Historically, conservation strategies have been dominated by exclusive management approaches, reserving places for nature, and to separate humans and other species. According to Adams and McShane (1996) the method for establishing parks has always involved the expensive operation of removing those people living on the newly protected land. In almost all cases, the result is a park surrounded by people who were excluded from the planning of the area, do not understand its purpose, receive little or no benefit sharing and hence do not support its existence. As a result, local communities develop a lasting distrust of park authorities, in part because of the glaring lack of attention those authorities, supported by conservationists, have traditionally paid to the link between park ecology, the survival of wildlife and the livelihood of the displaced people. In the longer term the effect of the de-linkage of park wildlife from village livelihoods, encouraged by the preservationist views of nature on which the national park as an institution is founded, is to make local people hostile to wildlife conservation (Knight, 2000). In Ghana, the Mole National Park and one of its surrounding communities, Larabanga, have for a long time being involved in a series of conflicts that have negatively affected the peaceful co-existence of man and nature. This paper explores the causes of the conflict and the values, interests and positions of the key stakeholders involved in the conflict. An analysis of the conflict using the social conflict theory and various techniques in conflict management is also employed. The authors also present a new view of the conflict and present alternative dispute resolution methods that are applicable in resolving the conflict. Inclusive governance as a key participatory process is also discussed in the paper. Key words: Environmental Conflict, Alternative Dispute Resolution, Inclusive Governance, Protected Area, Stakeholders Introduction National parks and other wildlife reserves are a major source wildlife conservation conflicts in most parts of the world. In Ghana, wildlife conservation conflicts are prevailing in the north of the country between the park authorities of the Mole National Park (NP) and the park-adjacent communities especially Larabanga (Marseille, 2004). Mole NP is a typical example of coercive conservation or exclusive management, during its creation a policy of externally enforced exclusion was pursued and no serious attempts were made to involve the local communities in the management of the park (Marseille, 2004). The control of Mole NP is vested in central government by means of the Ghanaian Wildlife Division [WD]. Throughout the years the WD and the communities have been engaging in a poor relationship which created a breeding chamber for different conflict situations (Marfo, 2003). Marfo (2003) however states that recently there has been a shift from the traditional preservation approach in protected area management to the more flexible concept of conservation through sustainable use. Despite a range of protected area [PA] outreach strategies targeted at improving the relationship with the local communities and reducing the conflicts tension still exists. The lack of communication and the tension between local people and park staff is a common theme from different parks (Newmark et al 1993 in Bergin 2001). The WD holds the view that local communities have done little to change their negative perceptions about the activities of the Park. Particularly the communities surrounding the Mole NP are notorious in violating park boundaries and regulations. Among the local communities both suspicion and mistrust for wildlife staff and bitterness over the process by which the Park was created is prevailing. Hulme and Infield (2001) found that the community attitudes towards protected areas is influenced by the nature of community use of park resources, the physical proximity to the park, influencing both problems caused by wild animals and negative interactions with game officials, and the history of both positive and negative interactions with park staff. Problem statement Though the Mole NP authorities have made efforts to reduce local conflicts there appears to have been little concerted effort to apply the principles of conflict management to protected area-people relationships (Hough, 1988). It is almost universally evident that the question of power and how it plays itself in specific conflict setting is an important dimension to the conflict management problem. The crucial role of power in natural resource conflict management has driven the debate in search for its dynamics and how to deal with it in policy and practice. Conflict is a complex phenomenon, with the possibility of involving several actors. However, at a superficial level there are only two actors involved in wildlife conservation conflict, namely the local national park administration and the local communities (Hough, 1988). Within natural resource management one major reoccurring issue relates to the question of how to control and manage natural resources on an official level while simultaneously taking into account the needs of the local population (Caspary, 1999). The emerging challenge is to encourage a scientific and policy rethinking of wildlife conservation conflict management intervention processes, guiding wildlife conservation conflict towards constructive rather than destructive results favors both the communities living on the fringes of the Mole NP as well as the park management. 1.3 Aim of the study The aim of the study is formulated as follows: “To explore conflict management strategies in wildlife conservation conflict using Mole National Park and the Larabanga Community in Ghana as a case with a view to making appropriate recommendations for wildlife conservation conflict management” Objectives In order to achieve this aim, the following specific objectives are formulated: To identify the background and basics of the conflict To explore the positions, interests and values of the key actors and the strategic action exercised during the conflict To examine the linkages of the conflict to the foundations and theories of conflict and conflict management By identify conflict management approaches that are currently being used to address the conflict To propose alternative conflict management and participatory approaches that could be used Research questions What is the basis of the conflict? Why? Which actors are involved in the conflict? Why? What conflict management approaches are being used or could be used Which concept(s) of inclusive governance, which theories of democracy, is Is the governance process participatory and which theory of democracy is it built on? The analysis of this case study will focus clearly on conflict management techniques and interventionist strategies. A third party intervention strategy will focus on understanding the strategies different actors use to “empower” themselves during conflict and providing alternative ways of resolving the conflict towards a constructive end. Mole National Park The Ghanaian Wildlife Division is responsible for 15 integrated protected areas covering a total area of 13,489 sq. km under which Mole National Park, see map of Mole NP in figure 1. Mole NP is one of the six national parks in Ghana and one of the three established in the interior savannah. Fig. 1: Map of Ghana showing Mole NP and LarabangaThe IUCN defines a National Park as a protected area managed mainly for ecosystem protection and recreation. Mole NP is a category II park by IUCN classification of protected areas (IUCN, 2010). A National Park is a national asset and as such remains under the jurisdiction of a central authority personified by the WD (Symonds and Hurst, 1998). The Mole NP Protected Area in Ghana and it is considered to be the most prestigious in terms of its attraction to visitors’ facilities for visitors (IUCN, 2010). The protected areas system in Ghana is designed to conserve key representative areas of Ghana’s varied wildlife habitat (Symonds and Hurst, 1998). ontextMole National Park (4840 km2) is found in the western half of the Northern Region in the Guinea grassland zone (see figure 1). Mole is named after the river Mole which runs through the conserved area. In the 1930s about 2330 km of Mole was initially designated a Game clearance area for purposes of tsetse control. The policy of game clearance was abandoned and in 1958 an area of 1,916 sq. km. was officially constituted as the Mole Game Reserve and placed under the Forestry Department (FC, 2010) In 1971, the reserve was almost doubled in size (4912 km) and gazetted a National park under legislative instrument 710 of the wildlife reserves regulations. In 1992, with the removal of another village in the North west the park (Gbantariga), Mole NP was subsequently extended to the present 4840 km (Marseille, 2004). The park is very popular with tourists visiting northern Ghana, 93 mammals, 33 reptiles, 9 amphibians and 304 bird species have been recorded at Mole. The dominant faunal species are elephant (Loxodonta africana cyclotis), buffalo (Syncerus caffer), waterbuck (Kobus defassa), roan antelope (Hippotragus equnus), kob antelope (Kobus kob), bushbuck (Tragelaphus scriptus), warthog (Phacochoerus aethipicus), green monkey (Cercopithecus aethiops), patas monkey (Erythrocebus patas) and olive baboon (Papio anubis) (FC, 2010). Larabanga community Approximately 4 kilometres from the entrance gate of Mole NP lies the village of Larabanga, or “Home of the Arabs” as its name signifies. The Larabanga community is a 100% Muslim which has being in existence since the 15th century and originally a hunting tribe (Marseille, 2004). Larabanga is poor rural community whose main source of livelihood is farming closely followed in importance by hunting and fishing. Basic social amenities and infrastructure are critically lacking in the community (UNDP, 2007). Larabanga has a population size of about 3800 people, most community members are engaged in farming subsistence crops such as yam, maize, guinea corn and cassava (UNDP, 2007). The farm lands surround the village in all directions and are