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Concepts of Privacy and Data Protection

In the advanced age, information assumes an important job in our day to day lives. It’s there in ways we sometimes even fail to notice. Taking the instance of online shopping, where after purchasing a product we need to provide the website with our name and address. This is a very direct way in which our data is being collected. Sometimes, data collection can be less visible. Take data brokers, for example. You’ve most likely never heard about them, however these organizations have some expertise in making highly detailed profiles of people for sponsors. Even a single profile can provide up to 1500 data points. This can incorporate an individual’s sexuality, browse history, political connection, and hospital records. In this document, we aim to investigate this discussion, focusing on the related however distinct concepts of privacy and data protection. This will help us to have a clear idea of how these issues vary and overlap; how both are influenced by the digital age. The increase in computing power near the beginning of the 21st century has led to a cascading effect in terms of individual privacy getting compromised. With increased ability to deal with vast amounts of data, data brokers have a vast collection of in-depth profiles of people around the world. A particular firm by the name of Acxiom has even claimed to have in-depth data on 10% of the entire world’s population (Lopes, 2018). Most likely, this data is sold to advertisers who utilize it to find their target demographic layer and focus on delivering their products to them. Social Platforms such as Facebook provide us social connectivity for free in exchange for information about us. What brands do we like, which movies, books or events? All of this personal information is sold to advertisers once again. We may not even be aware of this and those of us who are aware of this fact, never read the “Terms of Service” whilst signing up on such a social network (Lopes, 2018). Indeed, most of the problem seems to be in the realm of awareness. The more aware the citizen is about how his/her privacy is being compromised, the more inspired to take matters to the law. In certain recent cases, the government has succeeded in penalizing certain corporations for misusing data as we will see later on. By 2019, it is a well-known fact that any free internet-based product with a terms of service most likely uses our personal data. However, most of us do not seem to mind it! Is it not better that advertisers have our information and know which products to show to each of us? On the other side of the coin, there is an uneasy feeling that nothing about us is private anymore. Apart from brands, movies, events, books, etc our conversations, bank transaction history, location data is monitorable given leaps in technology over the last decade. In some countries, the process is also legalized (Lopes, 2018). Hence, we need to ask ourselves the pertinent question. Is privacy dead or do we as citizens no longer desire it in a social context? A debatable point no doubt, but given the amount of data being latently collected and our nonchalance when signing up for any social platform, maybe we could argue it is not a social norm anymore. After all, this “gentle invasion of privacy” does not seems to affect us so negatively as we might expect. At this point we do not seem to be much concerned with our loss of individual privacy. Most people might think that in order to avail the services of a social platform such as Facebook or Twitter, it is fine for them to know about our personal details. But what about corporate entities which might use our personal data to cause harm? Do they exist and if so, are they legal? The bad news is that they do exist, and do affect our social image and career negatively. For example, Health networks such as PatientsLikeMe clearly states during the sign-up process “you should expect that every piece of information you submit (even if it is not currently displayed) may be shared with our partners and any member of PatientsLikeMe”. Soon, it came to light that even the private patient-to-patient conversations were being copied off the site by a media research firm called Nielsen and Co (Angwin, 2010). Other unfortunate cases such as the one of Catherine Taylor are dime a dozen, falsely accused because of mistakes done by a predictive algorithm. This prediction of her being classified as a methamphetamine dealer was mistaken and it took her four years to get a job and even more to properly get all suspicions removed from her name (Mui, 2011). Payment histories are also sold off by firms to large corporations who might end up targeting individual citizens and charging them excessively. In Mui’s article it is mentioned: “The National Communications, Telecom and Utilities Exchange collects account information for 63 of that industry’s largest firms — although the group’s director won’t specify which ones. Members use the data to decide who to approve for new accounts and the size of a security deposit.” The article goes on to say, that the data could be positively use to re-evaluate credit score of the borrowers and bring them back into the financial mainstream. But the data could be used negatively and penalize them, leading to higher interest rates and/or higher fees. Coming back to services provided by Facebook and Google, are they worth it for the increased loss in online privacy? As mentioned earlier, using data to provide us better products or service is fine but what if our chat data is also passed on to other firms such as the on in the case of Nielsen and Co? This is the point where Facebook and Google must accept responsibility for their actions. Currently, Facebook is valued at just under $140 billion. Google along with its parent company Alphabet is somewhere around the mark of $970 billion. The total