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Corporate Crime – BP Oil Spill Essay

Introduction Most organizations have strived to carry out their operations within the confines of the law. However, in some instances of, say negligence, has made them be entangled with lawsuits emanating from their operations. Some companies knowingly or unknowingly have committed corporate crimes in the pursuits of profit maximization. In general terms, corporate crime refers to any crime committed by a company/organization or business entity. Similarly, Yeager (1980) illustrates that corporate crime is “ the conduct of a corporation or employees acting on behalf of a corporation, which is prescribed and punishable by law”. This crime may also reflect the character of the management team as cited by Yeager (1980). BP is one of the respected companies which, in the eyes of many, was involved in corporate crime. Though it may be argued that crime committed was not intentional, it had far reaching effects on the environment and climate. The crime the company committed occurred in the Gulf of Mexico, which in 2010, fixing environmental and economic issue. These included damage to aquatic life, water pollution and breakdown of businesses among others. It is reported that around 174 million gallons was spilled and spread over an area estimated 25, 000 square miles (Hayward, 2010). BP Oil Company BP is one of the largest oil suppliers of oil on the globe. The organization was engaged in steady operations until 2010, when it experienced lower profits because of the oil spill that happened in the Gulf of Mexico. The Spill happened in April 2010, when the Deep Water Horizon drilling,a company owned by Transocean Ltd, contracted by BP burst and begun burning near the shores of the Gulf of Mexico. The ship began sinking, gushing an estimated 55,000 barrels of oil per day. Efforts to contain the spill was unsuccessful. When it was successfully capped in September 2010, an estimated 205 million gallons of crude oil was already spilled into the ocean. The disaster caused a severe damage and endangered several “at risk” businesses along the Gulf. These industries included; tourism, recreational and commercial fishing and other businesses tied to natural resources. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More BP Oil Spill Effects Environmental Challenges The BP oil spill had several ethical implications to the organization and the environment as a whole. Some of the effects caused by the spill revolved around the wildlife and the environment. The spill contributed to the disruption of the ecosystem and the wildlife, these included both aquatic and terrestrial wildlife. Similarly, marine and wildlife habitats were extensively damaged, fishing and tourism affected as the fish were affected by the oil present in the water bodies. This made their survival a challenge. According to Steiner (2010) environmental and water pollution contributed to both human and aquatic health problems as it led to suffocation of aquatic life besides contaminating the oxygen concentration in water and the environment. Financial Loss Company The BP oil company did not only contribute to the destruction of the environment and wildlife, it incurred financial losses as well. For example, Steiner (2010) indicates that the compensation valuation in physical damages in contrast to actual claims was approximated to be about $20-50 billion. Many authors opine that this figure is one of the grand verdicts ever made compared to the more than $5 billion awarded to Alaska oil spill in American history (Amadeo, 2010). Businesses and Individuals Many businesses and private individuals also suffered financial loss in terms of property and economic damage. These included about 13,000 individuals. Among the businesses that suffered hugely included; property owners, the hoteliers, restaurateurs and oyster men. Loss of Life The BP oil pill contributed to loss of life. According to Gardner (2010) eleven people perished and animals and plants died as well. In addition to these deaths, several people were injured, because the spill covered a large surface area, Gardner (2010) notes that sea birds, fish and turtles among others died on a large scale. The coral reefs which add beauty to coastal beaches was also destroyed. We will write a custom Essay on Corporate Crime – BP Oil Spill specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Social Fabric The Oil spill on the Gulf of Mexico confronted an environmental disaster never experienced in the American history. Because of the oceanic and geography processes, the ecological impacts of the spill had a greater impact on the coastal areas. Nevertheless, the spill affected the social fabric and the ecology of the communities residing in these areas. The situation caused the inhabitants to reflect their relationships with the media, industries and government agencies. According to X, the communities residing at the coastlines blamed the regulating agency for improperly monitoring the extraction of the resource and the BP for the technical failure causing the spill. Along with the media, we viewed the agencies/institutions as incapable of conveying accurate information to the public or addressing critical technical aspects during the response process. Pyrrhic defeat theory illustrates that those who have authority to change the system opt not to do so because they benefit in the way it operates. In this case, the institutions which the residents trusted to be their aid did nothing tangible to safeguard their well being (Alario
Initial Project Proposal. I need support with this Business question so I can learn better.

