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Conflict in The Mind – The Non-Assertive Reaction Reflective Essay

Non-assertiveness refers to the state of mind where an individual experiences conflict in the mind (the individual is bothered, upset, uncomfortable with the given situation) but chooses not to show any reaction to it. This reaction is evident when the opinions expressed or the emotional reaction of a person is indirect and difficult to identify because it lacks any form of external manifestation. This reaction finds application in most instances of my individual life because I often find myself listening and executing the needs of other people without giving my personal opinions or thoughts. In most cases, I would agree to do task requested before I express my personal feelings of whether or not the task should be done or not (Goodboy
In this essay I will discuss how gender inequality has been explained. In doing so I will explore three board approaches on gender differences and inequality. Which I will compare and contract with functionalist approach; who believe that gender roles fit the needs of the social system, and Feminist explanation; who argue women are unequal to men. First I will introduce the biological basis on behavioural difference between men and woman, supported by theorist Tiger and Fox (1972), Functionalist John Bowlby (1953), Jean Elshtain (1987). Next I will draw attention to theories placing central importance on socialisation and the learning of gender roles by looking at the works of Liberal Feminist Sue Sharp (1994) and Ann Oakley (1972). However while these theoretical approaches seek to explain the persistence of gender inequalities this essay will then go on to compare two opposing views, that of Functionalist and Marxist Feminist, in order to allow for greater depth in the analysis of these positions. I will do this by considering arguments made by functionalist theorist Talcott Parsons; forms of complementary roles (1942) and Murdock (1949) and furthermore Marxist theorist Friedrich Engels; ideas on capitalism (1902). Finally taking everything into account I will go on to critically assess the attempt of Radical Feminist to overcome gender inequality, where I will argue that radical feminist efforts to defeat gender inequalities has been less victorious then Liberal feminist, however there extreme views hold strong arguments on issues such as domestic violence. Sex can be seen as ambiguous term, which ‘refers to the biological distinction between females and males’ (Macionis, Plummer, 2008:367). Many sociologists, who adopt the biological approach, propose that the functions of the brain and hormones to chromosomes are responsible for natural differences in behaviour between men and woman. They argue that men demonstrate biological based tendencies towards aggression that woman lack. This approach has been supported by theorist Tiger and Fox (1972), who agree that the natural selection has encouraged hormonal differences, which can explain gender differences such as senses, behaviour and emotions; they further claim that nature intended mothers and children to stay together. In contrast, this argument supports functionalist views on maternal deprivation as suggested by John Bowlby (1953) who wrote a psychological account of the ill effects of maternal deprivation on children. However feminist have argued that this has been misrepresented as an ideological argument to keep women at home. In addition many researchers remain unconvinced by the biological approach, such as theorist Elshtain (1987) who suggested that the level of aggression varies for woman in different cultures, therefore the biological approach fails to take cultural factors to account. Furthermore critics point out that this theory ‘is grounded upon data, animal behaviour rather than anthropological and historical data’ (Giddens, 2009:613). Gender ‘refers to the social aspects of differences and hierarchies between male and females’ (Macionis, Plummer, 2008:367). Unlike the biological approach, many sociologists argue that there is nothing natural about gender inequality; rather it is socially constructed through socialisation of learning of gender roles. Liberal Feminist Anne Oakley (1972) claimed that gender roles are learnt through social agencies such as family; where manipulation and canalisation takes place, school; where boys are encouraged to take on sports, and the media; where women are portrayed as housewives in adverts for cleaning products. Ultimately children gradually internalize social norms and values that are expected from them which correspond with their sex. Consequently norms and values are culturally produced along with ideals of masculinity, femininity, which ultimately has led to the sexual division of labour. Oakley has disputed that the process of socialisation of gender roles is guided by manipulation, for example in the home, boys and girls are encouraged to play with gender specific toys. The patriarchal ideology that is through claims that women are more suited to caring roles because of their maternal instinct supports functionalist views. Functionalists have used this ideology to argue that social agencies contribute to maintain social order by overseeing the smooth gender socialisation of new generations. However this has been sharply criticised by feminist who argue that this theory ignores the ability if individuals to reject certain norms and values projected by society. Theorist Connell (1987) stressed that ’empirical evidence on gender inequality is not simply a ‘shapeless heap of data’, but reveals the basis of an ‘organised field of human practice and social relations’ through which woman are kept in subordinate positions to men (Connell, 1987). On a more optimistic note Connell suggested how females are seeking for change, for example school girls are taking interest in competitive sports, calling their own shots, which