communally owned with most farmers practicing shifting cultivation. The ancient mosque of Larabanga is of Sudanese architectural style and is recognized officially as a World Heritage Site. A few retailers in the village also generate some profit by selling provisions to visiting tourists. In Larabanga 99% of the community is illiterate, the same situation counts for all other fringed communities (Marseille, 2004). Causes of the Conflict Knight (2002) describes human-wildlife conflict as relations of rivalry or antagonism between human beings and wild animals which typically arise from territorial proximity and involve reliance on the same resources or a threat to human well-being or safety. It is proposed there are two dimensions of human-wildlife conflicts: political and social. Political An increasingly important factor in the political determination of wildlife conservation conflict is the role of the established political actor, the state. Many wildlife conservation conflicts are informed by people-state conflict. When wild animals become the object of official protection measures whether in the name of game management or wildlife conservation, local victims of wildlife damage may well attribute blame to and seek political redress from, state authorities (Knight, 2000). In this case study wildlife conservation conflict is defined as follows: “a situation where an actor experiences the action of other actors in the use and management of wildlife resources as an impairment to their interest in those wildlife resources” The state through the Wildlife Department (WD) has adopted a preservationist approach in managing the Mole NP (Jachmann, 2008). This has resulted in the alienation of local communities and has excluded opportunities for participatory rural development activities and the sustainable use of the reserves’ resources, thus generating antagonism resulting in conflicts between local communities and wildlife/forestry officers (Marseille, 2008). One of the key obstacles to establishing key processes for the effective management of national park-people conflict identified by Hough (1988) is the large difference in power between government-backed parks and local people in rural areas. Central government has the weight of the legal and enforcement mechanisms of the nation state. The key infraction during the creation of the park was the compulsory acquisition of land without due compensation being paid to the evicted communities. The state has also being accused of using its power to expand the park several times without the consent of the local communities (Bosu, 2010). The local communities however are relatively powerless, the villagers try to get something back – by “poaching” park animals or by collecting inside the park – and thereby restore some degree of balance in the village-park relationship. According to Hough (1988) this difference in power is the root cause of the conflict in that the desires of central government were initially forced on the relatively powerless resident populations. Social The conflict is manifested through three major social conflict bases; issues of illegal hunting, crop damage and land access into Mole NP (Marseille, 2004). Source: Marseille, 2004 Illegal hunting Illegal hunting can be defined as the unauthorised harvesting of any wildlife species for either subsistence or commercial purposes (FC, 1994). Regulation 2 of the wildlife reserves regulations of 1971 (L.I. 710) prohibit any person at any time to hunt, capture or destroy any animal or collect or destroy any plant within the reserve (FC, 2010). Group hunting, a group of two or more individuals hunting together, is with or without a license prohibited. Nearly all hunters surrounding the park however do not carry valid licenses and hunt mainly inside the park (Marseille, 2010).Once hunters and patrolling scouts clash with each other conflict is initiated, this practically means that causing arrest is similar to causing conflict Crop damage Crop damage occurs when animals cross the boundaries and move into the farm fields to feed on the cultivated crops like maize, millet, cassava, yam, guinea corn and ground nuts. The most troublesome animals are elephants, baboons, green monkeys and red monkeys. The WD is seriously concerned about crop damage and problem animals but does not have financial resources available to grant compensation for lost crops (Wildlife Division, 2001). The current legislation does not provide sufficient incentive for farmers to care and protect wildlife on their properties. The result is that wildlife for most farmers is considered a pest that in many cases is directly competing with their agricultural activities (Wildlife Division, 2001). The farmers feel the WD should take responsibility of “their” animals to reduce the amount of damage. The WD has the opinion that the farmers are exaggerating the actual amount and frequency of damage, farmers are using crop damage only to create resentment (Wildlife Division, 2001). Resource access The wildlife reserves regulations of 1971 (L.I. 710) states that no person at any time can enter a reserve except with the consent of the Senior Wildlife Officer. It is thus illegal to enter Mole NP without official permission. The denial of land access is the third identified social conflict base, meaning that the villagers are not allowed to enter the reserves, also for purposes other than hunting such as fetching water, collecting fire wood and NTFP’s as well as visiting sacred groves (Marseille, 2004). The sacred stream case for example is a conflict relating to the issue of land access. Villagers are not permitted access to the stream creating disagreement which is primarily values and interest-based. The villagers value the stream based on its traditional and spiritual importance whereas the WD values the stream for its biological and ecological features. The villagers also have a different interest in the stream, they would like to use the stream for both swimming and fishing purposes as well as the fetching of water. The interest of the WD in the stream is linked to conservation purposes (Marseille, 2004). Also, more indirectly the conflict is history-based, culture-based due to the way the park was created and the influence of government institutions. The situational circumstances that surround the initial conflict setting determine the actual conflict base. The identified conflict bases are the surfacing fundamentals of the wildlife conservation conflict in general, however, these conflict bases have by no means static characteristics. As the conflict evolves the initial conflict base might develop into another conflict base. Conflict bases are also interrelated with each other. Ghana´s Wildlife laws Ghana´s wildlife policy states that although the Government cannot be liable for damage caused by wildlife, it will take reasonable measures to protect people, crops and property against wild animal damage. The 11th and 12th item of the Policy states that the conservation of wildlife within Parks and Reserves will over-ride all other interests in them (FC, 2010). No use of Parks and Reserves that will conflict materially with wildlife conservation will be allowed. It presents specific principles on rights of local access to basic natural resources, local democracy, participatory management and protection of forest and wildlife resources (Kotey et al, 1999). The policy entrenches a biocentric approach to wildlife conservation which is reflected in exclusive management and thus denies human access to resources because degradation of biodiversity has been verified (Caspary, 1999) Stakeholder analysis The stakeholders, generally referring to all the people who affect and/or are affected in the conflict situation, are hereby classified into these three broad groups namely; government, local community and third party. By analyzing using the conflict onion, the positions, interests, needs and fears/hopes of these stakeholder groups were identified and presented in the table 1 below. Table 1: Stakeholder classification using the conflict onion Elements of conflict Stakeholder Government Local Community Third party Position In favour of the national park Against the national park In favour of the national park Interest Biodiversity conservation Exertion of authority Access to resource Protection of heritage Resource conservation Social justice need Income (tourism) International convention Subsistence Employment Cultural values Sustainable resource management Political success Fear/hope Biodiversity loss Loss of land and cultural heritage funding The government being in favour of the creation and maintenance of the national park could be considered as the proponent in contrast with the local community as opponents in this conflict situation. The third party could be regarded as social based group which is also in favour of the national park in terms of position in the conflict. There are varying interests from the stakeholder groups with only resource conservation overlapping between the government and the third party as opposed to resource access by community. However, while the government’s interest is to show that it holds the final authority over all forest and natural resources, the local community is also interested in preserving the heritage their ancestors had handed over to them from generation to generation and the third party is also interested in social justice for the local community. Power structure of stakeholders The government represents all agencies in favour of the national park comprising the Ministry of Land and Natural Resources (MLNR), Forestry Commission (FC), Wildlife Division (WD). These are state agencies are mandated by law to manage the forest and wildlife resources for the common good of all Ghanaians. With the decentralized system of governance, the Ministry of Local Government (MLG) and the District Assembly (DA) form an allied group that supports the government in its decision. Though the MLG and the DA have the mandate to see to the sustainable development of the district, with respect to forest and wildlife resources the MLNR and the FC wield more power in this conflict situation. Hence, the DA is