Due Week 4 and worth 100 points
Note: This is the first of three assignments which, as a whole, will cover all aspects of the project life cycle relevant to your selected project.
You have been selected to be the Project Manager (for a project of your choice). The project that you decide to use should meet the key criteria of a project, such as (a) having a beginning and an end; (b) results in something being delivered to someone; (c) requires a series of activities that must be done to complete the project; and (d) requires resources (e.g., people, materials) to complete the work. The project can be one of a personal or professional nature and must last for at least nine (9) months. NOTE: You are prohibited from using projects that can found on the Internet, including projects found in places like CourseHero. All project submissions are submitted to Safe Assign for review.
Instructions:
In Assignment 1, you will write a three to four (3-4) page paper, in which you define the scope of your chosen project. In your paper you must:

Provide a brief summary of your chosen project.
Describe at least two (2) project goals and two (2) project objectives.
Describe the project structure that you will use to manage the project.
Identify the key customer(s) and at least two (2) stakeholders for your project. Discuss their roles and their impact to the project. Remember, you are delivering the project to your customer(s); however, there are others (stakeholders) who have a vested interest in your project.

Your assignment must follow these formatting requirements:

This course requires use of Strayer Writing Standards (SWS). The format is different than other Strayer University courses. Please take a moment to review the SWS documentation for details.
Include a cover page containing the title of the assignment, the student’s name, the professor’s name, the course title, and the date. The cover page is not included in the required assignment page length.

The specific course learning outcomes associated with this assignment are:

Analyze the key concepts, processes, and components of project management.
Develop a project plan including the critical elements of project scope and Work Breakdown Structure (WBS).

Initial Project Proposal

UCF Racial Discrimination & Relationship Functioning African American Article Summary.

Writing Summaries of Scientific Journal Articles (Article Summary Papers)The paper will be worth up to three of your eight points, depending on how carefully you follow the instructions and rubric below. The paper needs to be between 800-1,000 words- no more and no less. You must also use 12-point Times New Roman font. You will need to save your file as either Microsoft Word format or rich text format (.rtf) in order for the summary to be uploaded to Webcourses. It is your responsibility to ensure that your file is saved correctly and in the correct file format before the deadline. It is also your responsibility to ensure that you can successfully upload your essay into the system prior to the deadline. Do not wait until the last minute to upload your essays in case you experience technical problems.At the top of your summary you must include your name along with the name of the article you selected and the name of the journal that the article was taken from. Your summary should not include any direct quotations from the article you selected. Please put everything in your own words and do not summarize the abstract section of the article. Your articles should summarize a recent research journal article (published within the last five years) from one of the American Psychological Association (APA) journals listed in the table below. Please note that you will receive a zero if your summary is on a paper that is not from one of the journals listed below and/or it is not clear from your title page whether you used one of these journals.If you upload your file in any format that is not Microsoft Word (.doc or .docx) or rich text format (.rtf) your paper will receive a zero. Also, you will receive deductions if you do not follow all of the instructions carefully (see below grading rubric).
UCF Racial Discrimination & Relationship Functioning African American Article Summary