suggest gender inequality exploited within the family and state is being challenged, the means that have traditionally supported men’s power is being weakened. However Despite the changes in society and the economy, such as the Thatcher era, which represented new female role models in power, did not seem to have had much impact on the girls attitudes as the study ‘Just Like A Girl’ by Sue Sharp (1994) concluded, that girls still expected to undertake ‘women’s work’, such as health work, teaching. Nevertheless the study did present some change, such as greater stress on equality with men, which came with a sense of assertiveness and confidence. There was a greater importance of having a job, being able to support themselves, especially in the event of a divorce. Nonetheless the girls in Sharps findings indicated that the girls “look forward to a future in which they are likely to end up juggling work and domestic life like their mothers before them.” (Sharp, 1994). Functionalist see each aspect of society as interdependent and contributes to society’s functioning as a whole, held together by social consensus, which produces order, stability, and productivity. Their sociological interest in gender is relatively recent, there theory proposes that gender differences contribute to social stability and integration and assume they ‘fit’ the needs of individuals, the family and the social system. In contrast with the roles influenced by biology and learning of gender roles, through socialisation emphasise that the woman’s primary responsibility is the home. Anthropologist Murdock cross culture study (1949) emphasised the significance of motherhood and concluded that the mother’s role and the family are universal, where woman’s main concern should be at the home, whereas men’s main work should be outside the home. Furthermore a leading functionalist Parsons (1956) emphasised the important functions of the family, mainly as regards the stabilisation socialisation of children. The female taking on the ‘expressive’ role providing care and security to children and offering them emotional support compared with the ‘instrumental’ male role, where man take on the role of the bread winner in the family, these roles are seen as complementary which Parson believed helped integrate society. However the functionalist perspective neglects the inequalities in the distribution of labour and power, with the consequential exploitation of women in work and at home. Therefore theorist Oakley argued against Murdock’s secondary data, by refuting his claim, that gender roles were universal, though she accepted that sexuality, reproduction and maternal care are influenced by biology. It can be heavily argued that the functionalist approach on gender neglect the negative functions of an event such as divorce. The fact that the approach justifies the status quo and complacency on the part of society’s members, critics therefore have argued; even when such social change may benefit society functionalist fail to encourage people to take an active role in changing their social environment. Instead, functionalism sees active social change as a threat to society because the various parts of society will reimburse naturally for any problems that may occur. Unlike functionalist, the Marxist feminist approach does not focus on the positive aspects of society that contribute to its stability, but takes on a conflict perspective, which is inspired by Karl Marx’s writings on class struggles. There approach draws main focus on the conflicted and changing nature of society. Whereas functionalists continue to avoid social change, however Marxist theorists challenge the status quo and encourage social change even when this means social revolution. Marxist feminist strongly believes gender inequality is down to capitalism, rich and powerful people who force social order on the poor and the weak. Engels (1902) noted that ‘capitalism intensifies male domination, first capitalist create more wealth, which confers greater power on men as wage earners, expanding capitalist economy depends on defining people especially woman as customers and consumers and convincing them that personal fulfilment derives from owning and using products.’ (Macionis, Plummer, 2008:382), according to Engels this allowed men to work while society assigned woman the task of maintaining the home. ‘The double exploitation of capitalism as Engels saw it paying low wages to male labour, and no wages to for female wok.’ (Macionis, Plummer, 2008:367). Marxist further suggests companies only employ woman when they really need them, making them more disposable, therefore they argue that women are a ‘reserve army of labour’. However critics see their theory as underestimating the particular shortcomings of women, and fail to explain gender inequality in socialist societies. More so, many argue that its overly negative view of society, ultimately attributes the efforts of positive aspects of society such as humanitarian, democracy, civil rights. There theory of ‘reverse army of labour’, critics argue it fails to explain why there are women’s jobs and men’s jobs. ‘It is seems to overlook the fact that patriarchy can be influential by itself. The Marxist feminists seem to imply that once capitalism is abolished; gender inequality will disappear, which might not actually be the case.’ (Weineck, 2007). Many movements have been successful in their attempts of overcoming gender inequality however some have not been as victorious, yet hold strong arguments such as the Radical Feminist. They have sought to tackle gender inequality by extreme protesting of patriarchy, as they believe that men are responsible for the inequality of woman. Early Radical feminist Firestone (1971) argues that ‘men control woman’s roles in reproduction and childrearing. Because women are biologically able to give birth to children, they become depended materially on men for protection and livelihood.’ (Giddens, 2009:617). She further suggests this ‘biological inequality’ is socially organized in the nuclear family. Radical feminist have brought to light key arguments, such as free domestic labour, where men exploit woman by replying on the free labour woman provide in the home. Unlike Radical feminist, liberal feminist have conquered more in overcoming gender inequality. Liberal Feminist are moderate in their methods and aims, who seek to better woman’s rights through political and legal reform, they have gone on to achieve legislation such as the Equal Pay Act (1970) and the Sex Discrimination Act (1975). Though Radical feminist are seen to pursue a revolutionary agenda, however like liberal feminist, they stress practical political strategies. ‘Nevertheless in contrast to liberal feminist frameworks, radical feminist is inclined to be suspicious of government intervention, perceiving the state itself as being intrinsically patriarchal, and also tends to focus on the politics of the private sphere, in particular sexuality, motherhood and bodies.’ (Beasley,1999:55). However Radical feminist have more in common with Marxist on terms of ‘acknowledging that social life is embodied but as will shortly become evident, the inclination of the latter feminist approach is frequently to limit interest in embodiment to the laboring body of the paid.’ (Beasley, 1999:55). However they have criticized Marxist feminist on their view on capitalism, claiming that abolishing capitalism would not end patriarchy. Despite the fact that is can be heavily argued that radical feminist efforts have been less successful then liberal feminist, it is important to acknowledge their efforts of making society aware of the severity of domestic violence. There argument holds much relevance in today’s society, as statistics show that woman as having a high rate of victimization, ‘1 in 4 women will be a victim of domestic violence in their lifetime.’ (Oxfam, 2011). The woman’s aid site stated that ‘Between 10 and 69 per cent of women report abuse by their intimate partner in every country where reliable data exist.’ (Woman’s Aid, 2011). The efforts of radical feminist in overcoming this inequality has been successful in terms of providing shelters for abused woman, which did not exist in the 1970s. Furthermore there are now laws mandating the reporting of domestic violence of domestic due to the efforts made by the radical feminist. In conclusion, all the theories I have touched upon provide a variations of explanations on gender inequality, therefore it is clear to say there approaches are not cut from the same cloth. I feel the most convincing explanations are the aspects of socialisation of learning gender roles. I think this is important, as people sometimes without even realising it socialise boys and girls differently from an early age. The functionalist view on gender, I feel is outdated to some extent as social change is constantly taking place however it is important to look at all the argument made when exploring gender inequality. Though many feminist groups share conflicting views with one another such as radical feminist, liberal feminist and Marxist feminist, however it is important to appreciate their central aim of striving to help woman have the same equality as men.
SOC 120 Grossmont College White Privilege and White Supremacy Essay.

Write two o more paragraphs answering the following questions:Construct a definition of the terms “white privilege” and “white supremacy.” Provide an example of each, if different. Do white privilege and/or white supremacy shape the lives of Americans today? How? After submitting your answers, please reply to at least three (3) of our classmates’ posts, pointing out their good points as well as any limitation you see in their arguments. Your original answer to the questions as well as your reply-comments to other students must be of substantial quality in order to get points. Substantial quality includes a demonstration that you have completed the required readings and videos and thought critically about them. Your answers and reply-comments must be original, use your own ideas and words. Do not copy from any website or written material from another person. Here are the resources: Race and EthnicityEthnicityAn ethnic group is a social construct and it refers to a social category of people who share a common culture. Ethnic groups develop because of their unique historical and social experiences that become the basis for the group’s ethnic identity. Ethnic identification may be strengthened when a group faces prejudice or is the target of exclusionary practices. Ethnicity gives people a sense of community. Ethnic identification can be voluntary, but most of the time it is involuntary.RaceA race is primarily a social construct and it is a term used to describe a group treated as distinct in society based on certain characteristics, some of which are biological, that have been assigned social importance.The social categories used to divide groups into races are not fixed, and they vary from society to society.Racialization is the process whereby some social category, like social class, ethnicity, or nationality, takes on what is perceived in the society to be racial characteristics. Race is thus socially constructed, based on certain characteristics that have been assigned social importance in society by the most powerful group(s) in a society for political and economic purposes. Definitions of race are created and maintained by the most powerful group (or groups) in society and what these presumed group differences mean in the context of social and historical experience.Racial formation is the process by which a group comes to be defined as a race. This definition is supported through official social institutions such as the law and the schools. The biological differences presumed to define different racial groups are somewhat arbitrary and different groups use