worth of many countries in the world do not match up to these numbers. We need to wonder if we need to be afraid of these massive corporations. With the level of online penetration and financial capital that they have, it would not be a surprise if they decided to use their power to negative ends. A good case study in this regard is the Cambridge Analytica Scandal. Aleksandr Kogan, data scientist at Cambridge University, developed an application which he provided to Cambridge Analytica. Cambridge Analytica in turn arranged an informed consent process for research in which several hundred thousand Facebook users would agree to complete a survey only for academic use. However, Facebook’s design allowed this app not only to collect the personal information of people who agreed to take the survey, but also the personal information of all the people in those users’ Facebook social network. In this way Cambridge Analytica acquired data from millions of Facebook users. In fact, the SCL Group, which does the heavy-duty work for Cambridge Analytica, describes itself as being experts at psychological warfare and influence operations. The firm attempts to take their client’s message through to the target audience and bring them around to the preferred viewpoint (Chang, 2018). The most important requirement for this process was the data itself, which was provided by Facebook! Even though Facebook faced backlash in the ensuing case, not much harm was done to the company at large. Sure, maybe the stock value depreciated a little bit. In such a scenario, other smaller companies would go bankrupt but Facebook shook off the dust and walked away. Cambridge Analytica on the other hand, shut down in 2018! In another case, Google has admitted to firms being able to access data from email inboxes of their Gmail accounts. Although Google’s director of security, trust and privacy Suzanne Frey claimed that it was for user’s benefit (Cuthbertson, 2018)., it is quite difficult to hold accountable a nearing $1 trillion-dollar valued company if a third-party firm misuses the data. In such a case, the third part firm will go bankrupt but Google will remain unscathed (Cuthbertson, 2018). By now, we have discussed the positive and negative aspects of data being in the hands of corporate giants. Positive aspects are that we avail the valuable services of their products such as social platforms (Facebook/Twitter), well managed email service (Gmail), online storage (Google Drive), etc. Negative aspects obviously largely deal with privacy of our personal data and to what end it’s being used. If used for advertisers to showcase specific products then all the better, but in case it’s used towards nefarious ends then we become scapegoats. So, are we concerned about online privacy? From recent studies it seems that we are (Valentine, 2018). People are beginning to understand that invasion of online privacy can range from their credit card numbers being sold for a dollar to being stalked online by a killer (Sullivan, 2018). People might even know about the negative effects but find it mentally tiring to do anything other than tick the “Yes, I have read and agree with Terms of Service”. “Despite consumers’ apparent concern about online security, the survey results also revealed participants do very little to safeguard their information online, especially if doing so comes at the cost of convenience and time. In fact, 60 percent of them download apps without reading terms and conditions and close to one in five (17 percent) report that they’ll keep an app they like, even if it does breach their privacy by tracking their whereabouts” (Byer, 2018). Understandably, we have had certain progressions from a legislative perspective. Back in 2012, former President Barack Obama’s Consumer Bill of Privacy Rights was passed (Layton, 2018). In the last 5 years, the CEOs of Facebook and Google have had to attend conferences and face questioning by lawmakers (Wong, 2018 and Wakabayashi, 2018). No doubt these happened as a result of increase in citizen awareness about their online privacy. If privacy concerns are raised at the grassroot level which consists of citizens then the government is bound to spring into actions and call accountable the data providers. Now, we should explore what is the awareness level in Canada and what the government is doing regarding the usage or rather the misuse of personal data. In Canada, surveys done indicate that citizens are educated about online privacy with a high percentage being recorded for almost all age groups. In Simpson’s article it is mentioned: “While a significant majority of all age groups are in favour of online privacy, support is strongest among Baby Boomers (95%) and Gen X’ers (92%), and slightly weaker among Millennials (88%).” It seems the older generation is more concerned about online privacy, but the people born in the early 2000s are not far behind. From another survey by Ipsos we see that a considerable percentage of Canadians are now aware of their personal details online being used for purposes they were not aware of. Hence, this led to them changing their social media behaviour or even stopped using such platforms. Around one in ten stopped using social platforms simply because they did not trust what their personal data was being used for. Such fears are not unwarranted as proved in the Sullivan’ s article. 