Management. Seniority in the Workplace Annotated Bibliography

There are a number of issues that needs to be addressed in the workplace. There are issues that sometimes only the top management can handle, and there are issues that are managed by employees of the same ranks. But whatever kind of issue may arise, there is always one common denominator when it comes to solving it – and that is the fact that effective management of the people and good leadership style will never fail to manage whatever workplace issue there is. Indeed, the success of a company or of a business depends highly on the leaders and managers who run it – strong leadership, that is. Model leaders are oftentimes impacting the lives and future of everyone. Leadership is defined as a process where individual influences a certain number of people to reach the top level of success and to reach the common goal (Bolden 2004). On the other hand, management is a managerial process of forming a strategic vision, setting objectives, crafting a strategy and then implementing and executing the strategy. It focuses both from short term to long term perspective. Reh (2006) defined management as the art and science; art because they make people effective even without the supervisors, and it is a science because it oversees how it is being implemented. There are four basic pillars (Reh 2006) that contribute to the management guides: plan, organize, direct, and monitor. Planning is very important since this will be the start off of a certain project. Without planning, the project may cause delays and eventually will reach the goal which is envisioned by the company. Having an activity or an event, planning is always needed. This plan will be the record of the goals and objectives the company wanted to achieve. In this way, there will be a check and balance if the projects were pursued or were they done. It is a process. Planning comes with organizing, directing people who will be involved heavily in projects and ensure that there are changes, impacts that happened through the course of implementation through monitoring. According to Reh (2006), managing people has never been easy, especially when there are large numbers of staff involved. But once the plan is done properly, in sync with organizing, directing and monitoring, then this will not be a heavy load after all. Later, it will be realized that the challenging project is rewarding once it came out successfully. Seniority in the workplace is one of the long-running issues that always take place in the job. This is an issue that is both seen as positive and negative. According to Atty, Lira (2006) “…seniority is according a high level of importance in employment law. For example, if there is a conflict between a bona fide seniority system and an agreement to settle a discrimination claim, in all likelihood, the seniority system will take precedence.” It should also be noted that seniority in the workplace normally happens if there is no union or labour unions. It has been customary that if the union and the employer have both agreed that seniority will be followed in the workplace, there that is the only time that the concept of union and seniority in the workplace will both occur. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More However, unlike unions, seniority in the workplace is not binding. “Even if an employer sets up a seniority system without a union being involved, you need to remember that employee manuals aren’t worth the paper they are printed on. Seniority systems set up by employers in employee manuals probably aren’t binding on the theory, under the employment at-will doctrine, can always change the policy unilaterally” (Atty. Lira, 2006). Employers or top management can sometimes use seniority as the basis for some decision making for the company. Because most often than not, when seniority is used as the basis for decisions, employees perceived the decision as ‘good, quick, non-discriminatory and objective’; hence it helps avoid confusion and ill feelings from the employees concerned. But the disadvantage of using seniority in the workplace is the fact that it is inflexible. It is very rigid in a way that once seniority has been the custom, employees would always expect it to be the sole basis for every decision. Another interconnected disadvantage is the fact that the “seniority system may also prevent an employer from placing its best people in slots where they would be most effective” because employers or top management would always have to consider the seniors or those who came in first in the company (Atty. Lira, 2006). Whatever issues that management needs to take into account – such as the issue of seniority in the workplace – it should always be taken into account that the needs of organizations feature strongly in the successful management of the workplace; however, individual, subjective issues such as attitudes, commitment, motivation and self-image, have been included as these are particularly important to any workplace. Workers will only adopt new ideas, knowledge or skills if they are interested in it or find some benefit for themselves in doing so. Understanding the relationship between inputs, outputs and outcomes will assist in harnessing the involvement of individuals while working. Clearly addressing the needs of the workers – seniors or unions alike – can address many of the current and future needs of managers and leaders and can take many forms – both formal and informal. However, it is not something that can be done overnight; but a long-term commitment by both the organization and the individual. As organizations begin to see the benefits of addressing the issue, they will become increasingly committed to developing more focused programs to meet their specific organizational needs, which will help to maintain the momentum (Kaydo, 2000). References: Atty. Lira, David (2006) “Seniority in the Workplace. Web. We will write a custom Annotated Bibliography on Management. Seniority in the Workplace specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Bolden, R 2004. What is leadership? Leadership SouthWest Research Report 1, University of Exter Center for Leadership Studies. Web. Kaydo, C.2000. “The new skills of top managers”, Sales and marketing management, Vol. 152, (5), 16. Kotter, J. 1998. Winning at change. Leader to Leader. Web. Kegan, R. and Lahey, L. 2001. The real reason people won’t change. Harvard Business Review. Nov, 84-92. LaClair, J. and Rao, R. 2002. Helping employees embrace change. The McKinsey Quarterly. No. 4. Marshall, J. and Conner, D. 2000. Another reason why companies resist change. Strategy and Business. Mathews, P.2005, “The role of mentoring in promoting organisational competitiveness”, Competitiveness Review 2005. Mayer, E., Putting general education to work: The key competencies report, Australian Education Council and Ministers for Vocational Education, Employment and Training, Australian Government Publishing Services, Canberra, 1992. Not sure if you can write a paper on Management. Seniority in the Workplace by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Reh, F. John 2006, Management 101: Your Guide to Management., The New York Times Company. Web.