seen to be indifferent in this situation. The local community comprises farmers, hunters, youth group, women group and community-based organizations. These are mostly individuals and informal community associations which are easily alienated from any formal decision making processes. The third party in this conflict case is the Netherlands Development Cooperation (SNV) and other local and international non-governmental organizations such as Plan Ghana. These are considered to be social based group which operate as watch dog to ensure social justice. They serve as intermediary between the government and the local community. The power relation is depicted in the figure 1 below. Figure 3: Relationship between key stakeholders in the conflict Conflict Theory The power relation between the stakeholders is asymmetrical and could be analysed with the social conflict theory. This theory argues that in any conflict situation where power is unevenly distributed, the stakeholder group with more power exploits those with less power (Bartos and Wehr, 2002). This is the case where the government by executive instrument forcefully evicted the inhabitants during the creation of the national park without adequate compensation and resettlement plan. Type of conflict The conflict is basically over the forest and wildlife resource. The land and the wildlife resources served as the source of livelihood to the local community. The denial of access and use right to the park signifies the removal of the local community’s source of livelihood and threat to their lives. The use of arms to guard the borders of the park and ward off entry by local community members has resulted in the conflict taking on a relational dimension. Hatred and unfriendly relation between local community and staff of the park is a key factor in the conflict. Moreover, the conflict encompasses different form and nature of incompatibility. These interconnected elements culminate in the complexity of the conflict. The different bases of incompatibility (Wehr, 1979 in Walker and Daniels, 1997)), see table 2, are all to a varying degree included within the different conflict bases. Table 2: examples of incompatibility in the conflict Nature of incompatibility: Example: Fact-based The actual amount of crop damage reported by farmers Value-based The elephant :a farm pest or a valuable species Interest-based The presence of fertile arable land within the park Person-based Suspicion and mistrust among villagers about the wildlife staff History-based The way the park was created; exclusive management Culture-based Traditional linkages with sacred places within the park It could be seen that this case of a resource conflict is multifaceted and all these elements presented in table 2 above must be addressed and an acceptable agreement achieved through a participatory decision making process. The conflict phases Using the conflict escalation model, the conflict has been a long standing one with multiple phases. The resource area was first created as a wildlife reserve in 1958 and later re-designated at a national park in 1971 (FC, 2010). The period between 1958 and 1971 could be considered as the pre-conflict phase because during this period the local community started to sense the threats to its very existence. Though during this period the local community members could have access into the reserve and some communities were actually sited in the reserve, they were not allowed to engage in any commercial activity from the resources they have customary rights over (Marseille, 2010). However in 1971 when the reserve was re-designated as a national park, all the local communities within the area were forcefully evicted by the use of state security apparatus and that led to the first eruption of conflict (Marseille, 2004 ). Prior notices had been given to the local communities to evacuate from the area where they lived to outside the borders of the national park without any resettlement plan by the government for the local communities. Hence, the community readied itself to engage in open confrontation and the government knowing this also deployed the military to maintain order. The violence continued because the local communities were not ready to give up the historical heritage but with the heavy presence of military forces the violence finally calmed down (Marseille, 2004). After the eruption of the first conflict, no efforts were made to address the concerns of the local communities but between 1971 and 1992 the conflict became latent largely due to the military political regime. However, from 1992 when Ghana became a multi-party democratic state the local communities started to mobilize themselves for an action to attract attention to their plight. In 2004, an invasion of local community farmlands by wild animals, particularly elephants, triggered a massive community protest with attack on the national park through killing of animals and bushfires (Marseille, 2004). This represents the second eruption of conflict and being a democratic society, a peaceful solution was sought to resolve the conflict this time. This brought in the third party group in 2005 to address the conflict situation. Hence, the conflict is in its second post-conflict phase till date. The figure 2 below gives a representation of the stages of the conflict. Fig.4: Phases of the conflict between Larabanga and Mole NP Previous conflict resolution approaches The first formal process of conflict resolution started in 2005 with the coming in of the Netherlands Development Organization (SNV) as a third party to bring the opposing sides together to find a peaceful agreement between them. Two alternative dispute resolution (ADR) approaches were employed; namely facilitation and mediation. The facilitation process sought to deal with the strong emotions and to prepare the two sides to engage in a formal process of dialogue towards finding a common solution to the conflict. This was followed by a mediation process where the opposing sides presented their cases to the neutral mediator. In the end, the mediation process saw to the shifting of the position of the local community from opposing the existence of the national park to a new position of acceptance for the common good of the whole country (Marseille, 2004). Consequently, a agreement was successfully negotiated with the local community demanding adequate compensation, proper resettlement plan and participation in the management of the national park. (Mason and Danso, 1995) Challenges of the conflict resolution process It is indisputable that the facilitation and mediation processes employed by SNV were successful in dealing with the strong emotions and bringing these opposing sides to sit down to dialogue. Also, a peaceful agreement was reached with some level of satisfaction by both sides at the end of the negotiation (Marseille, 2004). However, the implementation of the outcomes and the action plan of the mediation process were faced with some challenges that were overlooked during the negotiation process. Stakeholder representation: from the stakeholder analysis above it could be realized that not all stakeholders were represented at the negotiation process. Typically, only the leaders of the community and the park managers were brought at the table. Hence the issue of legitimization became a limiting factor to the implementation of the outcome of the process. The park managers do not have the constitutional mandate to pay compensation and to meet the other demands of the local community. It is not clear the strategic behaviour of the MLNR, which have the ultimate authority to implement the outcomes, to stay out of the negotiation process. The legitimacy of the outcome was questioned since the creation of the national park was by executive instrument and the conflict transcends the domain of the local community and the park management team to the bigger domain of national politics. Non-binding agreement: the non-binding agreement was not appropriate for the conflict resolution process since the outcome required more of a legislative or executive instrument to implement. Again, because the agreement is non-binding, with every change of government the new administration tends not to continue with any programme of the previous government if it is not legally binding. It must be emphasized that when a new government comes to power, certain positions in the state organizations, mostly the Ministers, Chief Executives and directors, are replaced by new ones for political reasons. A new view of the problem A theoretical approach to the conflict Conflict may involve various kinds of issues: substantive, procedural and relationship. Substantive issues refers to interests that relate to tangible (observable, definable, measurable) products such as availability of firewood, protection of crop-raiding animals or stopping illegal hunting activities (Walker and Daniels, 1997). Procedural issues include a group’s need to be included in decision-making, to have their opinions heard and to be respected as a social entity (Borrini-Feyerabend et al, 2000). Conflict management involves making progress on these three fundamental dimensions of a conflict situation. Any conflict situation includes substantive, procedural and relationship dimensions (the type of conflict) and a conflict situation is initially addressed through any of the three dimensions. Natural resource policy conflicts are complex; they arise within some context which typically is defined by a complex array of factors, such as numerous parties, multiple issues, deeply held values, cultural differences, scientific and technical uncertainty and legal and jurisdictional constraints (Walker and Daniels, 1997). It has been contended that natural resource conflicts are inevitable and unavoidable but also desirable to the extent that it can lead to negotiated, innovative agreements among stakeholders (Daniels and Walker, 1997). While conflicts over resource use are never favourable, when they do occur they can be used to demonstrate the need for a conflict management approach. According to Walker and Daniels (1997) well-managed natural resource conflicts can lead to better decisions, improve social cohesion, stimulate innovation and increase morale. Complex conflict situations may never be “resolved”, so that an agreement is reached that puts an end to those incompatibilities that caused the conflict. Whatever the conflict situation and how it is characterized, co