different criteria to define racial groups. Most variability in biological characteristics is within and not betweenracial groups.The out-group homogeneity effect occurs when all members of any out-group are perceived to be similar or even identical to each other and differences between them are perceived to be minor or nonexistent. YouTube videos:, Discrimination, RacismMinority and Dominant GroupsA minority group is a subordinated, oppressed, exploited and /or marginalized population. Minority refers to any distinct group in society that shares common group characteristics and is forced to occupy low status in society because of prejudice and discrimination. Minority group status is not a numerical representation, as indicated by the apartheid system in South Africa where Blacks were a numerical majority. Minority groups possess characteristics regarded as different and suffer prejudice and discrimination by the dominant group. Membership is frequently ascribed (not achieved) and members feed a strong sense of group solidarity. The group that assigns a racial or ethnic group a subordinate status is called the dominant group or social majority.PrejudicePrejudice is the evaluation of a social group, and individuals within that group, based on conceptions about the social group that are held despite facts that contradict it. Prejudice involves both prejudgment and misjudgment. Everyone possesses prejudices. People who are more prejudiced are also more likely to stereotype others by race or ethnicity, and gender, than those who are less prejudiced. Prejudice is revealed in the phenomenon of ethnocentrism – the belief that one’s group is superior to all other groups. Generally, the greater the difference between groups, the more harshly the out-group will be judged by an ethnocentric individual of an in-group, and the more prejudiced that person will be against members of the out-group.DiscriminationDiscrimination is overt behavior that treats members of a particular group unequally just because they belong to that group. Racial-ethnic discrimination – the unequal treatment of a person based on race or ethnicity-, takes many forms, may be combined with other forms of discrimination (like gender discrimination), and does not necessarily go together with prejudice. Despite legislation outlawing discrimination in employment and housing, the income gap and residential segregation indicate that discrimination is still practiced. RacismRacism, both attitudinal and behavioral, is the perception and treatment of a racial or ethnic group, (and member of that group) as intellectually, socially, and culturally inferior to one’s own group. Different forms of racism include:old-fashioned or traditional racism (or Jim Crow racism).aversive racism.laissez-faire or symboliccolor-blind racism.Institutional racism is negative treatment and oppression of one racial or ethnic group by society’s existing institutions based on the presumed inferiority of the oppressed group. It persists because of the economic and political power that accrues to dominant groups because of their position in social institution. Institutional racism can exist even without prejudice being the cause. It can be seen in persistent economic inequality, in racial profiling and other forms of unequal treatment in the criminal justice system, and even in such everyday activities as sales transactions. of Prejudice and RacismPsychological Theories of Prejudice Scapegoat theory (Links to an external site.) is based on the principle that frustrations in achieving social and economic success causes dominant group members to vent the resulting anger as aggression toward minority group members. The minority group is then blamed as being the cause of the lack of success. The older authoritarian personality theory (Links to an external site.)links such characteristics as a tendency to rigidly categorize other people, the inclination to submit to authority, conformity, intolerance of ambiguity, and the inclination toward superstition to a greater likelihood to stereotype. Some research links high authoritarianism with high religious orthodoxy and extreme varieties of political conservatism.Sociological Theories of Prejudice and RacismSociological theory focuses on explaining racism, although speculation about the existence of prejudice is a component of these theories.Functionalist Theory: This theory argues for assimilation of minorities for race and ethnic relations to be functional to society. The opposite of assimilation is cultural pluralism, or different racial groups co-existing side by side without one taking on the identity of the other.Symbolic Interaction Theory: Symbolic interaction theory also studies how race and ethnicity are socially constructed. Also, contact theory argues that interaction between Whites and minorities will reduce prejudice on the part of both groups only when: the contact is between individuals of equal status, contact is sustained, and participants agree upon social norms favoring equality.Conflict Theory: Conflict theorists argue that class inequality is an inherent and fundamental part of social interaction in all groups, cultures and societies. The current ‘class vs. race’ controversy demonstrates how important class and race are in explaining inequality and its consequences. The theory also focuses on the interaction of class, race, and gender through the intersection perspective, which acknowledges that gender differences are viewed differently within different racial or class groups.William Julius Wilson (1980:1-2), a noted African-American Harvard University professor, wrote the following in his book The Declining Significance of Race: “Race relations in America have undergone fundamental changes in recent years, so much so that now the life chances of individual blacks have more to do with their economic class position than with their day to day encounters with whites. As the nation has entered