Old Age An Incurable Disease Health And Social Care Essay

i need help writing an essay Share this: Facebook Twitter Reddit LinkedIn WhatsApp Health is a central issue and fundamental human right associated with increase in longevity of population ageing. The maintenance of health status and functioning with age is a critical factor impacting upon many other aspects of the lives of aged, their family and communities. Ageing is a natural process which is inevitable and thus being the end of the human life cycle. Perceiving ageing with fear is recent phenomenon, it seems to be increasing each day, as world become more complex and moreover ageing is associated with decline in functional ability which affects all aged peoples. Aged have limited regenerative abilities and more prone to disease, syndrome and sickness than adults. “Old age is an incurable disease, You do not heal old age but You protect, promote and extend it”. – James Sterling Ross The number of persons above the age of 60 years is fastly growing, especially in India. India is the second most popular country in the world has 76.6 million people at over the age of 60, constituting above 7.7% of total population. The most obvious manifestations of old age are changes in physical appearance such as wrinkles appearing on the face, graying of hair, restriction of movements and more prone to chronic illness. Too frequently, older adults suffer from the emotional side effects of ageing such as feeling of distress and anxiety regarding their future, loneliness and social isolation. The major area of concern is the health of the aged with multiple medical and psychosocial problems which have an impact on functional ability of aged. Functional disability in the aged is defined as an acquired difficulty in performing basic everyday tasks or more complex tasks needed for independent living Davidson. (2011). The most common problem confronting aged people is functional disability that leads to dependency and institutionalization. The functional disability in the aged includes three dimensions: physical, emotional, and mental performance. The population of functionally disabled aged is growing rapidly. The number of aged who suffered with functional disability due to arthritis, stroke, cognitive impairment, anxiety and emotional distress is expected to increase at least 80 percent by 2049. Functional disability limits the autonomy of older people, introduces dependence, and reduces the quality of life and increase the risk of nursing home admission. Studies have shown that the proportion of aged persons who cannot move and are confined to their bed or home ranges from 77 per 1000 in urban area and 84 per 1000 in rural areas. The family and community play a vital role in the care of a functionally disabled aged. The supportive care for aged with functional disability is the major concern which includes early rehabilitation with adequate nutrition, fluids, range of motion exercise, second hourly position changing; skin care and reviewing medical follow up. This will enable to prevent the development of complications such as infection, bed sore, constipation, movement incapability, urinary tract infection, deep vein thrombosis, muscle atrophy and contractures with resultant deformity in the aged. Studies shown that majority (70%) of the aged over 60 years with functional disability are expecting the need of care by the caregivers to perform their daily activities. Caregivers are the one who is always present with the aged client, satisfying their needs and solving their problems. The caregivers of the aged may be their spouse, childrens or some other paid caregivers. The involvement of caregivers in caring the aged ones has been a help to create a great confidence in the aged to perform some kind of activities of daily living and also it has profound effect on aged reaction to medical treatment, emotional adaptation and rehabilitation. To implement the care for aged it is necessary that caregivers must be aware of functional disability in the aged to provide supportive care. BACKGROUD OF THE STUDY: By reviewing the bureau report 2009, globally aged population will increase from 595 million to 2 billion, a four fold rise by 2050, in terms of proportion 10% in 2000, 15% by 2025 and rise to 21.6 % by 2050. Ageing population is an end product of demographic transition, the number of older adults aged above 60 years is increasing and they are becoming larger percentage of over all population. In India, it is estimated that the elderly population has grown from 12.6 million in 1901 to 80.93 million in 2010 and India is the second largest country comprising aged in the whole world and is likely to touch 300 million within next half century. Data available from India suggest that almost 50 per cent of the elderly suffer from chronic diseases with the prevalence of diseases increasing with rising age from 39 per cent in 60-64 years to 55 per cent in those older than 70 years. Research by the National institute of ageing reports that 80% of the aged are living with chronic conditions. Most of them are able to meet their own needs but only 25% of them require a special type of care. More than two third of the aged (22 %) live independently in a family setting. It is estimated that 10% of the aged need some form of long term care in the home. Prevalence of various functional disabilities gradually increases with advancing age, starts at the age of 60 years and cause a growing need for help especially after the age of 65 years. Ageing process and changes in life style pattern such as chronic alcoholism, smoking, use of tobacco, sedentary life style, obesity, lack of exercise and improper nutrition during the young age has led a risk of chronic disease conditions among elderly population which results in 70% of disability making elderly more dependent on family and caregivers. Eden. (2000) stated that old age is still perceived as a casual agent for seeking dependence in performing daily activities and the factors frequently causing dependency are age, gender, falls, illness etc. A large population of today’s ageing is dependent on the family members for their health maintenance. Approximately 54% of the aged above 60 years are dependent, 24% of them are partially dependent and 22% of them are independent in performing their daily activities. The dependence on others for meeting the various needs will generate a felling of physiological and psychological dependence among the aged. The prevalence of unmet needs for functional disability in the aged due to vision problems is about 4.3%, 22.6% due to hearing problem, 32.5% due to immobility, 50% due to cognitive impairment, 62% due to difficulties in activities of daily living, 35% due to chronic illness, 25% due to psychological and social problems among those aged 60 and older. The involvement of caregivers in caring the aged will help to create a great confidence in aged to perform some kind of activities of daily living. Approximately 4.1 million caregivers are involved in intense care giving. Hence the care giving is not only the responsibility of health professionals but also the family members, relatives, friends and even non- professionals who cares for the aged in home. NEED FOR THE STUDY: Advances in technology and the combination of high fertility and declining mortality in twentieth century have resulted in rapid and large number of aged people worldwide especially in developing countries. In every country, the proportion of people aged over 60 years is growing