was constructed in 1870, it was 1,500 feet from the shore. 17. By1987, the lighthouse was 160 feet from the sea due to coastal erosion. About 87,000 homes are located on low-lying land or bluffs that Without additional beach nourishment or structural protection, roughlyl ,500 homes and the land on which they are built will be lost to erosion each year. 19. The average annual erosion

State and describe a current or emerging issue being experienced by and within the City of Toronto.

State and describe a current or emerging issue being experienced by and within the City of Toronto..

Content: State and describe a current or emerging issue being experienced by and within the City of Toronto. Examples could include: A significant or contentious development proposal (be sure to describe what planning policies/development standards would need to be amended) Lack of affordable housing, or a shortage of housing in general Traffic and/or transit congestion The quality and/or availability of public facilities (e.g. parks, schools, community centres, etc.) Pace of growth Public engagement (e.g. the lack thereof, or making the process more reflective of the community) Explain how planning is responding (or not) to the issue. This could include: Explain what issues have been identified (by staff, elected officials, the public, etc.). Add any issues that you consider important. The policy (e.g. in Official Plan, or other document) or process (e.g. meetings, studies, etc.) being followed, or recommended to be followed, by the municipality. Are there changes being recommended to the Official Plan, Zoning By-law or any other planning policy/document? Referencing a planning staff report, or report by another department. Include your personal thoughts/questions (e.g. what you think should be considered, and what the approach should be), throughout. Continued … Assignment 1, cont. … Explain how you as a future planner, regardless of how the City is (or not) responding, would address the issue: Do you agree with the city’s approach? Expand on and substantiate your opinion. Policy and/or implementation strategies you would recommend People and/or agencies you would (or not) consult with

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