the latter half of the twentieth century . . . many of the traditional barriers have crumbled under the weight of the political, social, and economic changes of the civil rights era. A new set of obstacles has emerged from structural shifts in the economy …Specifically, whereas the previous barriers were usually designed to control and restrict the entire black population, the new barriers create hardships essentially for the black underclass; whereas the old barriers were based explicitly on racial motivations . . . the new barriers have racial significance only in their consequences, not in their origins.” The implications of this statement are staggering, for at the very heart of Wilson’s statement is the assertion that race is no longer as important as it used to be. Instead, it is class, or socio-economic status, that determines how one is treated by political and social institutions. Moreover, Wilson has gone on record suggesting that where there was once de jure racial discrimination, there is today only de facto racial discrimination; where there was once overt and intentional racial discrimination, today there is only racial discrimination in outcome. Ultimately, Wilson’s argument is that where race was once a determining factor, today, race has made way for class. To make his argument, Wilson identifies three stages in the development of race relations:Antebellum Slavery and the early Post-bellum Era– Period marked by a plantation economy and a caste-like system organized along racial lines. Belief in the genetic inferiority of the Negro race. Thus, this period is one that is properly identified as an overtly racist era.Late Nineteenth/Early Twentieth Century – Era of rapid industrial expansion. The shift from an agricultural to an industrial system of production contributed to the growth of a black urban community as blacks migrated to industrial centers. Although blacks entering industrial jobs still received menial pay and discriminatory treatment, a black business class began to develop to serve the needs of the expanding black communities. Also, Blacks benefited from the New Deal and from collective bargaining agreements. Essentially, white workers were dependent upon black workers to negotiate for better wages and better working conditions. This meant, however, that both blacks and whites would benefit, even if blacks were still receiving less pay.Post-World War II – Class conflict replaces race conflict. There is a widening gap between working and educated blacks and unemployed blacks and undereducated blacks. Diverse Groups, Diverse HistoriesRace and ethnicity are formed through a long and complex social and historical process. In order to review the history of racial/ethnic groups in America, I recommend watching the following videosAttaining Racial and Ethnic EqualityThe Civil Rights StrategySeveral strategies have been used to achieve greater equality including political mobilization, legal reform, and social policy.The major force behind most progressive social change in race relations was the civil rights movement of the 1950s and 1960s.Based on the passive resistance philosophy of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., learned from the philosophy of satyagraha of Mahatma Gandhi, the movement encouraged resistance to segregation through nonviolence.The movement culminated in the passage of the Civil Rights Bill and the Voting Rights and Fair Housing Acts of the 1960s.Radical Social ChangePerceiving the civil rights agenda as too limited and slow in bringing about social change, the militant Black Power movement saw inequality as stemming from the institutional power that Whites had over Black Americans.Malcolm X, before his break with the Black Muslims, advocated a form of pluralism demanding separate institutions for Black Americans.The Black Power movement of the late 1960s demanded self-determination and self-regulation of Black communities.It spawned militant movements like the Black Panthers, as well as La Raza Unida and the American Indian Movement (AIM).Overall, the Black Power movement dramatically altered the nature of political struggle and race and ethnic relations in the United States.Research by Harvard University’s Civil Rights Project indicates that schools are now more segregated than they were 30 years ago.Affirmative Action The tension between color-blind and race-specific policies is a major source for many of the political debates surrounding current race relations.The debate is exemplified in the controversy over affirmative action programs, on whether wide-based minority recruiting and the use of admission slots in education and set-aside contracts on jobs are quotas.Legal decisions on the state and federal level continue to challenge affirmative action and related strategies.The Legal Defense Fund (LDF) of the NAACP forcefully argues for the preservation of affirmative action.In 2003, the U.S. Supreme Court decided two cases modifying the 1978 decision that race could be used as a criterion for admission to higher education or for job recruitment as long as rigid quotas were not used. The decisions ruled out the use of a point system interpreted as a type of quota, but allowed race to be used as a factor in admissions decisions, along with other factors.
SOC 120 Grossmont College White Privilege and White Supremacy Essay

Create a Pie Chart Identifying Group Affiliations

Create a Pie Chart Identifying Group Affiliations.

Please see the attached instructions.This assignment must be completed no later than on Monday, 9/08/14 by noon EST. Thanks.Your Pie Chart 
The purpose of this exercise is three-tiered: to compare
your own cultural background (African American mother, Canadian father with
Christian values) with that of others; to raise awareness
of the importance of self-identity based on affiliations with groups; and to
consider the influence of self-identity on individuals’ experiences in
organizational settings.
