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Concepts of Language Research Paper

Concepts of Language Research Paper. In today’s society, many people cannot differentiate between language and lexicon. Although the two are widely used by many people, it is quite interesting to note how the illiteracy of many when it comes to defining each one of them explicitly. Nevertheless, a few can differentiate the difference between lexicon and language. Language seems to be quite familiar among many people. After all, each person speaks a certain language confined within an ethnic or race or a minority group of people. Language is a mode under which information can be encoded and decoded at the same time. Nevertheless, language is a broad word comprising of many information recipes that together form language. From the nonprofessional’s point of view, language is a medium through which, people pass or exchange emotions, ideas, and opinions. Language varies from one place to another due to different cultures and sometimes, the generations of the day. Therefore, in simple terms, grammarians define language as the channeling of opinions and feelings mainly through capricious indications like gestures, sounds, or verbal ciphers. Psycholinguistics classifies language into two main categories. The first class of language is of course-spoken languages like English and French. The second class of languages comprises of written languages including the use of signs. On the other hand, cognitive psychologists do use the word language about an individual’s cognitive competence when it comes to language use and applications. On the other hand, the lexicon is more of an ingredient of language that language itself. Psycholinguistics define lexicon as a language rich of terminologies, words, and vocabularies forming lexemes- word actualizations. In addition to lexemes, lexicon follows linguistic rules like morpho-syntactic to induce a clear arrangement of vocabularies and words in somebody’s psyche. Lexicon has numerous advantages, especially in cognitive psychology. For example, under lexicon, different words forming a particular tense arrange according to lexical stipulations. Moreover, it introduces additional rules and language ingredients like suffixes and verbs to create a coherent language description. In most cases, lexicon consists of words from one type of language without mixing or characterization. (Aitchison, 2003, pp. 3-29). In cognitive psychology, language hence, lexicon forms the basis of understanding individuals’ background abilities. Cognitive psychologists analyze an individual’s language proficiency by referring to the lexical ability of that individual. In many occasions, an individual’s richness in vocabulary is only measurable through mental lexicon and language mastery. If an individual has wide mastery knowledge of vocabularies of a certain language say English, without any hesitation, this person falls in the class of language orators. Language comprises of numerous features that differentiate it from one communication mode to another. The figure below shows thirteen human language features relevant to human communication and understanding. The role of language features is to impart smoothness into language communication systems for effective communication. The main basic features of the language include words, sentences, text, and phonemes popularly known as phonetics — each of these features playa n important role in executing proper language communication channels. For example, a composition of words forms a sentence. However, these words must follow certain syntactical rules. In other words, sentences ought to be grammatically correct structures word units to achieve cognition. (Hyde, 1998, Para. 2-11). (Hyde, 1998, p.1) Furthermore, the construction of sentences relies on the part of speech used. Sentences convey a message to the reader or a listener. Different sentences comprise of different words that pose different expressions, questions, command, or requests. The choice of words forming a sentence depends on the theme of discussion and the intended listeners. Nevertheless, the formation of sentence structures does not depend on the relationship between superseding and proceeding words but rather, grammatical structure. (DianeConcepts of Language Research Paper
M. Mayilvaganan T.Sivaranjani Abstract: Diabetes mellitus is incredible growing and seems to be emerging as a main public health problem for our country.The prevalence of diabetes is rapidly increasing all over the world. Data mining provides more no of tools and techniques that can be applied to this processed data to discover hidden patterns. It is used to provide healthcare professionals an additional source of knowledge for making decisions. This research is analysis about diabetes prevalence, complications, and preventing from complications. Keywords— diabetes mellitus, data analysis, data mining, diabetes prevalence, complications INTRODUCTION: Diabetes is a group of metabolic diseasescaused by the lack of insulin in the body or inability to produce as normal. In contemporary world most of folk are distressed by diabetes, which affects a large population across the world. The prevalence of diabetes for all age-groups worldwide was estimated to be 2.8% in 2000 and 4.4% in 2030. The total number of people with diabetes is