85% percent of Canadians agreed that they were worried about their online privacy and security of personal information. Hence, citizen awareness clearly exists, but what is the government doing to address these concerns? In June 2015, the Canadian Government passed the Digital Privacy Act (Library of Congress, 2017). Considerable amendments were done to specify what was valid consent for the collection, use, or disclosure of personal information. Also, several new definitions and exemptions regarding collection, usage and disclosure of personal information without consent, such as for business transactions were also written. Personally, I do believe that online privacy should be taken seriously. Governments of all nations needs to modify their laws to accommodate the fast-improving technology and hold major corporations accountable for their actions. Penalizing third-party firms for improper use of data is being done now. This was clear in the Cambridge Analytica Scandal. The next step would be to hold larger corporations accountable. After all, it is them who provide the data in the first place. Misuse of data stems from the availability of it. Large corporations such as Facebook and Google who have the power of data need to be responsible for it. Data being provided for the purpose of better service or better social experience is quite welcomed. But the corporations should scrutinize the third-party firms whom they provide data to. There should be a stringent process to filter out unscrupulous firms and also report them to the law. In turn, if large data providing corporations are not willing to take up this responsibility of proper data usage then they should not be above the law. The CEOs must be called for public questioning. The Government should be above all and decide the penalty if and when these companies cross the line. The passing of GDPR in the European Union is a welcome change from the perspective of individual online privacy. Under this law, companies are required to delete most of their records. Till date, companies were free to save each and every information on their sites, mine through the data and utilize it in predictive models. With implementation of GDPR, these companies are not free to do that anymore and are free to collect only certain legal portions of their user data. The Information Commissioners Office of United Kingdom is the authority responsible for registering data controllers, taking action on data protection and handling concerns and mishandling data. About GDPR they said, “You will have significantly more legal liability if you are responsible for a breach. These obligations for processors are a new requirement under the GDPR”. GDPR ultimately places legal obligations on a processor to maintain records of personal data and how it is processed, providing a much higher level of legal liability should the organisation be breached. Regarding citizen awareness, it is improving everyday as shown in the articles from Simpson and Library of Congress. From the statistics it seems that the older generation are more aware and concerned about it. We need to educate the children about sharing just the right amount of personal information online. Parental control should be exercised. I do not believe a child of less than 13 years properly understands online privacy and all its rules. Parents need to step in and monitor the use of their social accounts and participation on online forums. Let us look towards the future of online privacy and what steps will be needed for it. Awareness is increasing every day, both at the individual and the level of legislature. At this point in time, large corporations are still not held completely held accountable for their actions and lack of filtering processes for their supply of data to third party firms. In the future, most likely this will change. Companies such as Facebook and Google are taking steps in this direction (Cimpanu, 2018 and Statt, 2018). The current youth (people born between 1990 to early 2000s) will eventually catch up with the older generation and be more careful about data sharing online. Hopefully, the Canadian Government will introduce education policies to educate the children on online etiquette and sharing of personal information. Individuals are most affected to change their thoughts if it originates from inside their social network. Yet, almost certainly, change can emerge out of outside powers – claims, state lawyer commanders, controllers in the US and abroad, and the government officials from the two sides of the walkway and from over the lake that are progressively disparaging tech, occasionally in manners that go way, excessively far. State-level claims are especially significant because they avoid the messed up political procedure at the government level, and revelation in a claim is significant claiming it might offer pieces of information to individuals’ outlooks and goals, and that is the reason tech organizations are contending them energetically at this moment. In conclusion, what can human rights protectors do to protect and strengthen data protection and privacy? A simple initial step is taking computerized safety efforts yourself. This can be as basic as utilizing encryption and obscurity devices, what’s more, encouraging your companions to do likewise. Human rights protectors can likewise advocate for option computerized plans of action, which aren’t founded on the extraction and closeout of information. Economic pressure on the existing model is already growing. For instance, in the course of the most recent couple of years, the quantity of clients utilizing AdBlock software universally has exploded. Evidence has been found that this is already pushing companies to have less invasive advertising tactics. Engaging in debates at the national and regional level is, obviously, critical. Where security insurances are feeble, human rights protectors need to effectively advocate for more grounded ones. Also, even where they are more grounded, we need to ensure the legislation is staying aware of new technological developments – like the Internet of Things. At last, if we want things to progress, human rights protectors need to make these issues open and relatable by being progressively innovative about the way we describe them. When people are made aware on how data protection and privacy affect them on a daily basis, they can be more inclined to discuss these concepts. References Angwin, J.,
pros and cons.