Personal characteristics (some changeable, others not),
which may influence an individual’s basic self-image and sense of identity, may
also influence experiences in the workplace. 
Primary dimensions of diversity are essentially unchangeable personal
characteristics (e.g., gender, race, ethnicity, age, sexual orientation, and
physical and mental abilities).
Secondary dimensions of diversity, however, are changeable
personal characteristics that are acquired and may be modified or abandoned
throughout life (e.g., education, income, marital and parental status,
religion, political affiliation, and work experience). Of course, secondary
characteristics are not completely self-determined; educational background,
work experience, income, and marital status are affected by others’ decisions.  However, people generally have more control
over secondary dimensions of diversity than over primary dimensions.
Create a pie chart
identifying group affiliations that have some importance in your
self-concept.  These affiliations may be based
on any of the primary and secondary dimensions of diversity mentioned or on
some other personal characteristic that is particularly important to you.
Indicate the approximate importance of each group by the size of the slice of
pie that you assign it.
** Write a summary of
your answers to the following questions concerning your pie chart:
What did you learn about yourself?
What surprised you the most?
How does your self-identity influence your
experiences in organizational settings? 
Create a Pie Chart Identifying Group Affiliations

Health Advocacy in Nursing

term paper help Share this: Facebook Twitter Reddit LinkedIn WhatsApp Advocacy is a process of supporting people who are vulnerable in the society and are unable to express their views and opinions, pass on important information to them to the appropriate authorities and access services that they require, explore their choices and right, defend and promote their rights and responsibilities (Teasdale, 1999). An advocate is therefore someone who provides support to those who are vulnerable or less able to speak for themselves or access services that they require. For example, a service user who is unable to attend a meeting/interview alone or speak for him/herself due to any reason, may ask someone to act as an advocate. Health professionals have a duty or care to advocate for service users that they work with and their role is to ensure that the service users’ voices are heard by representing their wishes and views and making sure that they have access to services that will meet their needs (Bateman and Bateman, 2000). However, these health professionals may be reluctant to do so if they consider that what the service user ask them to do is not to his/her best interest. For health workers to adequately advocate on behalf of their service users, they must listen to them and ensure that they understand the needs of the service user. As seen in the first scenario in the video, when a patient was to be supported to get out of bed, it was obvious that health staff did not allow him to express his wishes because they pounced on him and started to open the window without asking if he would like his window opened. Nurses are seen as advocates of patients in their care. They are to listen to patients because they constantly interact with them, making it easy for patients to trust them and confide in them (Loue, Lloyd and O’Shea, 2003). In scenario 1 in the video, the nurses completely ignored the patient in their care whilst telling them that he needed his glasses. He was considered as though not in existence in spite of asking for his glasses repeatedly(Grogan and Gusmano, 2007).pointed out that nurses are the first health care professionals to recognise situations that are not in the best interest of patients and report these situations to those that can effect change. Nurses promote health and care for the disabled, the ill and the dying people placed under their care and prevent illnesses but these attributes were lacking in the health professionals that cared for the patient in scenario 1. It was clear that he got frustrated that he lost his appetite. He probably would be thinking if he was in the wrong place and with the wrong people. Nurses are advocates for the promotion of safe environment, health education, research participation in shaping health policy as well as systems and patient management (Loue, Lloyd and O’Shea, 2003). Nurses spot and take action or report issues such as questionable drug order to the doctors or report an incompetent health care provider to a supervisor, thus advocating for the right of the patient (Gordon et al., n.d.). According to nurses code of practice, nurses are required to advocate on behalf of patients by reporting cases of patient abuse, including known or suspected cases of physical, emotional or sexual abuse because they constitute unprofessional conduct and form basis for disciplinary action against the culprit (Lustig, 2012). Not listening to patients and providing care based on their needs as seen in the scenario is unprofessional and also an abuse. for example, a service user who asked for his/her medication from a health provider and he/she is refused, has been abused. Nurses are therefore required to report cases of abuse to protect the rights of their patients (Keefe and Jurkowski, 2013). Nursing advocacy plays an important role in observing the safety of patients when they make contact with health care system particularly when they are too ill to be their own advocate or when undergoing surgery or anaesthesia (Lustig, 2012). Bateman and Bateman (2000) highlights that during surgery, the nurse must serve as the patient’s advocate, speak for the patient to protect the patient’s wishes throughout the surgery. Nurses therefore serve as patient’s advocate by advocating