faster than any other age group. Ageing causes numerous changes in the physiology of human beings which decreases functional ability. This in turn makes them dependent on caregiver. Inadequate care results in falls and depression among older adults. Among the aged, the focus is not only on reducing disease related morbidity and mortality, but also on promoting optimal health and ensuring disability-free years. The literature states that the effect of functional disability will have an effect on quality of life among aged, as the aged become dependent where the caregivers should play a major role in taking care of such aged person. Caregivers are the one who is always present with the aged client, satisfying their needs and solving their problems. It is necessary that caregivers must be aware of functional disability in the aged to provide supportive care. Investigator, during her clinical posting and community postings came across many aged with functional disability such as loss of control in body movements, functional immobility and associated coexisting illness who were dependent on their caregivers for their daily activities. While interacting with their caregivers the investigator came to know that they are not having adequate knowledge regarding the effects of functional disability and the care needed for the aged. Investigator felt that, aged with functional disability need some form of long term care in the home. If the caregivers had the knowledge they would help the aged in taking care of their health to prevent further complications. So the investigator felt the need to assess the knowledge regarding functional disability in the aged and its supportive care among caregivers to develop insight on the needs of older adults. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM: A study to assess the knowledge on functional disability in the aged and its supportive care among caregivers at selected settings in Chennai OBJECTIVES: To assess the knowledge on functional disability in the aged and its supportive care among caregivers at selected settings in Chennai. To associate the knowledge regarding functional disability in the aged and its supportive care with selected demographic variables among caregivers at selected settings in Chennai. OPERATIONAL DEFINITIONS: ASSESS: In this study assess refers to the process of gathering information as expressed by the caregivers in response to the semi-structured interview schedule and analyzing it with the statistical method. KNOWLEDGE: In this study knowledge refers to the awareness about functional disability and its supportive care as expressed by caregivers as response to the semi-structured interview schedule and analyzing to the statistical method. AGED: In this study the aged refers to the people above 60 years who are available in the hospital and community. CAREGIVERS: In this study the caregivers refers to the family members, relatives and paid non – professional persons in the age group from 21 years to 65 years who are taking care of the aged. FUNCTIONAL DISABILITY: In this study the functional disability refers to deviations from the normal or customary function of an individual within any of the three dimensions i.e, physical, emotional or social skills necessary for an independent life. SUPPORTIVE CARE: In this study the supportive care refers to the care which is provided to support the functionally disabled aged in meeting their daily needs. SETTINGS: In this study setting refers to the place or type of surroundings from where the sample is collected i.e, community and hospital setting. ASSUMPTIONS: The knowledge on the functional disability in the aged and the supportive care among the caregivers will vary from adequate to inadequate. The knowledge on functional disability in the aged and the supportive care among caregivers will be influenced by the selected demographic variables. DELIMITATION: The samples are the caregivers of the aged available in the community setting i.e, Thoraipakkam, Navalur and those admitted to the two hospitals i.e, V.H.S multi speciality and Dr.Kamakshi memorial hospital. Period of data collection is limited to one month. PROJECTED OUTCOME: The results of the study will project the knowledge levels of whom regarding various functional disabilities in the aged and the supportive care needed. The knowledge levels will highlight the need for educating the caregivers on various problems of functional disability By assessing this need, we can formulate the various methods of educating the caregivers on common problems of functional disability and it supportive care in the aged. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK A concept is an image or symbolic representation of an abstract idea. Conceptual frameworks are interrelated concepts or abstractions that are assembled by virtue of their relevance to a common theme Polit and Beck (2001). It is a device that helps to stimulate research and the extension of knowledge by providing both direction and impetus. A framework serves as a spring board for scientific advancement. A conceptual framework serves as a guide, to identify systematically and precisely defined relationship among the variables. It gives an idea to the main view and common theme of the research that is a visual diagram by which the researcher explains the area of interest. MODEL: The conceptual framework adopted for the study is based on “PENDER’S HEALTH PROMOTION MODEL (1987)”. Health promotion is, “directed towards increasing the level of well being and self actualization in a given individual or group”. This model focuses on the three aspects, Modifying factors. Cognitive perceptual factors. Participating in health promoting activities. MODIFYING FACTORS: It refers to the situational, maturational, socio cultural, personal and biological factors. In this study, it refers to the demographic variables like age, gender, marital status, educational status, occupational status, family income, type of family, any previous experience of taking care of the aged, relationship with the client, history of any present diseases in aged person, degree of physical dependency, hours spent in the care of the aged person, any previous information on functional disability in the aged and its supportive care. COGNITIVE PERCEPTUAL FACTORS: In this model, cognitive perceptual factors have important motivational significance. These variables can be modified through nursing actions. In this study it refers to the knowledge of caregivers regarding functional disability in the aged and its supportive care in the aspects of disability in the aged, vision problems, hearing problems, loss of control in body movements, memory impairment , functional immobility, activities of daily living, importance of exercises, coexisting illness, psychological problems and family support. PARTICIPATING IN HEALTH PROMOTING ACTIVITIES: Participation of caregivers in this study is considered as one of the health promoting behavior as this will help the caregivers to be aware of their existing knowledge on functional disability in the aged and its supportive care, which enhance through the advices given. CUES FOR ACTION: The responses of the caregivers regarding their knowledge on functional disability in the aged and its supportive care provide cues for nursing action like reinforcement and also creating awareness in terms of early rehabilitation of functionally disabled aged with adequate nutrition, fluids, range of motion exercise, second hourly position changing; skin