Post length: must consist of at least 300 words ( Requirements for 1st Post:Integration of information from both the Pro section and the Con section in at least 300 words:Select one to two main points from the Pro section and paraphrase (summarize) each point in your own words (do not use direct quotes – even when describing the main points).Analyze each main point – Explain why you chose this as a main point. You may (but are not required to) answer one or more of the questions below in your analysis of each point. These questions are just a starting point to get you thinking.- Does it summarize an important argument for/against the topic?- Is it a good example?- Does it resonate with you personally (such as remind you of something you’ve personally seen or experienced?- Does it conflict with your personal experience?- Repeat the process above for the Con section to ensure that you have equally integrated information from both the Pro section and the Con section in your discussion.Your opinion: After analyzing points from both the Pro and Con section, discuss your opinion on the topic and why you feel this way. There is no word count requirement for this section but the discussion should be substantive. This should be in a separate paragraph within your new post.
pros and cons

Social Media And New Media In Ghana Media Essay

Social media is a growing phenomenon in our present information age. For many persons, particularly the youth, social media provides the platform to create, disseminate and share information with persons of shared ties. The power and influences of the social media phenomenon in shaping our world today cannot be overlooked. Its impact is witnessed as a coordinating tool for a significant number of the world’s political movements including the political revolutions that took place in the Middle East commonly referred to as the Arab Spring. Again in political campaigning, social media is credited to have contributed significantly to the electoral success of then candidate Barak Obama as his adoption of the technology facilitated his reach and garnered support from many young voters during the 2008 American presidential elections. The social media fad is believed to have enhanced cultural exchanges, created, maintained and deepened social ties in a significant number of social settings. For quite a number of people, it is almost impossible to exist in our present world and not be affected by the social media phenomenon. It has become part of our new world which is driven extensively by information and communication. The social media application runs on the foot of the internet technology. The internet directs the manner in which communication is carried from place to place, person to person and culture to culture in our world today. It has become as ubiquitous as the human species and almost a measure of human civilisation. Researchers and scholars have divergent opinions of the impacts of the internet and new media technology on our world today. Their opinions are expressed broadly in utopian and dystopian perspectives and cover all aspects of life of which the technology is used. The utopians appreciate the Internet as potentially an enormous tool for good. The positive possibilities from the Internet include supporting the practice of democracy, human interactions, concerted political action, education, etc. On the other hand the dystopians, the cyberpunks and the alarmists, see danger in every digital project even an ultimate loss of our humanity. Understanding the internet and all its associated technology and applications requires an understanding of the dimensions under which the internet can be studied. Bell (2001) explains that there are three ways to understanding the internet or its synonym cyberspace. Bell describes the meaning of the internet or cyberspace under: a) material b) symbolic and c) experiential stories. He cites Stanley Aronowitz (1996) as providing the terms ontology, phenomenology and pragmatics to discuss ways of thinking about the internet technology. Material stories of the internet technology provide a historical understanding of how the technology came to exist and the transformations it has undergone. Whittaker (2004: Pp 13) explains that symbolic stories of the internet or cyberspace give “literary and generic accounts most notably in cyberpunk but also in science fiction and other speculative fiction.” Bell, citing Jordan (1999), provides an explanation to symbolic stories of cyberspace as the ways in which cyberspace are depicted in films and fiction. Therefore movies such as Robocop which prompted civic discourses over the use of robotics in solving human limitations, and The Matrix provide good examples to understanding symbolic stories of cyberspace. New media and social media New media tools, which are internet based technologies and applications provide platforms for social media tools to be used civic discourses. There is often the tendency to interchange the terms new media and social media. However, it must be noted that new media and social media mean different things though both exist in cyberspace and are associated with the internet technology. According to wiseGEEK new media denotes the various technologies that have emerged rapidly in our present millennium. The major types of new media include social networking sites such as Facebook and Twitter, as well as blogs and video sharing sites such as YouTube. One of its most defining characteristics is interactivity. Social media, however, refers to online technologies and practices that