improved health care practices that relate to control of infections as well as access to care. Bateman and Bateman (2000)notes that each encounter that the nurse has with the nurse presents an opportunity for the nurse to serve as the advocate for the patient. Good communication between service users and staff is very important.AsApker (2013) suggests, it is important that health and care workers develop good communication skills for them to have effective communication with service users and explain their treatment needs to them. More so, health and care workers must learn professional communication skills and know how to apply them to create a better care environment (Collins, 2009). Health workersmust listen to service userswhilst expressing their views and needs, and also pass on important information to them, to the appropriate authorities and for them to access services that they require through advocacy (Luckmann and Nobles, 2000). While advocating for service users, health workers need to explore their choices, defend and promote their rights and responsibilities(Loue, Lloyd and O’Shea, 2003). Health workers such as nurses are highly skilled and well trained professionals who take care of the sick. They educate patients, their families and the communities on wellness and healthy living.Bateman and Bateman (2000)suggests that a nurse is full of compassion for clients and human beings in general. They posses good communication and listening skills but in the video in scenario 1, this appeared not to be so as the service user was completely ignored. Nurses are also required to report the progress of their patients to the doctors and their loved ones. They are to keep patients records, chart all patient’s observations, do the teaching procedures and document conversations and discussions with their patients. The nature and duties of nurses portray them as health care professionals that are closest to patients and their families. They are equipped with the task of advocating for the rights of patients within health care institutions (Grogan and Gusmano, 2007). These are what he nurses in the video should be to the service user and not the other way round. In communicating with the service user, the nurses need to be able to use a variety of strategies to ensure that professional practice meets health and care needs of the service user and facilitates a positive working relationship with him. Undoubtedly, Lustig (2012) suggests that there are different approaches to communication and it is important that the individual health professional channels his or her use of these approaches to the individual needs of the patient. Therefore a good working knowledge of cognitive, humanistic, behavioural, social and psychoanalytical is vital. Lustig (2012)states that humanistictheory is applicable in situations where people are involved in aspects of self actualisation, self conception, self esteem, honour and dignity. This approach reflects on the viewpoint that every human being has the potential to be good, to contribute positively, to enjoy life and to be a loving and lovable member of the society. Thus, in health and care sector, nurses, doctors, home care managers, including social workers as Kerson and McCoyd (2010) comment, are offered adequate training in order to care adequately for service users in the most humanistic manner by practising methods of communication relevant to the individual or to the appropriate situations Giving voices to service users in situations where they are unable or hesitate to speak their minds or when they decided to give their full trust to health practitioners such as nurses, is an advocacy role of nurses to their patients. Grogan and Gusmano (2007) note that in such circumstances, nurses should encourage patients to voice their wishes and opinions and provide care that focuses on meeting their specific wishes. Teasdale (1999)states that patient’s advocacy guarantees safety and protections of patients from preventable injury as patients and their family members depend on health workers such as nurses to detect and address potential safety issues. Providing the service user with his glasses to enhance his sight to function will guarantee his safety. Nurses also acts as advocates for family members of patients. Listening to service user in scenario one in the video and meeting his needs such as offering him his glasses for clear vision, communicating with him by telling him what they have come into his room to do and asking him about his health and wellbeing and not discussing about their personal issues will enable the service user to have trust, confidence, feel safe and establish a good working relationship with the nurses caring for him. Bibliography. Apker, J. (2013). Communication in Health Organizations. Hoboken: Wiley. Bateman, N. and Bateman, N. (2000). Advocacy skills for health and social care professionals. London: J. Kingsley. Collins, S. (2009). Effective communication. London: Jessica Kingsley. Gordon, S., Feldman, D., Leonard, M. and Jackson, A. (n.d.). Collaborative caring. Grogan, C. and Gusmano, M. (2007). Healthy voices, unhealthy silence. Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press. Improving access to oral health care for vulnerable and underserved populations. (2011). Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press. Keefe, R. and Jurkowski, E. (2013). Handbook for public health social work. New York: Springer Pub. Kerson, T. and McCoyd, J. (2010). Social work in health settings. Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge. Loue, S., Lloyd, L. and O’Shea, D. (2003). Community health advocacy. New York: Kluwer Academic. Luckmann, J. and Nobles, S. (2000). Transcultural communication in health care. Albany, NY: Delmar. Lustig, S. (2012). Advocacy strategies for health and mental health professionals. New York: Springer Publishing Company. Teasdale, K. (1999). Advocacy in health care. Malden, Mass.: Blackwell Science. Share this: Facebook Twitter Reddit LinkedIn WhatsApp