care, reviewing medical follow up, providing assistive devices, assisting in daily activities, emotional support, engaging in social activities, promoting comfort and psychological support. MODIFYING COGNITIVE PERCEPTUAL PARTICIPATING IN HEALTH FACTORS FACTORS PROMOTING BEHAVIOUR KNOWLEDGE OF CAREGIVERS REGARDING FUNCTIONAL DISABILITY IN THE AGED AND ITS SUPPORTIVE CARE: Information regarding health promoting behavior includes, Disability in the aged Vision problems Hearing problems Loss of control in body movements Memory impairment Functional immobility Activities of daily living Importance of exercises Coexisting illness Psychological problems Family support Participation of caregivers in the study and sharing information regarding functional disability in the aged and its supportive care DEMOGRAPHIC VARIABLES: Age Gender Marital status Educational status Occupation Family income Type of family Relationship with the client Any previous experience of taking care of the aged Hours spent in the care of the aged person Any previous information on functional disability in the aged and its supportive care History of any present diseases in aged person Degree of physical dependency Reinforcement Adequate knowledge Eliciting the knowledge of caregivers regarding functional disability and its supportive care through semi-structured interview schedule Moderate knowledge Inadequate knowledge Cues for nursing action FIG.1 CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK BASED ON PENDER’S HEALTH PROMOTION MODEL (1987) CHAPTER II REVIEW OF LITERATURE Review of literature aids the researcher to understand what already known in relation to problem of interest and what remains to be known. It helps to plan and conduct the study in a systematic manner. It is defined as reviewing and analyzing the work of literature in relation to the specified topic in research – Simai Haji Mati. This chapter deals with selected studies and articles which are related to the objectives of the proposed study. For the present study an extensive review of literature relevant to study was undertaken and is presented under the following headings. Part I: General information about ageing, functional disability in and its supportive care. Part II: Studies related to functional disability and its supportive care in the aged. Part III: Studies related to knowledge of caregivers of aged on functional problems and its supportive care. Part I: General information about ageing, functional disability and its supportive care. Ageing is the process of optimizing opportunities for health, participation and security in order to enhance quality of life as people age. It applies to both individuals and population groups. Ageing allows people to realize their potential for physical, social, and mental well-being throughout the life course. According to Stephan John. (2009) Ageing is denoted as, Young old – 65-74 yrs. Middle old – 75-84 yrs. Older old – 85 and older Darnton. (1995),emphasized that quality of old age people depends mainly on psychological well being, perceived health status with independency in meeting self care needs. Normal Ageing process: The ageing process creates profound changes that there will be 1-2% decline in functional ability per year. Normal Ageing brings about the changes in physiological, Social and Psychological well being – Judith A. McCann. (2003) Physiological aging process: Changes in body composition, reduction in bone mass and strength, reduction in blood volume, reduced motility of the large bowel, changes in autonomic function, reduced elasticity of eye lens, high tone hearing impairment and reduced motor and sensory function. Social and psychological aging process: Feeling of distress, anxiety regarding their future, loneliness, depression, grief, sadness, and social isolation. However, some of the above effects of ageing can be slowed by engaging in interventions that improves outcome in the health events. Functional disability in the aged is defined as an acquired difficulty in performing basic everyday tasks or more complex tasks needed for independent living. It is an important health indicator in the aged, jeopardizing quality of life and causing heavy social impact with long-term institutionalization and increased use of medical care. Reducing functional disability in the aged is a major challenge for public health- Frazil.(2005), performance in functional disability includes three dimensions: physical, emotional, and mental performance. Physical performance relates to the body’s sensory and motor function. Emotional performance is measured through the individuals’ adaptation to various events in their lives. Mental performance is evaluated through tests that measure the individuals’ intellectual and rational capacity. The causative factors for functional disability are as follows: Vision problems, hearing problems, loss of control in body movements, memory impairment, functional immobility, difficulties in performing daily activities, lack of physical exercises, coexisting illness, psychological problems and family support. The effects of fundamental disability include walking, lifting objects, climbing stairs, reading standard-size print and hearing disturbances, short-term memory loss, disturbance in daily activities, disorientation to time and place, reducing mobility and social activities. The care necessary for the effects of functional disability are early rehabilitation with adequate nutrition, fluids, range of motion exercise, second hourly position changing; skin care, reviewing medical follow up, providing assistive devices, assisting in daily activities, emotional support, engaging in social activities, promoting comfort and psychological support. By over viewing the various informations regarding functional disability in the aged will thereby helps the caregivers to prevent further complications and also provide supportive care for the aged. Part III: Studies related to functional disability and its supportive care in the aged. Felix. (2001) stated that disability is systemic; no body system is immune to its effect. From his statement it is evidenced that meeting the self care activities and physical maintenance are essential for managing the effects of disability. Nandi Manju. (2002) stated that as ageing increases there will be decline in functional ability, which is compromised with good nutrition, assistive support, with psychosocial concerns and with medical care. Steffen Been. (2005) proposed a statement that there will de decline in cognitive and functional abilities of old age due to continuous degeneration of numerous brain cells which aid them to obtain a fully dependable care from caretakers. Frey. (2006) stated that decreased level of physical activity and growing number of chronic illness that often increase with age, frequently create vicious circle of illness, and related functional disabilities that has adverse effect on activities of daily living. In this statement, he highlighted that decrease in functional ability makes the individual to become more dependent and need constant support and supervision. McDougall.(2006) conducted a cohort study to identify the prevalence of memory impairment among 265 older adults by means of survey method and the results showed that 29.4% (78 individuals) of them had memory impairment in the later adult period .He also concluded that those with declining memory are less aware of their deficits in meeting activities of daily living. Human research center for ageing.