are used to share opinions and information, promote discussion and build relationships (Crown 2009; 2). iCrossing (2008) indicates that social media shares the characteristics of Participation, Openness, Conversation, Community, and Connectedness are currently presented in the following basic forms Goode (2009) explains that social media facilitates citizens engagements in new forms of civic participation as they construct, archive, tag and reticulate news stories and political media content. Bakardjieva (2011) describes how blogs, a social media application and bloggers have become visible in the Bulgarian public sphere. In the Bulgarian scenario, the tool was adopted to protest against a decision of the Supreme Administrative Court to strip a territory in the south-east of Bulgaria of its status as a protected natural reserve. The country’s young people and environmentalist groups engaged in civic protests in the streets to challenge the decision as they organized and reported their actions by blogs, websites and text messages. The brief but centrally placed and well-attended civic actions obligated the Bulgaria’s mass media and parliamentarians to situate the issue on their agenda. [1] Figure : DIFFERENT MEDIA AND MODES OF COMMUNICATION-AN EVERYDAY LIFE PICTURE. The British government recognises how digital technology has transformed the way in which people communicate and share information at the local, national and international levels. To ensure that the potential of the transforming power is harnessed well enough to facilitate citizen engagement and proper governance, investments into providing adequate guidelines for civil servants to appreciate these changes so that they can operate effectively in a dynamic media environment. The British Government via new media tools and online access is tailoring its services to its public more conveniently all day and all week. The quote below is taken from the introductory chapter on connecting civil servants through social media in The Guide for Civil Servants (pp 11): “Use of social media techniques is not restricted to government interaction with citizens or business. There is already a range of tools dedicated to encouraging discussion and sharing knowledge and best practice among civil servants.” Social media and New media in Ghana Ghana has not been isolated from the global social media craze. Universally, Facebook is noted as the most popular social media platform and is most recognized in Ghana as well. Currently, there are about 1,436,560 Facebook users in Ghana, which makes it rank number 73 globally (Socialbaker 2012). The social networking statistics from Socialbaker illustrates that the penetration of Facebook in Ghana is 5.90% of the country’s population and 110.76% in relation to the number of Internet users. The population of Facebookers users grew by more than 231,140 in the last 6 months. About 41% of Ghana’s Facebook user population is between 18 and 24 years, an age group that can be found typically beginning university education or exiting into the professional world. Other social media like YouTube, twitter and LinkedIn are also popular among Ghanaians. Though their popularity is high among the youth and IT savvy persons, statistics on these social media applications are rather low or unavailable. No Ghanaian profile or account is listed in the top 200 global accounts. The same applies with YouTube and LinkedIn. Increasingly, the What’s App application and Blackberry messaging (BBM) which are described as social networking applications are also becoming popular platforms among Ghanaians for information dissemination. All the applications, Facebook, YouTube, twitter What’s App and BBM are available on mobile phone devices commonly referred to as smartphones. They are also on other portable new media gadgets such as ipads and tablets. Chart [2] Figure : User age distribution on Facebook in Ghana Ghana was one of the first African countries to get connected to the Internet in 1989-1990 however, the extent of use of the new media technology among Ghanaians is limited. This is a result of the underdevelopment of existing telecommunications infrastructure, though in recent times significant investments have been in developing them (Sey 2011). The investments have been supported by a national communications policy which highlights the Government of Ghana’s commitment to accelerating the socio-economic development process of the country through ICT (Republic of Ghana, 2003, p. 14; cited in Sey 2011). In the wake of this policy, there has been considerable improvements in internet connectivity which begun in the early 1990s with the slow bandwidth dial up access to the now high speed broadband connectivity. Mobile phone telephony is not only big on the African Continent but equally the predominate mode of telecommunications in Ghana. Again because of the generally poor fixed line infrastructure. Ghana’s National Communications Authority is cited to have announced a mobile telephony penetration rate of about 88.6% as at January 2012 with the leading service provider recording over 10 million subscriptions (Modern Ghana, 2012). Mobile phones in Ghana have varied uses aside its basic use for calls. Sey (2011) reports that in 2007 just over one fixed line existed per 100 inhabitants. Uses of new media in Ghana A number of several accounts have been given for the varied uses of the new media technology in Ghana. However, some research account that the application is appropriated to business and community development. Sey (2011) cites (Slater