Biology homework help

Biology homework help. This is a paper that focuses on the nature of Sandland’s business and competitive advantage. The paper also focuses on the challenges of maintaining the competitive advantage.,The nature of Sandland’s business and competitive advantage,The Sandlands Case,Description, Approximately 80% of the 9,000 wineries in the U.S. break even or lose money. An even greater percentage loses money on an economic basis (i.e., after a charge for the capital employed). Tegan Passalacqua, a Californian winemaker who specializes in making “old vine” wines (i.e., wines from vines that are at least 50 and up to 100 or more years old), appears to have defied these difficult odds. By day, he is the head winemaker at Turley Wine Cellars, a leading Zinfandel producer. In his spare time, however, he makes premium wines under the Sandlands Vineyards label using Turley’s facilities and “forgotten” grape varieties such as Carignane, Mataro, and Chenin Blanc. The challenge is to understand what makes the industry, particularly the premium segment, so challenging; why Passalacqua has succeeded to date; and whether his success will continue into the future.,The nature of Sandland’s business and competitive advantage,The case is set in December 2017, as Passalacqua and also his wife were deciding whether to buy a building and develop a winery for the Sandlands wines at a cost of up to $500,000. Because they already own an old vine vineyard (the Kirschenmann Vineyard in Lodi, CA) and have limited financial resources, they must decide whether to make this investment or to save their resources for another investment.,Keep in mind that we are interested in the financial consequences of strategic decisions, so for a complete answer there should be included consideration and calculations of the impact of strategic choices made, or strategic choices recommended.,Instructions, Please address each question to the fullest given the time constraints. You may utilize bulleted points if the meaning is clear. Please include your calculations in the text.,A complete set of answers will address:, 1. Competitive advantage, 2. The challenges of maintaining competitive advantage (,Porters and Pestle,), 3. The business model, 4. The financial impact of the business model,QUESTIONS,1.       Firstly, what is the nature of Sandland’s business (e.g. how do they make money and how much)?,2.       Secondly, describe Sandland’s competitive advantage(s). Note how these are connected to how they generate revenue and how easily they are maintained.,3.       Thirdly, provide a brief description and evaluation of the Porter’s forces on Sandland Vinyard.,4.       Fourthly, provide a description and at least one influence for each of the PESTLE categories as they relate to the Sandland’s case.,5.       Also, list reasons that support buying the Building and reasons that support NOT buying the Building? Each motivation described is worth .5-points and each supporting financial case is worth another .5-points. Include up to 5 reasons for and against buying the Building for full credit on this question.,6.       Please share a brief financial analysis of the typical (median) firm in the market.,7.       Additionally, provide an analysis of the five drivers of market attractiveness as it exists today (static analysis); and 3) an analysis of how the market is likely to evolve over time (dynamic analysis).,8.       Lastly, using exhibit 7 of a hypothetical small, premium winery, assess Sandlands’s performance by calculating its operating profit and comparing it against this hypothetical winery.,9.       (Hint: You can begin by using the configuration of choices approach and organize your answer around product, process, organization and also financing.).,10.    (You can support one or the other or if you have another suggestion, that is an option as well!),Attachments,Click Here To Download,Biology homework help

Campbellsville Smart Factories Physical Production Processes Discussion Question

Campbellsville Smart Factories Physical Production Processes Discussion Question.

Summary:Pick one of the following terms for your research: economies of scale, economies of scope, global companies, global teams, globalization strategy, international division, joint venture, multidomestic strategy, multinational stage, or standardization.Instructions: Within each module, there is a list of key terms. Each student will select one of the key terms and conduct a search of Campbellsville University’s online Library resources to find 1 recent peer-reviewed article (within the past 3 years) that closely relate to the concept. Your submission must include the following information in the following format: DEFINITION: a brief definition of the key term followed by the APA reference for the term; this does not count in the word requirement. SUMMARY: Summarize the article in your own words- this should be in the 150-200-word range. Be sure to note the article’s author, note their credentials and why we should put any weight behind his/her opinions, research or findings regarding the key term.DISCUSSION: Using 300-350 words, write a brief discussion, in your own words of how the article relates to the selected chapter Key Term. A discussion is not rehashing what was already stated in the article, but the opportunity for you to add value by sharing your experiences, thoughts, and opinions. This is the most important part of the assignment. REFERENCES: All references must be cited in-text and listed at the bottom of the submission–in APA format.
Campbellsville Smart Factories Physical Production Processes Discussion Question

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