In my third and last year as an Office Management student I had the assignment of writing a paper for the International Marketing course. I could choose one of the teacher’s topics or find one myself. I have decided to pick the topic: the differences between Western and Asian culture. This was one of the many subjects offered by the teacher. There is a lot to say about this aspect, which is why I have decided to pick two countries and to dig deeper in their culture, and their point of view regarding to advertisement. The United States and Japan will be discussed in this document and I will add several examples to give a better view on the subject. I have chosen these two countries because they are totally different from each other, what makes it the more or less easy to spot differences. The United States is for me the place to be when it comes to celebrity endorsement. Even though the two cultures are not the same, there is a link and this will be explained in the paper. I expect to receive better understanding of the two cultures but also have a look behind the scenes. I am anxious to learn whether the use of celebrity does have impact on the brand and if that impact is positive for the brand. The paper will be handled in English. I have chosen to do so, because the course and my exam were in English, and the fact that the teacher did an effort to speak in English during the course, I have found it disrespectful not to make the same effort and write this paper in English. Before starting with my main subject I would like to explain some basic things. The term ‘celebrity’ is widely used for every person that comes on TV. But for companies and brands, they are more than that. Furthermore I will start with the use of celebrity, mainly in the States and tackle the marketing strategy a little bit. My paper consists of two countries, that is why Japan will come next. The differences between these two countries will be tackled by the end along with some examples. A celebrity isâ€¦ Also called a ‘celeb’ and it is a person that is generally recognized in a society or a culture. People can become famous in different ways: through their profession, appearances in the mass media, beauty and even crime. Through mass media, starting in the 19th and 20th century, celebrities are known in a relatively short time nationally or internationally. This can sometimes occur very fast. Like Neil Armstrong being the first man walking over/on the moon in 1969, got famous in a nick of time. Celebrities appear in public in a different way, you and me can walk on the street unnoticed without anybody carrying. For celebs it is the other way around, they are walking advertising poles. From head to toe fans analyse the clothes and brands they are wearing. Furthermore they appear in public when fulfilling their jobs, like a tennis player in front of an audience. And also while attending events, like the Academy Awards, premieres of movies, etcâ€¦ The news, fashion magazines and even tabloids provide second source information concerning their private life. Besides doing what they do, they also endorse a brand, and act as spokespeople in advertising and on events to promote their brand. Or should I say the brand they work for. The most logical question is does this celebrity endorsement do some good to the brand? A study of Till, Stanley, Priluck in 2008 explains us that celebrity endorsement is used in marketing, because it is believed that the consumer’s perception of the product improves. According to McCracken (1989) a celebrity endorser “is an individual who has gained public awareness and uses this awareness in commercials and advertisements on behalf of consumer products. The use of celebrities in advertising: the States When Nike started collaborating with golf icon Tiger Woods, there was a lot of scepticism about the introduction of NIKE to the golf market. Indeed, the image of NIKE was not consistent with the image of the elite sport of golf. It is through the use of Tiger Woods in the marketing strategy that NIKE could successfully position itself in the golf market. Nike is one of the many multinationals which makes use of “celebrity endorsers’ in its marketing strategy. Other famous brands that call upon a celebrity to endorse are Pepsi with David Beckham. The famous advertising commercials of Nepresso where we admire a charismatic George Clooney. For companies it is very interesting to make use of celebrity endorsers since advertisements with celebrities, creates more attention than ads or commercials without celebrities. The celebrity endorser is not necessarily an actor or a movie star, there may for example also be considered athletes, musicians, artists and politicians. Although he passed away a long time ago, in this ad we see one of the United States most popular president, John F. Kennedy for an Omega advertising. However it is not so that celebrity endorsement guarantees success. The success of using this marketing strategy depends on the values â€‹â€‹that the celebrity endorser gives to the product. It is even possible that the celebrity’s own image and values â€‹â€‹can be transferred to the product. Not only theory but also practice has shown us that the use of celebrities generates a lot of publicity. Yet these endorsements can cost a lot of money to companies. For instance Venus Williams has signed a five-year contract worth 40 million dollars, to promote and endorse Reebok. Back in the days when he was the most popular athlete in the World, Michael Jordan had signed a contract for 20 million dollars with NIKE. This proved to be very lucrative for Nike, because the AIR Jordan was for a long time very famous and every teen on the block bought the shoe. All of these celebrities gain more from endorsement contracts than from the sport they practice. That is why celebrity endorsements increase every year. In 2007, celebrities in the United States were used in 25% of all TV commercials. What is marketing communication? A company has many audiences. Consumers and other customers are only a small part of the target groups. Marketing communication can be described as getting in touch with trade and or consumers to influence their knowledge, attitudes and behaviour in a direction that is favourable for the marketing policy. The different marketing communication tools are used to influence positively the choices of the (potential) consumers. These marketing tools can be deployed at different levels. A distinction is made between the cognitive, affective and conative phase. Within the cognitive phase, the goal is to familiarize the customer with the product or the company. The affective phase is aimed at the emotions. Within this phase the customer needs to develop emotions and feelings towards the product or the company. The conative and affective phase can often be combined. In the conative stage, the customer actually makes a purchase. It is obvious that all companies aim to fulfil the last phase. A little bit of marketing strategy In this part of the paper I will dig a little bit deeper in the marketing strategy. The celebrity needs to match the brand, they are not randomly chosen by companies, just for fun. It is a whole strategy and a detailed process that comes along. I will also talk about what is important to guarantee the success of the brand and on what companies focus when choosing their celebrities. It can be said that celebrity endorsement is widely used because research indicates that the impact of celebrity endorsement is a positive investment in the marketing of a brand. However, it is not always successful. It is important for companies that they use celebrities in an efficient way in their strategy. The question is whether celebrity endorsement is the way to go when introducing new products into the market. Research indicates that about half of the marketing budget is spent on marketing when launching new products. Companies are willing to spend a lot of money, because on average 40% of product launches fail. Because so much money is spent on the marketing of new products, there is a greater chance that many companies will opt for celebrities in their commercials and ads (advertisements). This is one of the most expensive options within marketing communications. The focus is therefore on the impact of celebrity endorsement in marketing strategies of new products. With the introduction of new products, consumer uncertainty is relatively higher than the existing products. This consumer uncertainty should be removed with a good marketing policy. With high consumer uncertainty, new products should be brought more to the attention of consumers than already existing products. So that the consumer’s uncertainty is no longer present. It may also be noted that consumers dealing with new products still have no awareness of the product and thus no positive attitude is yet developed. This is necessary because it leads to purchase intent. Two dimensions: Attractiveness and credibility If companies want their brand to be successful throughout the help of a celebrity, there are two dimensions that they must take into account. The two dimensions of interest are namely the attractiveness and credibility of the celebrity. Several studies indicate that these two dimensions may be crucial for the success of celebrity endorsement in marketing strategy. In addition to these dimensions they also take a look at the match-up principle and the ability to use multiple celebrities in an add or advertisement. The match-up principle will be treated in this paper as this is a generally accepted principle in the choice of celebrity endorsement. Attractiveness of the celebrity The first dimension is to take into account the attractiveness of the celebrity. If an attractive celebrity is used, it is more likely that awareness is created among the target audience than when using an unattractive celebrity. This awareness is eventually to be