(2006) stated that immobilization, loss of control in body movements and falls need not to be the consequence of living to advanced age all this may be prevented through muscle strengthening and range of motion exercise which has reported benefits of spontaneous activity by the old age people. Stark.et.al.(2007) conducted a correlational study to assess the health status of functionally disabled aged under the supervision of institution and family by means of health indicator assessment scale and the results showed that the older adults who receiving the care such as adequate nutrition, fluids, range of motion exercise, second hourly position changing, skin care, reviewing medical follow up and participating in family activities are in the family are having moderate health status than the older adults in the institutionalized care. Zbylut j. (2007) conducted a national survey to evaluate the health status of older persons and prevalence of common health problems among elderly above 60 years. The survey results shows that a large number of older persons were suffering from one of more age-associated chronic diseases like osteoporosis, osteoarthritis, dental problems, visual problems, cognitive impairment and depression which may impair their functional ability and quality of life. Kart berg. et.al (2010) conducted a descriptive study to assess the functional ability among the aged by means of questionnaire in the aspects of physical, mental and social abilities and the study concluded that low functional ability lead to dependency and stressful environment for the aged which again increase the risk of complications. Lawton and Brody.(2010) described that assessment of functional ability often includes evaluation of individuals ability to carry out activities of daily living which is an early sensitive indicator to promote quality of life of old age people. From the above studies the investigator identifies the prevalence, impact of functional disability in the aged and the important aspects of supportive care for the aged. It helped to formulate the need for the study and also helped to identify the major areas which should be included while formulating the objectives. Part IV: Studies related to knowledge of caregivers of aged on selected functional problems and its supportive care. Skalska.et.al. (2007) conducted a cohort study with the aim to evaluate the knowledge on various areas of functional problems among 62 caregivers of aged at risk by means of questionnaire and the samples are (78% family members and 22% non related) results revealed that only 41% caregivers had knowledge on functional problems such as (vision, hearing, and memory problems in the aged) and 59% were not aware of functional problems mainly in cognitive and social problems. Chelma.et.al. (2009) conducted a explorative study to identify the measures on management of functional problems of elderly among 629 caregivers by means of check list, the result revealed that 47% of them were aware on the common measures and 53% were unaware on common measures on management of functional problems among elderly. Through these studies the investigator understands the importance of caregivers awareness on functional disability in the aged and its supportive care which helped me to formulate the tool. CHAPTER – III METHODOLOGY This study was undertaken to assess the knowledge on functional disability in the aged and its supportive care among caregivers at selected settings in Chennai. This chapter on methodology includes research approach, research design, setting, population, criteria for selection of sample, sample size, sampling technique, data collection tool, development and description of the tool, validity of the tool, pilot study, data collection procedure and plan for data analysis. RESEARCH DESIGN A non experimental descriptive design was chosen for this study. RESEARCH APPROACH Research approach was descriptive in nature. SETTING OF THE STUDY The setting of the study was chosen on the basis of feasibility, in terms of availability of adequate samples from hospitals and community. Voluntary Health Services Hospital, Adyar, Chennai. Dr.Kamakshi Memorial Hospital, Pallikaranai, Chennai. Community- Thoraipakkam and Navalur. POPULATION FOR THE STUDY The population of the study consists of the caregivers of the aged in selected hospitals and in the community. SAMPLE OF THE STUDY The caregivers of the aged within the selected hospital and in the community who have fulfilled the inclusion criteria. CRITERIA FOR THE SELECTION OF SAMPLES Inclusion criteria: The caregivers who are taking care of the aged with functional disability. The caregivers in the age group of above 20 yrs. Both male and female caregivers of aged people. Caregivers who are willing to participate. Exclusion criteria: The caregivers who are included in the pilot study. The caregivers of the aged who are independent in doing their daily activities. Care givers who do not understand and communicate in Tamil or English. SAMPLE SIZE The sample size of this study is 60 caregivers of the aged people at selected settings, Chennai. SAMPLING TECHNIQUE Purposive sampling technique is used in this study. DATA COLLECTION TOOL The data was collected from the caregivers using semi-structured interview schedule. DESCRIPTION OF THE TOOL The tool prepared in this study was based on the information gathered from the review of literature; objectives of the study and the personal and professional experience of the investigator. It consists of two parts Part – I: It consists of demographic variables like age, gender, marital status, educational status, occupation, family income, type of family, any previous experience of taking care of the aged, relationship with the client, hours spent in the care of the aged person, any previous information on functional disability and supportive care, history of any present disease in aged person and degree of physical dependency of the aged. Part – II: It consists of 11 questions which have three parts to assess the knowledge on functional disability in the aged and its supportive care among caregivers using semi-structured interview schedule. SCORING PROCEDURE: In part II: In first question, part (A) the correct option carries one mark; the incorrected option carries zero mark. In part (B) each option carries one mark. For all other question from (2 to 11), The first part of each question carries one mark for each ‘YES’ option and no mark for ‘NO’ options. And the second and third part of each question carries one mark for each option. Thus a total of 10×1=10 for first part of question 46×1=46 for second part question 38×1=38 for third part question Total of 94 marks will be awarded under the knowledge regarding functional disability in aged and its supportive care among caregivers. It is interpreted in percentage as: Adequate knowledge : Greater than 75% Moderate knowledge : 50-75% Inadequate knowledge : Less than 50% VALIDITY OF THE TOOL The tool used in this study was validated by the experts in the field of general medicine and Medical surgical nursing. PILOT STUDY The pilot study was conducted in Voluntary health service hospital, Dr.Kamakshi memorial hospital, Thoraipakkam and Navalur community area, Chennai from 20.7.12 to 25.7.12 after obtaining the permission from the respective heads of the organization. Totally 6 caregivers (2 from each of the hospitals and community area) who fulfilled the inclusion criteria were selected purposively, to generalize the study. A Share this: Facebook Twitter Reddit LinkedIn WhatsApp