projected to rise from 171 million in 2000 to 366 million in 2030. The prevalence of diabetes is higher in men than women, but there are more women with diabetes than men. The urban population in developing countries is projected to double between 2000 and 2030[9]. TYPES OF DIABETES Type 1 diabetes This type of diabetes usually develops during childhood or teens and is characterized by a severe deficiency of insulin secretion resulting from atrophy of the islets of Langerhans and causing hyperglycemia and a marked tendency toward ketoacidosis—called alsoinsulin-dependent diabetes, insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, juvenile diabetes, juvenile-onset diabetes, type 1 diabetes mellitus [6]. Type 2 diabetes It’s mostly distressed in adulthood and is exacerbated by obesity and an inactive lifestyle. This disease often has no symptoms, is usually diagnosed by tests that indicate glucose intolerance, and is treated with changes in diet and an exercise regularly [7]. Gestational diabetes Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is defined as any degree of glucose intolerance with onset or first recognition during pregnancy [8]. The definition applies whether insulin or only diet modification is used for treatment and whether or not the condition persists after pregnancy. It does not exclude the possibility that unrecognized glucose intolerance may have antedated or begun concomitantly with the pregnancy. Fig 1: Prevalence estimates of diabetes mellitus (DM), 2010 – South-East Asian Region To estimating the prevalence of diabetes for the years 2000, 2010 and 2030, data on case numbers and national prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance are presented in chart [10].The total populations of the regions and the populations aged from 20-79 years are shown in Figure 2. From the figure we clearly known Western Pacific Region, which includes China, and the South-East Asian Region, which has India as a member, have the greatest numbers of people [10]. Fig2: Top 5- Number of people with diabetes (20-79 age group), 2000, 2010 and 2030 Fig 3 Top 5-Prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance (20-79 age group), 2010 and 2030 COMPLICATIONS OF DIABETES Skin Complications To be more consciousness for symptoms of skin infections and other skin disorders common in people with diabetes. Eye Complications Yearly or six months once keep regular check up; avoid risk of glaucoma, cataracts and other eye problems. Due to nation survey in India eye complication was rare. Neuropathy Nerve damage from diabetes is called diabetic neuropathy .The majority of people with diabetes have any one of type of nerve damage. Foot Complications The largest parts of diabetes patients have foot damages. Take care of our foot as much as like face. Before bed we have to clean and dry our foot. Through the regular excise and walking we can avoid this complication. Kidney Disease (Nephropathy) High BP and glucose is major cause this. Keep your diabetes and blood pressure under control to lesser the chance of getting kidney disease. High Blood Pressure High blood pressure is also called hypertension. It raises more complications like heart attack, stroke, eye problems, and kidney disease. Stroke Keep up blood glucose, blood pressure, and cholesterol in good level. It to be reduces your risk of stroke. Most of the patients affected stroke by hypertension. DATA MINING TECHNIQUES In healthcare industry nowadays generates huge amounts of complex data about patients, hospitals resources, disease diagnosis, electronic patient records, and medical devices etc.These data are a key resource to be stored, processed and analyzed for knowledge extraction that enables to support for cost-savings and decision making. Data mining is the process of exploration and analysis, by automatic or semiautomatic means, of large quantities of data in order to discover meaningful patterns and rules [11]. Data mining could be on the whole useful in medicine when there is no dispositive evidence favoring an exacting treatment option. Based on patients’ profile, history, physical inspection, diagnosis and utilizing previous treatment patterns, new treatment policy can be successfully recommended. Data mining is finding interesting structure (patterns, statistical models, relationships) in databases.” [12]. Logistic regression models are used to compare hospital profiles and based on that risk-factors are analyses in data mining. Artificial neural networks are used in medical diagnosis. It produces a clinically relevant output based on sample database, and constructs the probability of a certain pathology or classification of biomedical objects. Due to the generous plasticity of input data, ANNs have verified useful in the analysis of blood and urine samples of diabetic patients [13]. Unsupervised learning engrosses identifying clusters and associations. Clusters are faction the analogous subtypes and make group. Using regression analysis, associate the following attributes as age, family history, increasing socio-economic status and decreasing physical activity and find high frequency of cause which type of diabetes distressed. No one can tell literally, which algorithm is best for any problem, because data sets from various data sources. To applying algorithm in training set and came to the solution, which is