HIS 200 Southern New Hampshire University Mod 7 Historical Analysis Essay

research paper help HIS 200 Southern New Hampshire University Mod 7 Historical Analysis Essay.

Prompt: Module Seven: Thinking About History has considered how historians communicate their historical event’s complexity to a specific audience. Return to your submission for Progress Check 2 and add a paragraph describing the complexity of your chosen historical event. Review your final writing plan submission and reflect upon what you wrote previously about your essay’s intended audience and message. Implement revisions to make sure that your essay’s message is effective and tailored to your specific audience. Revisit Module Four: Communicating Historical Ideas, continued, learning block 4-2 in the webtext, if you need a refresher on communicating to your specific audience.Please see rubric and guidelines
HIS 200 Southern New Hampshire University Mod 7 Historical Analysis Essay

Physical Education Curriculum for High School Students in California Paper

Physical Education Curriculum for High School Students in California Paper.

1. Search for a physical education curriculum on the web or obtain one from a local school district. Select a grade band that you would like to focus on—elementary, middle, or high school—and review the physical education curriculum. Using the curriculum already established, identify the elements within California Standards for Physical Education that will form the basis of the curriculum, create curriculum goals, identify specific curriculum models and content that may be implemented, and identify curriculum assessments that would best measure whether the standards, outcomes and goals have been achieved.2. Search for a physical education lesson plan on the web or obtain one from a teacher from a local school district. Review the lesson plan and determine whether it includes instructional alignment. Identify each component of the lesson plan that needs to be included for instructional alignment. If components are missing, identify those components.3. Conduct an online search for physical education programs at the elementary, middle, or high school level. Select two programs—one that aligns with teaching for learning approach and one that aligns with an activity-based approach. Write a three- to a five-page reflective paper describing (a) how you identified those programs with each of the approaches, (b) how the two programs differ, and (c) how a visitor to each of the websites would be informed about best practices and programs of physical education.Below I have attached resources to help you with the assignment.
Physical Education Curriculum for High School Students in California Paper

Anthem College Phoenix Developing a Proposal Discussion

Anthem College Phoenix Developing a Proposal Discussion.

1.Developing a Proposal-250 wordsIn your initial post, share your personal experience in proposal development. If you have participated in proposal development and writing, reflect on three aspects of it that were unique, unusual, or special about this activity for you, as a human services professional. Comment briefly on the actual proposal—the problem it addressed, the depth, the structure, the partners involved, the timeline, and the result.If you have not participated in proposal development, reflect on the experience of Maya in the case illustration in Chapter 10 of your Program Development in the 21st Century textbook, and address the same aspects.2.Skills for Program Development- 250 wordsSuppose you were to develop a program proposal to apply for funding to address the problem you identified in the course assignmentsn( I chose teen Pregnancy). In your initial post, describe the primary and secondary skills you will need to apply as a program developer. In addition to the general skills for successful grant writing, think about skills relevant to your problem area and program needs.
Anthem College Phoenix Developing a Proposal Discussion

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