transformed into a positive attitude of the brand. The attractiveness of the celebrity has namely a positive effect on the attitude of consumers towards the brand or product advertising .The dimension attractiveness of the celebrity is formed by the physical appearance, intelligence, athletic ability and the lifestyle of the celebrity. Based on these factors the company should decide which celebrity is suitable for his or her product or brand. Credibility of the celebrity The second dimension concerns the credibility of the celebrity. Credibility is divided into two factors: expertise and trustworthiness. Expertise of the celebrity is perceived by consumers on the basis of the allegations that the celebrity is doing in advertising. Reliability, however, is perceived as to whether the celebrity can achieve the results from the advertising or ad in his ‘real life’. Research shows that companies with good credibility factors interact within the advertising, as the celebrities generally are regarded as credible. This is crucial because the credibility of the celebrity can affect the opinions, attitudes and behaviour of the target group. The match-up principle The success of the collaboration between celebrity and the brand or product depends to a large extent on the match-up principle. The match-up basically revolves around the congruence (being suitable and appropriate) between the celebrity and the brand or product. With congruence, I mean the consistency between the characteristics of the celebrity and the product attributes. This is particularly important because the celebrity can convey its values on the product or brand without changing the product or brand image. A good match-up creates a more positive attitude of the consumers. I personally hate to see ads that use celebrities when it is obvious that the celebrity does not match the brand at all. To explain the match-up principle better, I will briefly discuss the three phases: Phase 1: In this stage, a number of values are associated with the celebrity. These values occur on the basis of the celebs appearances in the (mass) media. Consumers understand the significance and reflect it on the celebrity. Phase 2: In this phase, the values and image of the celebrity are associated with the product, through an official “endorsement”. Phase 3: During this phase, the values, by working with the brand or product, clearly belong to the consumer. Because the consumers associate the values of the celebrity with the values of the product they will proceed to purchase and consume the product. Multiple celebrities in an advertising or promotional One way to merge the above factors is the use of several celebrities in an advertisement or promotion. The company must then choose celebrities who complement each other within the advertising or ad. This could be, for example, the attractiveness of the celebrities chosen for an athlete and someone with an intelligent mind. To ensure credibility, a knowledgeable person and a trustworthy person can be used. Gillette, for example, is a company that applies several celebrities in its ads by using Roger Federer, Thierry Henry and Tiger Woods. An important argument for the choice of several celebrities in the marketing of a company, in these ways different audiences can be reached on the basis of a celebrity who fits in this group. When using multiple celebrities, multiple values will be linked to the product. The risks of celebrity endorsements Although there are examples that indicate that celebrity endorsement can be a good idea, there are the necessary risks. When it is assumed that all conditions of the right person for the right product are satisfied, there are two points to worry about. The greatest risk is the celebrity itself. Celebrity branding is all about transferring the value of a person on a product. The two concerns are: How long will the fame remain, and can the celebrity retain its status? The second concern is the life of celebrity, his personal integrity. If he is embroiled in a scandal, that could destroy the brand. Before Michael Jackson ended in a scandal, he had a successful deal with Pepsi. Naturally Pepsi had to stop the contract in order to prevent damage to the brand. Also O.J. Simpson was once the face of a car rental company. After the accusations of the murder of his wife, his contract was also stopped. It is very bad for a brand to be associated with an alleged murderer or paedophile. Although there are brands that hire intentionally stars with a “wrong” image, this is a risky step. Pepsi made again a wrong decision, by taking this risk to use hip-hop star Ludacris in its campaigns. Ludacris’ disrespectful attitude and his rap songs full with cursing did not match-up with the brand. After a campaign was started by a conservative politician against this endorsement, Pepsi was forced by public pressure to stop the deal with Ludacris. Although one should avoid bad publicity, it is a fact that on the international market celebrity endorsements are very suitable to create a distinctive brand. That the rules of celebrity endorsement in Japan differ from those of the West is largely due to the difference in culture, more on that later. Brands must be careful with the choices they make. When they choose a celebrity with the right personality traits, these characteristics will also be awarded to the brand and the brand will take advantage from it. If the wrong person is chosen his or her personality traits will be awarded to the brand causing the end of the brand. Very well accepted and attractive super stars like Bruce Willis and Whitney Houston failed in turning their endorsements into success. Simply assuming that a person just has to be famous to represent a brand is incorrect. A considerable number of failures prove the opposite. In the figure below you can see some of the endorsements that turned out to be a success or a failure. Let’s go Asian: Japan and its celebrity endorsement In East Asian countries like Japan and South Korea, many celebrities are used in advertising. In Japan, 70 % of TV commercials use a celebrity from the sports, music, film, and fashion or entertainment business. Celebrities are used as endorsers with a statement about the quality of the product / brand or are shown only in relation to the brand /product. The idea is that the values and associations of the celebrity will be transferred to the brand and the brand by the user. Moreover, it is a form of product differentiation as other awards from competing brands is not possible or desirable. But why is the use of celebrities in Japan so much greater than in the United States and Europe? In Japan they do not only use Western and Japanese celebrities, but also ‘talents’. These are young Japanese who are on their way to the top in the worlds of fashion, music, film and entertainment. Advertising for these ‘talents’ is their way to fame. Japanese advertising does not only use the reputation and associations of established celebrities, but also creates celebrities. And this goes a step further than the ads in the States. Japanese ‘talents’ are normal people like you and me. They are slightly good looking, pretty much the girl or boy next door. They form a peer group with which one can easily identify. In a collectivist culture belonging to a group or identifying with that group is very important. In Japanese advertising values â€‹â€‹related to ‘face’ and harmony lead to an indirect communication style. They feel uncomfortable with a commercial that takes that emphasise on situations or facts. A direct approach is seen as an insult to the intelligence of the consumer. The goal of advertising in the Japanese ads is to make the consumer your friend, to win his trust and respect. This goal can be achieved by entertaining the audience. Identification of the brand, the company name or product in the commercial is less important than the pleasant voices of consumers. Japanese advertisers generally use much of the time in the commercial for building trust, understanding and dependence. The result is a kind of advertising that appeals to the imagination and few to the facts. Advertising show usually no product attributes, the ‘fun’ of advertising is more important. In Japanese commercials you see serenity, and nature symbols. The tone of voice is indirect, subtle, with lots of symbolism. Comparative advertising is a confrontation and is therefore seen as denigrating the competition. This is in conflict with the Asian value of harmony. The style and manner of presentation is important. A pretty picture, a story or a poem can be important parts of the advertisement. Values â€‹â€‹and appeals found in their advertising are respect for elders. The relationship of man with nature / the unity with nature is often the subject of advertising. Japanese are crazy about celebrities. A product is often associated with celebrities, who often represent the target. If Western models, celebrities or situations are used, it is only as a symbol of prestige and status: they are not intended to illustrate the western values. In Japan, a part of television and popular culture is strongly linked to the entertainment world. Songs are often especially composed for use in commercials. Differences between Western and Asian cultures There are several cultural differences that may explain the use of celebrities. While the American culture is characterized by individualism, in Japan it is more the collectivist culture. In a collectivist culture they emphasize on conformity, adaptation and obedience. We, the European and American see this as negative values, but in Japan, this is well appreciated. Celebrities fit better in a collectivist than an individualist culture. In Japan they highly look up to celebrities, especially a Western celebrity. You will also see many Western celebrities in Japanese advertising, which I will explain later on. The power distance is quite large. The statements of celebrities are followed uncritically because they are not famous for nothing. Their values rays on the brand that they support, and also on the user of that brand. Power distance and individualism-collectivism are the key explanations for the difference