suite .data set be consists of missing values, noise, and outliers. Cleaning data from noise and outliers and handling missing values, and then finding the exact subset of data and prepares them for successful data mining. Missing values are filled up with the most familiar value and combinations of particular attribute-value pairs are significant within a dataset. DATA SET REPRESENTATION Collecting patient’s medical details based on that calculated BMI, body type, required calories, actual calories, complications, risk factors. The table 1 specified for risk analysis and table 2 for diagnosed complications. Some of the attributes of datasets are BMI, require weight, BMI index, working industry, eating habit, blood group, life style, and require calorie based on sex, family history,PCOS,HBA1c,Smoker, drinker, type of DM,dignosed age, symptoms, no of years, Gestational diabetes history, baby weight, order of baby, control DM,Fast food,BP,food intervals, intake limits. Table 1. Characteristics of risk analysis data set Age Sex BMI Index Working industry Life style Body TP Family History History GeoDB Eating habits 28 2 3 4 2 2 7 2 1 22 1 4 3 1 3 1 2 0 Monitor the following attributes as high HBA1c, stationary, job, BP, Life style, disease caused after diabetes diagnosed, undiet, smoking, drinking habits regularly can avoid more complications. Table 2. Characteristics of complications data set Age Sex BMI Index Working industry Life style HBA1c Smoker Drinker BP Eating habit DB 2/g-disease 56 1 3 6 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 67 2 4 4 2 0 2 2 1 0 5 Conclusion India is top most country in prevalence of diabetes. Number of people with diabetes in our country in 2010 50.8 million and will be estimated 87.0 in 2030[10]. Diabetes complication fatality rates also raised and prevent these government or social organizations, health care’s must provide education or training focuses on self-care behaviors, such as healthy eating, being active, and monitoring blood sugar. Many of the steps necessitate to take to avert one of those complications may really help to prevent them all. This kind of education or training is a mutual process in which diabetes educators help people with or at risk for diabetes gain the knowledge. Data mining bring a set of tools, techniques and method that can be functional to this processed data to determine hidden patterns. Data mining algorithms are used to extract informative patterns from raw data. Physicians can identify effective treatments and best observation, and also patients receive improved and more affordable healthcare services. It is help to manage and monitor patients can have important utility in diabetes mellitus and analysis complicates. In the future, we plan to demonstrate the usefulness of this kind of study by measuring the extent to which data mining approaches empower clinical research and practice. References: [1]. Dandona, Lalit, et al. “Population based assessment of diabetic retinopathy in an urban population in southern India.”British journal of ophthalmology83.8 (1999): 937-940. [2]. Sanders, Reginald J., and M. Roy Wilson. “Diabetes-related eye disorders.”Journal of the National Medical Association85.2 (1993): 104. [3]. Gäckler, D., et al. “[Diabetes and kidneys].”Deutsche medizinische Wochenschrift (1946)138.18 (2013): 949-955. [4]. Berger, A. and Berger, C.R. “Data mining as a tool for research and knowledge development in nursing.”CINMay/June 2004. [5]. Stephens, S. and Tamayo, P. “Supervised and unsupervised data mining techniques for life sciences.”Curr Drug DiscJune 2003. [6]. Ewing, D. J., I. W. Campbell, and B. F. Clarke. “The natural history of diabetic autonomic neuropathy.”QJM49.1 (1980): 95-108. [7]. 1 diabetes [8]. Metzger BE, Coustan DR (Eds.): Proceedings of the Fourth International Work-shop-Conference on Gestational Diabetes Mellitus.Diabetes Care21 (Suppl. 2):B1–B167,1998 [9]. Wild, Sarah, et al. “Global prevalence of diabetes estimates for the year 2000 and projections for 2030.”Diabetes care27.5 (2004): 1047-1053. [10]. Sicree, Richard, et al. “The global burden.”Diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance. Baker IDI Heart and Diabetes Institute(2010). [11]. Berry, Michael JA, and Gordon Linoff. “Data Mining Techniques . J.” (2004). [12]. Bradley, Paul S., Usama M. Fayyad, and Olvi L. Mangasarian. “Mathematical programming for data mining: formulations and challenges.”INFORMS Journal on Computing11.3 (1999): 217-238. [13]. Amato, Filippo, et al. “Artificial neural networks in medical diagnosis.”Journal of Applied Biomedicine11.2 (2013): 47-58. [13]. Data Mining Technologies for Blood Glucose and Diabetes Management 603 , Riccardo Bellazzi, Ph.D.,and Ameen Abu-Hanna, Ph.D. [14]. [15]. Application of data mining: Diabetes health care in young and old patients Abdullah A. Aljumah, Mohammed Gulam Ahamad, Mohammad Khubeb Siddiqui [16]. An Analysis of Diabetes Risk Factors Using Data Mining Approach Akkarapol Sangasoongsong and Jongsawas Chongwatpol Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078, USA [17]. The need for obtaining accurate nationwide estimates of diabetes prevalence in India – Rationale for a national study on diabetes R.M. Anjana, M.K. Ali*, R. Pradeepa, M. Deepa, M. Datta, R. Unnikrishnan, M. Rema
BUS 302 California State University Northridge Descriptive Statistics Question.