Analysis Book used Fundamentals of Performance Improvement: A Guide to Improving People, Process, and Performance External Learning Tool Task: View this topic Van Tiem, D., Moseley, J. L.,

write a paper in which you thoroughly analyze the cases to provide a comprehensive report that includes the following: Identify the key issues, goals, and options. Identify the causes of the performance gap. Identify potential interventions. Evaluate the intervention/recommendation from a cost/benefit perspective and implementations (ramifications of the actions). Compare and contrast the processes used in the cases. Recommend solutions and interventions to the organization that you would do differently. Discuss how you could apply the cases to your organization and the rationale. Length: 5-7 pages not including title and reference page References: Minimum of 3-5 scholarly resources. Your paper should demonstrate thoughtful consideration of the ideas and concepts that are presented in the course and provide new thoughts and insights relating directly to this topic. Your paper should reflect scholarly writing and current APA standards.

POLS4310 US Judicial Process Essay

POLS4310 US Judicial Process Essay.

In Reading 3.8 in the Murphy text, the late U.S. Supreme Court Justice William Brennan offers some suggestions as to a role he seems to hope state supreme courts will assume in the future.What is Brennan arguing? What is the role he suggests state supreme courts fill? What is it about the federal system of government that allows state courts to fill these roles? What features of the U.S. Constitution make this possible? Do you find his argument persuasive? Explain why or why not? Finally, if Brennan were to have his way what do you see as the implications for the role(s) and power of state courts.Required Textbook:Murphy, Walter F., C. Herman Pritchett, Lee Epstein and Jack Knight. 2006. Courts, Judges, and Politics: and introduction to the judicial process. 6th ed. Boston; McGraw Hill.
POLS4310 US Judicial Process Essay

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