between East Asian and Western countries. These are two of the four Hofstede dimensions of culture. For the other two dimensions (uncertainty avoidance and masculine-feminine) there is no large difference, even though Japan is the most masculine country in the world. In a masculine country performance and success are central, in a feminine country caring for others and quality of life is more important. Advertising is strongly influenced by culture, especially in comparisons between East Asia, Europe and North America. But even between Asian countries there are cultural differences. Some campaigns may be used in several countries, but in most cases adaptation is necessary to make an effective campaign. And in many cases adaptation is inadequate and separate campaigns must be developed for each country taking into account the national culture. View of Western culture on celebrity endorsement Celebrities and marketing go well together. There is indeed a lot of money to distribute. A study of GMI revealed that consumers, especially in the Western world are almost insensitive to the advertisements with celebrities. The celebrity endorsement, according to the agency GMI might not be as effective as many believe. In certain western markets, the strategy used did not succeed to increase the value of the product nor to persuade the consumer to buy the product The researchers note that the effectiveness of celebrity endorsement in promoting brands depends on the local culture. “In the Western world they are the most indifferently towards the use of celebrities in advertising,” tells GMI. “In the United States 79% of the respondents indicated that a celebrity has no effect on the way they think about a product. Only 13% admitted that through celebrity endorsement the value of the brand increases. “But in Japan, it is a completely different situation,” said GMI. “In Japan, 60% thinks that celebrities give a product more value. The study also shows that consumer find other techniques such as free samples, mouth-to-mouth are more efficient than celebrity endorsements. These techniques influence their buying behaviour slightly more. In the United States 34% of the consumers think this way. In Japan, 29% of those surveyed found advertising after the free samples the most efficient way to convert to a purchase. It took word-of-mouth advertising only 12%. Celebrity endorsement has proved most successful, implying that celebrities played an important role in their purchasing decision. Global media can create global stars. But consumers are much more sophisticated and less inclined to swallow simple, uniform marketing messages. The great indifference of consumers in the West may even be a sign that celebrity endorsement can have the opposite effect and repel consumers. American finest celebrities head to Japan Many American stars earn large sums of money by linking themselves to brands as a spokesperson by recommending certain products. Others appear nowhere in advertising because they do not want their fans to think they are selling out. However, many of these stars cannot resist the temptation to go abroad and appear in commercials and ads. Nowhere is this truer than in Japan. Even the richest and most famous people do not just say no to advertisers who pay them one to three million U.S. dollars for a couple of hours of work. And this is for a commercial that lasts 15 to 20 seconds. Mega stars like Meg Ryan, Demi Moore, Brad Pitt and Harrison Ford received millions to appear in a Japanese commercial. Meg Ryan makes recommendations for cosmetics and tea, Brad Pitt promotes tins of coffee and jeans, and Demi Moore tries to persuade the Japanese audience to purchase protein drinks. Ford received several millions to appear shirtless on ads and commercials for Kirin Beer (see below). Sometimes stars are even forced to change their image and personality to better suit the style of advertising, this is needed to fit the Japanese companies. Even the Japanese public has a different flavour than people in the West are used to have. What we, in Europe and the U.S., perceive as cheap is seen in Japan as a very normal and effective way to advertise. In a commercial for shampoo, famous actor Dennis Hopper appeared in a bathtub player with a rubber duck. There are several reasons why Japanese companies are willing to pay large amounts for these stars. Many Japanese are fascinated by the American culture and American stars. It also gives a brand an American international star status. In Japanese commercials, style and atmosphere are more important than dull product information and testimonials. Japanese are very sensitive to entertainment. Because a commercial in Japan only last 15 seconds, a western star is easily recognized and the attention of the viewer is directly captured, which is more worth than money. American film studios also encourage celebrities to appear in Japanese commercial lay. In this way it is easier for American films to attract the Asian population. Often the release of a new film and the appearance of the star of this film in Japanese ads fall together. While many stars go abroad for advertising, they all try to protect their image at home. There are even clauses in the contracts stating that the commercial must not be shown outside of Japan and sometimes even be discussed. With the growth of the Internet it is possible that stars like Arnold Schwarzenegger secrecy about their advertising activities are likely to remain unnoticed for the American public. Above you have just read why Japanese are less picky when it comes to match-up than for example in America. Also it seems that the credibility aspect is less of an issue in Japan. If you are a celebrity, you’re in Japan, by definition, credible, match up or not. Yet it is true that these endorsements in Japan are indeed profitable. The public in Japan is in the long term a lot more loyal than the audience in the West. If a celebrity in Japan is loved, this will remain even if the celebrity has disappeared from the spotlight. The website ‘japander.com’ made an index with all of American celebrities that appear in Japanese advertising. Conclusion I can now say with proud that I have chosen the right countries to tackle this difficult but at the same time interesting topic. I am sure that many students would think that it is easy to discuss this subject, because there is a lot of information on the internet and in books. Well I can tell them that a lot of information makes it harder to write something, because it is up to the writer to eliminate unnecessary information and to write in a way that is readers friendly. My hardest task was to make sure that I removed what is not relevant and to dig deeper in the part that was relevant. Thanks to experienced authors such as Grant McCracken, Stanley and many others it became easier for me to understand what I was writing about. Their view on culture and celebrities and the way they explain it was a relief to me. This paper taught me that celebrities take a big bite in the budget of a company. Nevertheless this kind of technique in marketing is increasing and will remain because study does show us that it is very profitable for a brand to use a celebrity. Even though in Japan they do not strictly follow the rule of ‘match-up’, I strongly believe that a match-up is needed to make an advertisement successful. Commercials, advertisements and endorsements where the celebrity has got absolutely nothing to do with the product is for me a no go. And in that match-up, according to me the most important aspect is credibility. I am not the first one to go and buy a product once a celebrity tells me to do so, but I could slightly get more interested in the brand if I notice a strong credibility in the ad. After reading several studies, information and documents I can conclude that the use of celebrities, when respecting the two dimensions I discussed in the paper, could have a very positive impact on the brand and the reputation of the company. I know I am supposed to thank in the beginning, but I have decided to do it know. I rather want the teacher to read my paper, so she could notice for herself what I am capable of, before I thank her for the support and counseling throughout the school year. Sources BOOKS Margolis J., Garrigan P., Guerrillamarketing voor dummies, 2008, Pearson Education Benelux, Amsterdam Kotler P., Marketing: de essentie, 2009, Pearson Education Benelux, Amsterdam De Mooij M., Wereldmerken : hoe reclame omgaat met cultuurverschillen, 1998, Alphen aan den Rijn, Samson WEBSITES Joyce Huijsman, Humor doesn’ttraval: Frank Sinatra spaghetti, (http://joycehuijsman.wordpress.com/2011/09/28/frank-sinatra-spaghetti/) University of Texas at Austin, Celebrity Advertising in Japan and Korea – Doing it the Asian Way, PDF, (http://www.perfspot.com/docs/doc.asp?id=110674) The free library, Cultural differences in television celebrity use in the United States and Lebanon, (http://www.thefreelibrary.com/Cultural differences in television celebrity use in the United States…-a0208956138) Fred van Raaij, Beroemdheden en cultuur, (http://www.swocc.nl/column/beroemdheden-en-cultuur.php) Managing21, Westerling ongevoelig voor beroemdheden?, (http://managing21.skynetblogs.be/archive/2005/01/24/westerling-ongevoelig-voor-beroemdheden.html) McCann People, Sterren in reclame verleiden niet altijd, (http://mccannpeople.wordpress.com/2009/03/31/sterren-in-reclame-verleiden-niet-altijd/) The Pop history dig; JFK, Pitchman?, (http://www.pophistorydig.com/?tag=politicians-advertising) Colombia Business School, Celebrities’ impact on branding, PDF, (http://worldlywriter.com/images/portfolio/Proposals/Celebrity_Branding.pdf) Martin Stam, De invloed van celebritiyendorsement in de marketingcommunicatie strategie van nieuwe producten, PDF, (http://arno.uvt.nl/show.cgi?fid=116167) Bart Sikkema, Who will be your next celebrity endorser?, PDF, (http://essay.utwente.nl/58467/1/scriptie_B_Sikkema.pdf) Japander, Celebrity advertising, (http://www.japander.com) IMAGES All of the images were copied from Google (www.google.com) ãƒãƒªã‚¦ãƒƒãƒ‰ International Marketing Celebrity endorsement Hollywood
JNTUA Project Management Discussion.