I’m working on a business multi-part question and need guidance to help me learn.

it is one question about the Brightform case study. I need the answer to this question for my case report. I need only answer to. the question number two in these documents. Q. 2. Analyze the weekly utilization data of 101App employees to understand the trend in the total outpatient physician costs that they are generating. (Note to Students: the weekly utilization data is provided in the Excel data file. 2.1 Create scatter plots to show the relationships between the following:The total cost of physician visits vs. number of employeesThe number of employees vs. number of visitsTotal cost for physician visits vs. number of visits2.2 Calculate visits per employee and the cost per visit for each week (two new columns.) 2.3 Calculate the mean, standard deviation and coefficient of variation for all measures. 2.4 Explain how these statistics in 2.3 are useful in understanding the trend in total outpatient physician costs per 101App employees.
BUS 302 California State University Northridge Descriptive Statistics Question

I have mentioned the books name below. I need the answers before 11pm tonight..

Essentials of sociology: A down-to-earth approach. Henslin, J.
12th Edition. 2017. ISBN: 978-0-134-205588 Please answer all four Thinking Critically questions at the end of chapter 7 and all three of the Thinking Critically questions at the end of chapter 8. Your finished assignment should be an APA formatted paper with the answers to seven questions. Make sure that you have a reference page and cite your work when necessary throughout the answers to your questions. Each answer should be at least 1 paragraph (5-7 sentences), but might be more. Your paper should be MUGS error free, APA formatted, and should answer all 7 questions. I need these BEFORE 11 pm tonight. Thankyou.
I have mentioned the books name below. I need the answers before 11pm tonight.

Public Administration 450 essay 7

Public Administration 450 essay 7. I’m working on a Writing exercise and need support.

Podcast: Freakonomics Radio Episode 384, Abortion and Crime revisited Listen online and/ or read the full transcript at:
Reflect on how our readings/discussion thus far on causal theory in policy design, use of evidence in policy design, and how values and norms constrain policy choices. Based on the podcast:

What types of policy design choices would be supported by the evidence?
Considering social norms and values in the United States, realistically what policies could be designed based on the evidence that would be politically viable?
This study is accused of being racist, especially toward African Americans. Why? How are race and socioeconomic status intertwined in this study?

Lecture for this essay…
Public Administration 450 essay 7

Customer perceived value analysis

essay help online In the marketing literature the focus today is on providing to the customer superior value through the creation of a value proposition that matches their value Using suitable models identify the customer perceived value for the customers for a product/division/company of your choice. 20% 10% for value (customer point of view) 10% for quality of analysis (tools, techniques, concepts) Refer to several theories and models from lecture 1 and 2 Perceptional map Positioning Design, branding, benefit Question 2 Critically evaluate the existing value proposition of the product/ division/ company you have chosen. Compare and contrast the value proposition with that of the leading competitor in your sector. 40% 15% for arguing for and against- giving a balanced argument 15% for competitive proposition- compare and contrast- balanced conclusion 10% for quality of analysis (tools and theory) Question 3 In the light of your analysis of your existing value proposition and what you have learnt in this module produce (40 %) A new value proposition that will match the value criteria of your customers (15 %) Which will be acceptable to customers A plan to implement the value proposition externally and internally. 4/7 p’s. process, people, physical evidence. Internal: production, sourcing External: promotion 10 % for quality in theory and tools used. Introduction Hewlett Packard has the tradition to introduce innovative products in IT and technological solutions to their customer. The first scientific calculator developed by hp in 1970.With its headquarter situated in Palo Alto, California with 304,000 employees worldwide and a revenue of $114.6 billion at end of 2009, Hp ranks no.10 in the 2010 fortune 500 ranking. Hp formed by, Bill Hewlett and Dave Packard in a garage with the initial investment of 538$. They use participative decision making management system in their organization, which gives them an edge in the industry. In 1957 the company went public and went for the other markets of the world for the expansion. At the end of 1990’s they spin off some of their operations and try to reinvent the company for better growth by numerous innovations and various collaborations with some large companies in the market. In 2002 Hp completes its merger with Compaq computers and provides outstanding solutions of IT in the market. Today more than one billion customers in over 170 countries in various continents are served by hp. Question 1 PART 1 Customer perceived value CV is regarded as an essential prerequisite for long-term company survival and success (Porter, 1996; Woodruff, 1997; Payne and Holt, 2001; Huber, Herrmann and Morgan, 2001). Understanding the way customer’s judge and value a service or product is crucial to achieving a competitive advantage. Scientists and practitioners have recognized the power of the CV concept in identifying value for customers and managing customer behaviour (Johnson, Herrmann and Huber, 2006; Kothari and Lackner, 2006, Setijono and Dahlgaard, 2007). The goal of CV research is to describe, analyze, and make empirically measurable the value that companies create for their customers and to link these insights to further marketing constructs. Even the term CV is used and evaluated in very different ways in the marketing literature (Woodruff, 1997). There is no consistent definition for “customer value” by now. The CV approach encompasses many more facets than quality alone, e.g., by taking into account cost or risk attributes (Bolton and Drew, 1991; Zeithaml, 1988). Definitions of Customer Value Zeithaml (1988) “Perceived value is a customer’s overall assessment of the utility of a product based on perceptions of what is received and what is given.” Gale (1994) “Customer value is market perceived quality adjusted for the relative price of your product. [It is] your customer’s opinion of your products (or services) as compared to that of your competitors.” Holbrook (1994) Customer value is “a relativistic (comparative, personal, situational) preference characterizing a subject’s [consumer’s] experience of interacting with some object … i.e., any good, service, person, place, thing, event, or idea.” Woodruff(1997) Customer value is a “customer’s perceived preference for and evaluation of those product attributes, attribute performance, and consequences arising from use that facilitate (or block) achieving the customer’s goals and purposes in use situations.” Perceived Benefits Customer -perceived value = ______________ Perceived Sacrifice Benefits = attributes of core product/service and supporting services, perceived quality and price Sacrifice = customer costs involved in purchasing, such as time, travel, repairing faulty work, etc. – NOT just price (red) Importance of Customer value A good customer value proposition will provide convincing reasons why a customer should buy a product, and also differentiate your product from competitors. Gaining a customers’ attention and approval will help in build sales faster and more profitable, as well as work to increase market share[2]. . Understanding customer needs is important because it helps promote the product. A brand is the perception of a product or service that is designed to stay in the minds of targeted consumers. It is desirable to build a strong and positive brand association with your offering[3]. Consumer value plays a crucial role at the heart of all marketing activity (Holbrook, 1999 p. 1) Types of consumer value: All Benefits – Most managers when asked to construct a customer value proposition, simply list all the benefits they believe that their offering might deliver to target customers. The more they can think of the better. This approach requires the least knowledge about customers and competitors and, thus, results in a weaker marketplace effort. Favorable Points of Difference – The second type of value proposition explicitly recognizes that the customer has alternatives and focuses on how to differentiate one product or service from another. Knowing that an element of an offering is a point of difference relative to the next best alternative does not, however, convey the value of this difference to target customers. A product or service may have several points of difference, complicating the customer’s understanding of which ones deliver the greatest value. Without a detailed understanding of customer’s requirements and preferences, and what it is worth to fulfill them, suppliers may stress points of difference that deliver relatively little value to the target customer. Resonating Focus – This approach acknowledges that the managers who make purchase decisions have major, ever-increasing levels of responsibility and often are pressed for time. They want to do business with suppliers that fully grasp critical issues in their business and deliver a customer value proposition that’s simple yet powerfully captivating. Suppliers can provide a customer value proposition by making their offerings superior on the few attributes that are most important to target customers in demonstrating and documenting the value of this superior performance, and communicating it in a way that conveys a sophisticated understanding of the customer’s business priorities. Three key dimensions: Extrinsic vs. intrinsic value Self-orientated vs. other-orientated value Active vs. reactive value See: topology of customer value PART 2 How does a company define what they are selling to the user? Is it an object (a unit, a box, a software package) or does that object get linked with a solution, or feeling or a belief? In this day and age of globalization, it is relatively easy to get another ‘article’ made cheaper and do more. Certainly, products get copied relatively fast and get commoditized rapidly. But a solution, or feeling, or a belief is more than the product, it is the combination of services, trust, partners, ecosystem that you can create as a vendor. To provide some simple examples: – If I’m in the Security space, I’m selling safety. – If I make software tools, I enable easy communications. These are the basic (and non-specific) examples of what a value proposition needs to be. It is not a part of software that has 9 features vs. somebody else’s software package that has 8 features. Value proposition by hp According to research and development at hp, following is the customer value proposition for hp: Hp provides Greater Return on IT with its reasonably priced Advanced Technology (Price/Performance Leadership) Hp offers products with High-performance and no-compromise functionality at reasonable prices. Hp’s development of Adaptive EDGE Architecture capitalizes on return on current infrastructure and easily adapts to future needs. Constant upgrades provided by hp help expand product and solution life Reduced Complexity through Proactive networking by focusing primarily on Innovation Plug and Play / Find; Fix and Inform Operational effectiveness with reduced expenditure, better employment of assets and increased productivity Central command. Control to the Edge High Security With Reduced Complexity by providing secure solutions safety measures for wired and wireless networks stout security features Leader in security industry standards Hp offers Reliability through exceedingly Available Legendary HP Quality Hp puts forward Industry-leading service and support Scrupulous quality testing Industry’s top warranty and the only true lifetime warranty Adaptive EDGE Architecture facilitates highly available networks Hp provides Choice and Flexibility in the Industry Standards Leadership in open industry standards allows scalable growth with solution and vendor choice Adaptive EDGE Architecture can balance and adapt to upcoming needs. HP started a new advertising campaign, announced in the WSJ and Business Week in april 2006, for personal computers. As the advertisement read, and from the looks of the visual, it seems that HP is going to sell trust in the product and the connection between people that computers enable. The tagline is “The Computer is Personal Again.” The overriding image is a hand, to reinforce the personal relationship to the PC and show consumers that HP enables connection with the touch of a button. SOURCE: SOURCE: SOURCE: (2) (3) Types of customer value ^ Anderson, J. C., Narus, J. A.,