In your initial post, answer the following questions about IT Project Management. What is a project, and what are its main attributes? How is a project different from what most people do in their day-to-day jobs? Discuss the importance of top management commitment and the development of standards for successful project management. Provide examples to illustrate the importance of these items based on your experience on any type of project. Discuss the unique challenges that an IT project presents.In your peer responses, be sure discuss your thoughts on project management, your views on project’s attributes, and your thoughts on successful project management. You can take opposing/differing views than your peers but be sure to provide applicable resources as needed. Properly provide examples in your peer responses as well and any additional challenges you see with IT projects.Please make your initial post and two response posts substantive. A substantive post will do at least TWO of the following:Ask an interesting, thoughtful question pertaining to the topicAnswer a question (in detail) posted by another student or the instructorProvide extensive additional information on the topicExplain, define, or analyze the topic in detailShare an applicable personal experienceProvide an outside source (for example, an article from the Library) that applies to the topic, along with additional information about the topic or the source (please cite properly in APA)Make an argument concerning the topic.At least one scholarly source should be used in the initial discussion thread. Be sure to use information from your readings and other sources from the Library. Use proper citations and references in your post.
Cyber Paper about “Dark web”.
JNTUA Project Management Discussion
The research project is research on a cyber-security issue 5 page Paper on a cyber topic “Dark web” and PresentationPaper must be have citations, references, excellent english. 30 Marks if – YOU HAVE ANALYZED THE DATA FROM THE LITERATURE REVIEW AND HAVE CLEARLY EXPLAINED YOUR TOPIC 25 Marks if – PAPER IS GRAMMATICALLY CORRECT WITH NO SPELLING ERRORS.20 Marks if – RELEVANT TOPIC ABOUT CYBERSECURITY. 25 Marks for – 5-6 SCHOLARLY SOURCES USED – NOT JUST GOOGLE OR WEBSITES. 30 Marks if – YOU HAVE ANALYZED THE DATA FROM THE LITERATURE REVIEW AND HAVE CLEARLY EXPLAINED YOUR TOPIC. attach a sample. It is double spaced, in-text citations, APA format (https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/18/)Bibliography in the end (at least 6 sources)
Cyber Paper about “Dark web”
Initial Post By Wednesday’s end, read and independently research an Article, Amendment, or Section of the U.S. Constitution of your choice. Consider how, as the supreme law of the land, it may have in
S. Constitution of your choice. Consider how, as the supreme law of the land, it may have influenced or framed one of the laws or regulations that was discussed in the text and lectures. If at first you do not see how, for example, the Constitutional mandate about voting age relates to information security or privacy, think more critically. Did we discuss the various ages that the law views a “child” as? Every law, by definition, relates back to the U.S. Constitution in one manner. Countless civil and criminal lawsuits—car wrecks, contract issues in business, any crime, etc.—contain arguments that touch on the Constitution, even when the issue at bar seems far afield. It is because of that omnipresent and important function of the U.S. Constitution that this exercise will help you understand the entire course in its light. Responsive Posts As always, before Sunday’s end respond to at least two other students’ Initial Posts. Share how you see the relationship differently, or how perhaps your own assigned Article, Amendment, or Section also relates to their law that was cited in our course.
Tesco decision making and product development
online dissertation writing In February 1995, Tesco brought some changes that how it did business so fundamental that its effect is not seen in all parts of society. The events changed the way that Tesco makes decisions to develop products, manages his business and especially the way it serves its customers. This day Tesco started “Club Card”, its customer loyalty program. As major food retailers in a competitive market sector, there is always a need for brand loyalty Tesco is developing a contemporary version of the original concept, which went much further in developing an active relationship with customers. Today, Tesco Club has one of the most victorious loyalty programs in the past ten years and a key driver for this is that the rule stated in Tesco integral core purpose of “create value for customers.” “The Club card creates relationship with its suppliers” [i] . Tesco’s marketing works because they combine insight with creativity, value and volume. Today it is not only the largest food retailers in the UK, it use a powerful Internet supermarket. It is one of the fastest growing European companies and financial services probably one of the world’s most successful representative of the CRM. The Tesco Club card is the most successful CLP currently in the UK, one third of all UK households (there are 25 million club cards in circulation, of which 10 million are active in a week) was used, with 82% of Tesco sales go through the loyalty card (out-of -town superstores, this figure rises to over 95%) [ii] . Tesco may have also received this enviable position without a club card, but it was not as fast or as cheap as it without the club card that offers a glimpse of the loyalty card data did have done. This information wills almost all major business decisions, the management team makes, reducing the risk of taking bold new initiatives. It can make mass production to meet the needs of all types of customers, for every taste and income and age groups. Not on the basis of what they think the broad mass of customers want but in the knowledge of what has to choose individual accounts active and what they prefer? While every company talks about customer-oriented Tesco that commitment tangible made. It develops not only the Club card loyalty to Tesco to show, but more important is to recognize to Tesco’s loyalty. Club card is a reflection of the attributes of the company and its commitment: a strong team ethic, a commitment to customer service, and above all, top-down retailer’s pragmatism. The concept of loyalty in general and illustrated the brand of loyalty which is relevant to Tesco. It gave us the outline of the form and structure of Tesco’s Club card and how it embedded within the organization. The study of methodologies will figure out, that what loyalty approach Tesco adopts? How its strategy aligns with the loyalty model and overall business objectives, if loyalty forms the core of its business strategy and how much does it contribute to enhancing customer experience and achieving business objectives. It also seeks to evaluate the fidelity concept and its effectiveness in the future. The research objectives through application of appropriate research approach, strategies and methods. We can work to ensure that the data is valid and can be reliably detected, not contaminated and reduces distortion to a minimum. To this end, the proven loyalty of the index for measuring the “Customer Loyalty Index ‘to find out the effect of the loyalty card is used. Focus groups, telephone and have face to face interviews as part of the primary data collection, the results Help triangulate performed. The women were more likely to own a Club card and more likely to be influenced with the loyalty schemes. They are significantly better at ‘recommending’ and once satisfied served as better advocators. There is a noticeable difference in shopping behaviour between Club card and non-Club card members as well, with Club card members scoring higher than non-Club card in every loyalty dimension. Results will revealed a correlation between household size and CLI, it could be noticed that loyalty is more or less directly proportional to the household size (the more the size of household, the more loyal the members and visa-versa). Result will also indicate that Club card may have an effect on customers monthly spend, with Club card members spending major portion of their monthly spend with Tesco as compared to non-Club card members. Though all these factors pointed will toward the positive effects of Club card, none of the participants declared Club card as the prime reason for selecting a supermarket. the analysis part, where the qualitative and quantitative data collected will be carefully examined, analyzed and discussed. Data collected from various sources will be triangulated before coming to a definitive conclusion. This analysis of the information has been collected. The results of the ‘mall intercept interviewing’ will be discussed and analyzed first. Analysis of focus groups, telephonic interviews and face-to-face interviews will follow. These findings along with the findings from the secondary research will be triangulated and a thorough examination of the Tesco Club card will be done. The factors which have led to the success of the Club card will be highlighted and the strategic implications of the Club card will be analyzed. The evaluation of loyalty as a corporate strategy will be discussed. This is a research proposal for the study. The proposal will begin by outlining the aims and objectives of the study. A literature review will be conducted to critically review the views of different writers in the field of marketing and to find out loyalty card role with costumer relation. It also looks at the reasons for making a project successful. The research methodology of this study is by issuing questionnaire to key individuals involved in the project. The information from the questionnaires will be collected and analyzed. Conclusions will be drawn from the analysis. Introduction to the organisation 1.0 UK RETAIL IDUSTRY The retail industry in the UK is the most competitive and fast growing one. In 2008-09, 11% of all VAT registered businesses in the UK were retailers, with the total number currently at 180,875. UK retail sector generate almost 8% of the GDP, accounting for one-fifth of the UK economy. Retail industry employs 11% of the total UK workforce. Total combine sales of this sector in UK were £265 billion in 2007-08, larger than the combined economies of Denmark and Portugal. TESCO Tesco is the UK’s largest retail chain and has outlet in every post code of the country with 2,115 stores and 280,000 staff. Internationally it is the third biggest chain in the world, employing 440,000 people in 4,000 stores across 14 countries. Tesco operates its retail outlets business operation in six formats namely; Express (961 stores) Extra (177 stores), Metro (174 stores), Superstore (448 stores), Homeplus (10 stores) and OneShop (512 stores). Tesco.com is the online arm of the business operations to facilitate the delivery of products, mainly grocery, to customer’s door step. Tesco direct is online shopping mall for non-food items. 1.1a Tesco’s Competitors Tesco overtook Sainsbury’s as biggest UK supermarket 14 years ago. Tesco’s main operation is sales of grocery and household appliances. Four major retail supermarket chains in UK have following market share as of August 2008. Aims and Objectives 1.2.1 Aim To analyzes the concept of loyalty in retail and relationship with the customer. To measures its efficiency as a corporate strategy with the Club card intervention in Tesco. The idea of this research is to expand the concept of fresh and practically THE IMPACT OF CUSTOMER LOYOLITY SCHEME TO THE TESCO. and the part played in the strategic decision making. It is the strategic importance of the incentive programs that the project seeks to look into. Objective 3 is in a sense, the primary objective of the research, all other goals is needed before a thorough understanding of the strategic implications of “loyalty programs” is acquired can be realized. 1.2.2 Objectives To assesses the role of loyalty scheme in promoting loyalty and building positive customer relationships. The market research company Mintel, says that there is mixed evidence that loyalty cards really do promote loyalty. Gary Davies (2004), professor of retailing at Manchester Business School (Mentioned in Web 4), believes that loyalty cards have run out of steam stating that most of us have cards for at least two stores, so that defeats the point [of loyalty]. The UK’s top two supermarkets, Tesco and Sainsbury’s, both say that loyalty schemes are an integral part of their retailing strategy and insist they remain committed to them. The study aims to assess the contribution of loyalty programs in the creation of long-term relationships with customers. To analyze the idea of loyalty and recognize the relationship between customer satisfaction and their loyalty. This relation is asymmetric with the argument that usually loyal customers are satisfied, satisfaction is an unreliable precursor loyalty. This research should define the ‘real’ meaning of loyalty in retail and how it differs to the satisfaction. Payne says that “customer loyalty is one of the most misunderstood concepts in recent years” [iii] . To point out loyalty card success for TESCO’s and identifies key areas where TESCO is competing. The study tries to point out the parameters. TESCO has to quantify the impact of its loyalty program and to evaluate if these parameters are justified. Safeway’s loyalty program (ABC Card) started well, but was finally withdrawn four and half a half year after it introduction. ASDA afraid of rolling out nationwide loyalty card for trials at different stores. Tesco Club Card was three times more famous than Sainsbury’s saver card and obtained two and a half times more awareness than any other card. (Woolf, 2002), Tesco CEO Terry Leahy says: “It’s not the skill, but that counts.” [iv] This research aims to lift TESCO skill and the will of its loyalty program makes and see how it helps the dealer price of success. Evaluate whether Loyalty Marketing, a retail form part of a company’s overall strategy of the company. Is Loyalty Marketing dead or is it a vital force to reckon? Anti-loyalty lobbyists argue that loyalty programs are little more than a rebate system that do nothing to create consumer loyalty. Loyalty fills fans, on the other hand, are entitled loyalty programs of the core business strategy to enable them to enhance customer value, market share and new markets successfully. The research will involve the myth and reality of loyalty marketing and the role it plays in the design of Tesco’s overall business strategy. Scope Since the study examines the Tesco Club Card not only can the results be generalized to all bonus programs. Future research should attempt to replicate the study on other retailers to be able to get a broader understanding of the impact of customer loyalty-loyalty programs. This study examined only the impact of the Tesco Club Card loyalty in terms of their impact market place, it deals not with the fidelity of impact in terms of the financial impact of the program. The Econometrics of the club card does not form part of the research. Rationale The interesting perceptions, conflicting thinking in terms of loyalty in the retail and bonus programs, which attracted sufficient interest to the author, go to a research into this elusive concept. Although conventional wisdom says that “customer loyalty is the most important aspect of any business because companies live or die from repeat business” [v] , in reality, loyalty programs surprisingly ineffective and almost 50% of them miss their business goals partially or completely. Nevertheless, most major supermarket multiples have been if the train is, for some it is a huge success as it turned out to others more than a liability’s. The intricate history of the retail trade was what the author go in for a research on loyalty, since none of the existing literature was a clear decision on the issue of loyalty in retail. Loyalty is an armory, which were conquered and died?
Please open the pdf I attached labeled “Santiago Sierra”. Look at the photograph and in a one page (about
Please open the pdf I attached labeled “Santiago Sierra”. Look at the photograph and in a one page (about. Please open the pdf I attached labeled “Santiago Sierra”. Look at the photograph and in a one page (about 350 word) paper, describe the artwork visually and state your interpretation. Read the art review. Add a paragraph to the end of your paper stating whether or not you agree with the art reviewer’s assessment. Did the art reviewer do a good job describing and interpreting the sculpture? Does the art reviewer’s interpretation match yours? If you have any questions please feel free to ask, thanks!Please open the pdf I attached labeled “Santiago Sierra”. Look at the photograph and in a one page (about
GCCCD The Obsessive Compulsive Psychological Disorder and Related Disorders Flyer
GCCCD The Obsessive Compulsive Psychological Disorder and Related Disorders Flyer.
Please pick a psychological disorder category from the following options. Create a flyer designed to raise awareness about the disorder you choose among the general population. Please use graphics in your flyer (not just text. Think of what things grab your attention as a starting point). You may choose from the following:
Anxiety disordersMood disordersObsessive compulsive disorders and related disordersSchizophreniaDissociative disordersPersonality disordersEating disordersDisorders in childhoodUsing your book and Google, research your chosen disorder category.Create a flyer that addresses the following:
Define the disorder categoryHistory of the disorder (how it was perceived and explained throughout history)Risk factors for the disorderWho the disorder impacts most frequently (age, gender, race)Recommended treatment and ways to get help (hint- provide resources to a local treatment center/hotline if possible).2 ways to reduce the stigma around this psychological disorderMake sure to CITE your sources
GCCCD The Obsessive Compulsive Psychological Disorder and Related Disorders Flyer