ENTR 416 AMU Alternative Marketing Solution Paper

ENTR 416 AMU Alternative Marketing Solution Paper.

2 part question: 2 page paper, and 250 word post
This week your challenge is to develop an alternative marketing solution. Go back and re-evaluate your marketing framework. Assume that your marketing strategy is not working. What changes would you implement to your marketing strategy in order to take an alternate approach?
Present your old Old Market Analysis along with a one-page summary of what changes you would make and the expected outcome of the changes.
Minimum 2 pages
Minimum 2 scholarly sources
250 word minimum forum post: Alternative Marketing
The purpose of this week’s discussion is to actively discuss with your classmates the topic of having alternative marketing solutions. Locate an article on a company (like the two examples provided in this week’s lesson) that is using an Alternative Marketing Solution and analyze why the article is relevant and what the key takeaway(s) are to your classmates.
I will provide all necessary information to complete the question. Thanks!
ENTR 416 AMU Alternative Marketing Solution Paper

The Estate System

The Estate System. Paper details The post is at least 300 words. The post is on a topic related to the module’s content and is one of the three allowable options (thesis, question, or response to another student’s post). The post is complete in that it offers a question or thesis and related evidence. If the post is a question, it should include evidence that the student attempted to answer the question (e.g. quotes from the textbook or another online source related to the question). If the post is a thesis, it should include evidence supporting the thesis (e.g. quotes from the textbook and/or other online sources related to the thesis). Ideally, quotes from sources outside of the class material are used to offer readers additional information about the content. The post includes a citation to the text or external source that supports the post. Citations to physical media should be in APA style. Citations to online media should include a working hyperlink. Anyone should be able to look up your source and read further on the topic.The Estate System